Space, Densityand Urban FormKTH, 27 October 2011META BERGHAUSER PONT
75 dwellings per hectare   75 dwellings per hectare   75 dwellings per hectare
40 dwellings per hectare50 dwellings per hectare60 dwellings per hectare
Grachtengordel   Jordaan
Density of Amsterdam
Amsterdam  1650Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Amsterdam  1880Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Amsterdam  1900Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Amsterdam  1939Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Amsterdam  1958Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Amsterdam  1984Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Amsterdam  2000Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100        Density            inh/ha  80          600              500  60     ...
Average occupation rate (inhabitants per dwelling unit) (G.W.B.)                    Urban footprint (m2 of city space per ...
Raymond Unwin (1909):“Nothing gained by overcrowding!”Unwin: < 12 dwellings per acreHoenig: spaciousness of at least 1
Raymond Unwin (1909):                Jane Jacobs (1961):“Nothing gained by overcrowding!”    “American slums are not only ...
Urban Density and Energy Consumption Urban Density inhabitants per hectare Urban Footprint m2 per inhabitant
Measuring Density
Density Measures   Year   Use   Norm
Density Measures   Year   Use   Norm
Density Measures   Year   Use   Norm
Density Measures   Year   Use   Norm
Density Measures   Year   Use   Norm
75 dwellings per hectare   75 dwellings per hectare   75 dwellings per hectare
FSI =   1.90   FSI =   1.90   FSI =   1.90                                                  N                             ...
GSI =   0.25   GSI =   0.25   GSI =   0.25                                                  N                             ...
OSR=   1.00   OSR=   1.00   OSR=   1.00                                               N                                   ...
L=   3   L=   3   L=   3                                N                           40       200
FSI   1.00GSI 1.00L     1.00OSR 0.001            2            3            4FSI   1.00   FSI   1.00   FSI   1.00   FSI   1...
known   soughtFSI     L=FSI/GSIGSI     OSR=(1-GSI)/FSIFSI     GSI=FSI/LL       OSR=1/FSI-1/LFSI     GSI=1-FSI*OSROSR     L...
4     3             2           11            2            3            4FSI   1.00   FSI   1.00   FSI   1.00   FSI   1.00...
3            2    11       2           3                             N                        40       200
1       2   31       2           3                             N                        40       200
3            2   11   2               3                             N                        40       200
3                               2   1  1              2                      3      130                     180           ...
Network density1        2            3                               N                          40       200
3                       2                2               3                        1                                       ...
Floor Space Index (FSI)FSIx=Fx/Ax                                                    whereFx = gross floor area (m2)Ax = a...
Floor Space Index (FSI)FSIx=Fx/Ax                                                    whereFx = gross floor area (m2)Ax = a...
Building Height (L)Open Space Ratio (OSR)Tare (T)
Urban types andDensity
Performance ofDensity
Parking Performance
Daylight Performance                                             Kowloon City (Hong Kong)FSI                              ...
A3          A2B3   B2        B1          A1
‘Urbanity’
Representing Urban TypesCase Rotterdam
FSI      GSI
MXI
Density          Integration
Density          Integration
Stadionpark
Feijenoord
Stadshavens
Open Source DatabaseSpaceCalculator: http://www.permeta.nl/spacemate/index2.htmlAmsterdam: http://www.gisdro.nl/FUNCTIEMIX/
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011
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SPACEMATE® Presentation | KTH 27 October 2011

  1. 1. Space, Densityand Urban FormKTH, 27 October 2011META BERGHAUSER PONT
  2. 2. 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare
  3. 3. 40 dwellings per hectare50 dwellings per hectare60 dwellings per hectare
  4. 4. Grachtengordel Jordaan
  5. 5. Density of Amsterdam
  6. 6. Amsterdam 1650Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  7. 7. Amsterdam 1880Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  8. 8. Amsterdam 1900Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  9. 9. Amsterdam 1939Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  10. 10. Amsterdam 1958Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  11. 11. Amsterdam 1984Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  12. 12. Amsterdam 2000Footprintm2/inh 160 140 120 100 Density inh/ha 80 600 500 60 (predominately) housing fabrics 400 parks 40 300 sports facilities 200 garden allotments 20 100 cemeteries industrial and office areas 0 0 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
  13. 13. Average occupation rate (inhabitants per dwelling unit) (G.W.B.) Urban footprint (m2 of city space per inhabitant) 1876: 30 m 2 1926: 50 m 2 1958: 80 m 2 1998: 120 m 2
  14. 14. Raymond Unwin (1909):“Nothing gained by overcrowding!”Unwin: < 12 dwellings per acreHoenig: spaciousness of at least 1
  15. 15. Raymond Unwin (1909): Jane Jacobs (1961):“Nothing gained by overcrowding!” “American slums are not only an issue faced in the inner cities, but also in the low-density, dull areas in the fringes”Unwin: < 12 dwellings per acre Jacobs: > 100 dwellings per acreHoenig: spaciousness of at least 1 coverage over 60%
  16. 16. Urban Density and Energy Consumption Urban Density inhabitants per hectare Urban Footprint m2 per inhabitant
  17. 17. Measuring Density
  18. 18. Density Measures Year Use Norm
  19. 19. Density Measures Year Use Norm
  20. 20. Density Measures Year Use Norm
  21. 21. Density Measures Year Use Norm
  22. 22. Density Measures Year Use Norm
  23. 23. 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare 75 dwellings per hectare
  24. 24. FSI = 1.90 FSI = 1.90 FSI = 1.90 N 40 200
  25. 25. GSI = 0.25 GSI = 0.25 GSI = 0.25 N 40 200
  26. 26. OSR= 1.00 OSR= 1.00 OSR= 1.00 N 40 200
  27. 27. L= 3 L= 3 L= 3 N 40 200
  28. 28. FSI 1.00GSI 1.00L 1.00OSR 0.001 2 3 4FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00GSI 1.00 GSI 0.50 GSI 0.33 GSI 0.25L 1.00 L 2.00 L 3.00 L 4.00OSR 0.00 OSR 0.50 OSR 0.67 OSR 0.75
  29. 29. known soughtFSI L=FSI/GSIGSI OSR=(1-GSI)/FSIFSI GSI=FSI/LL OSR=1/FSI-1/LFSI GSI=1-FSI*OSROSR L=1/(1/FSI-OSR)GSI FSI=GSI*LL OSR=(1/L)*(1/GSI-1)GSI FSI=(1-GSI)/OSROSR L=(1/GSI-1)/OSRL FSI=1/(OSR+1/L)OSR GSI=1/(L*OSR+1)
  30. 30. 4 3 2 11 2 3 4FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00 FSI 1.00GSI 1.00 GSI 0.50 GSI 0.33 GSI 0.25L 1.00 L 2.00 L 3.00 L 4.00OSR 0.00 OSR 0.50 OSR 0.67 OSR 0.75
  31. 31. 3 2 11 2 3 N 40 200
  32. 32. 1 2 31 2 3 N 40 200
  33. 33. 3 2 11 2 3 N 40 200
  34. 34. 3 2 1 1 2 3 130 180 150220 65 70 N 40 200
  35. 35. Network density1 2 3 N 40 200
  36. 36. 3 2 2 3 1 11 2 3N = 0.012 N = 0.021 N = 0.023b = 32.1 b = 14.4 b = 18.0T = 0.35 T = 0.28 T = 0.37 N 40 200
  37. 37. Floor Space Index (FSI)FSIx=Fx/Ax whereFx = gross floor area (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Ground Space Index (GSI)GSIx=Bx/Ax whereBx = footprint of (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Network Density (N)Nx=(Σli+(Σle)/2)/Ax whereli = length of interior network (m)le = length of edge network (m)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)
  38. 38. Floor Space Index (FSI)FSIx=Fx/Ax whereFx = gross floor area (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Ground Space Index (GSI)GSIx=Bx/Ax whereBx = footprint of (m2)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)x = aggregation (lot (l), island (i), fabric (f), or district (d))Network Density (N)Nx=(Σli+(Σle)/2)/Ax whereli = length of interior network (m)le = length of edge network (m)Ax = area of aggregation x (m2)
  39. 39. Building Height (L)Open Space Ratio (OSR)Tare (T)
  40. 40. Urban types andDensity
  41. 41. Performance ofDensity
  42. 42. Parking Performance
  43. 43. Daylight Performance Kowloon City (Hong Kong)FSI DPI 10% DPI 25% Ciutat Vella (Barcelona) DPI 50% Jordaan (Amsterdam) DPI 100% Siemenstadt (Berlin) GSI
  44. 44. A3 A2B3 B2 B1 A1
  45. 45. ‘Urbanity’
  46. 46. Representing Urban TypesCase Rotterdam
  47. 47. FSI GSI
  48. 48. MXI
  49. 49. Density Integration
  50. 50. Density Integration
  51. 51. Stadionpark
  52. 52. Feijenoord
  53. 53. Stadshavens
  54. 54. Open Source DatabaseSpaceCalculator: http://www.permeta.nl/spacemate/index2.htmlAmsterdam: http://www.gisdro.nl/FUNCTIEMIX/

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