SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
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SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011

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Meta Berghauser Pont discusses the

Meta Berghauser Pont discusses the

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SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011 SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Space, Densityand Urban FormKTH, 27 October 2011META BERGHAUSER PONT
  • 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare
  • 40 dwellings per hectare50 dwellings per hectare60 dwellings per hectare
  • Grachtengordel Jordaan
  • Density of Amsterdam
  • Amsterdam 1650Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Amsterdam 1880Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Amsterdam 1900Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Amsterdam 1939Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Amsterdam 1958Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Amsterdam 1984Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Amsterdam 2000Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  • Average occupation rate (inhabitants per dwelling unit) (G.W.B.) Urban footprint (m2 of city space per inhabitant) 1876: 30 m 2 1926: 50 m 2 1958: 80 m 2 1998: 120 m 2
  • Raymond Unwin (1909):“Nothing gained by overcrowding!”Unwin: < 12 dwellings per acreHoenig: spaciousness of at least 1
  • Raymond Unwin (1909): Jane Jacobs (1961):“Nothing gained by overcrowding!” “American slums are not only an issue faced in the inner cities, but also in the low-density, dull areas in the fringes”Unwin: < 12 dwellings per acre Jacobs: > 100 dwellings per acreHoenig: spaciousness of at least 1 coverage over 60%
  • Urban Density and Energy Consumption Urban Density inhabitants per hectare Urban Footprint m2 per inhabitant
  • Measuring Density
  • Density Measures Year Use Norm
  • Density Measures Year Use Norm
  • Density Measures Year Use Norm
  • Density Measures Year Use Norm
  • Density Measures Year Use Norm
  • 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare
  • FSI = 1.90 FSI = 1.90 FSI = 1.90 N 40 200
  • GSI = 0.25 GSI = 0.25 GSI = 0.25 N 40 200
  • OSR= 1.00 OSR= 1.00 OSR= 1.00 N 40 200
  • L= 3 L= 3 L= 3 N 40 200
  • FSI 1.00GSI 1.00L 1.00OSR 0.001 2 3 4FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00GSI 1.00 GSI 0.50 GSI 0.33 GSI 0.25L 1.00 L 2.00 L 3.00 L 4.00OSR 0.00 OSR 0.50 OSR 0.67 OSR 0.75
  • known soughtFSI L=FSI/GSIGSI OSR=(1-GSI)/FSIFSI GSI=FSI/LL OSR=1/FSI-1/LFSI GSI=1-FSI*OSROSR L=1/(1/FSI-OSR)GSI FSI=GSI*LL OSR=(1/L)*(1/GSI-1)GSI FSI=(1-GSI)/OSROSR L=(1/GSI-1)/OSRL FSI=1/(OSR+1/L)OSR GSI=1/(L*OSR+1)
  • 4 3 2 11 2 3 4FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00GSI 1.00 GSI 0.50 GSI 0.33 GSI 0.25L 1.00 L 2.00 L 3.00 L 4.00OSR 0.00 OSR 0.50 OSR 0.67 OSR 0.75
  • 3 2 11 2 3 N 40 200
  • 1 2 31 2 3 N 40 200
  • 3 2 11 2 3 N 40 200
  • 3 2 1 1 2 3 130 180 150220 65 70 N 40 200
  • Network density1 2 3 N 40 200
  • 3 2 2 3 1 11 2 3N = 0.012 N = 0.021 N = 0.023b = 32.1 b = 14.4 b = 18.0T = 0.35 T = 0.28 T = 0.37 N 40 200
  • Floor Space Index (FSI)FSIx=Fx/Ax whereFx = gross floor area (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Ground Space Index (GSI)GSIx=Bx/Ax whereBx = footprint of (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Network Density (N)Nx=(Σli+(Σle)/2)/Ax whereli = length of interior network (m)le = length of edge network (m)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)
  • Floor Space Index (FSI)FSIx=Fx/Ax whereFx = gross floor area (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Ground Space Index (GSI)GSIx=Bx/Ax whereBx = footprint of (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Network Density (N)Nx=(Σli+(Σle)/2)/Ax whereli = length of interior network (m)le = length of edge network (m)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)
  • Building Height (L)Open Space Ratio (OSR)Tare (T)
  • Urban types andDensity
  • Performance ofDensity
  • Parking Performance
  • Daylight Performance Kowloon City (Hong Kong)FSI DPI 10% DPI 25% Ciutat Vella (Barcelona) DPI 50% Jordaan (Amsterdam) DPI 100% Siemenstadt (Berlin) GSI
  • A3 A2B3 B2 B1 A1
  • ‘Urbanity’
  • Representing Urban TypesCase Rotterdam
  • FSI GSI
  • MXI
  • Density Integration
  • Density Integration
  • Stadionpark
  • Feijenoord
  • Stadshavens
  • Open Source DatabaseSpaceCalculator: http://www.permeta.nl/spacemate/index2.htmlAmsterdam: http://www.gisdro.nl/FUNCTIEMIX/