GBF2007 - Urban Form + Public Health -David Sisam

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GBF2007 - Urban Form + Public Health -David Sisam

  1. 1. The Impact of Urban Form on Public Health Toronto Region Green Building Festival David Sisam, Montgomery Sisam Architects Inc.
  2. 2. 1. Some Background 2. The Health and Sustainability Iceberg 3. Definitions 4. Hype in Atlanta 5. Green in New York 6. Heat in Chicago 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  3. 3. 1. Some Background Toronto Region Green Building Festival Healthcare
  4. 4. 1. Some Background Toronto Region Green Building Festival Urban Design
  5. 5. 1. Some Background Toronto Region Green Building Festival Green Building
  6. 6. 2. The Sustainability and Health Iceberg • Healthcare • Green Roofs • Solar Panels • LEED Buildings • Health • Urban Density • Mixture of Uses • Design Quality Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  7. 7. 3. Definitions Sustainable Development “Development … that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Bruntland Commission 1987 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  8. 8. 3. Definitions Health, as defined by the World Health Organization “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  9. 9. 3. Definitions “If you want to improve health, you have to look beyond the health care system. Most of the important policy decisions that affect the health of the population are not made by the Ministry of Health.” Dr. Trevor Hancock, BC Public Health Consultant Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  10. 10. 4. Hype in Atlanta “Atlanta has been a quiet but significant leader in the green building movement.” Atlanta, November 2005, United States Green Building Council Annual Conference Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  11. 11. 4. Hype in Atlanta The unmentioned reality… Atlanta has the lowest population density of any American metropolitan area. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  12. 12. 4. Hype in Atlanta The unmentioned reality… Between 1982 an 1997 Atlanta’s population increased by 1,300,000 people. Its area increased by 650,000 acres. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  13. 13. 4. Hype in Atlanta The unmentioned reality… Atlanta residents commute an average of 58 km a day. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  14. 14. 4. Hype in Atlanta The unmentioned reality… Atlanta’s obesity rate more than doubled between 1993 and 2000 and it is now the highest of any American city. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  15. 15. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 1990 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  16. 16. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 1991 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  17. 17. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 1993 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  18. 18. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 1995 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  19. 19. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 1997 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  20. 20. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 1999 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  21. 21. 4. Hype in Atlanta Obesity Trends* Among US Adults 2001 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person) Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25% Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990-2001 Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  22. 22. 4. Hype in Atlanta The unmentioned reality… Traffic fatality rates in Atlanta are 5 times what they are in New York City. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  23. 23. 4. Hype in Atlanta Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  24. 24. 5. Green in New York Manhattan’s density is more than 800 times US national average Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  25. 25. 5. Green in New York 82% of Manhattan residents travel to work by public transit, bicycle or on foot Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  26. 26. 5. Green in New York If Manhattan were a state it would be the 12th most populous state and the most energy efficient one. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  27. 27. 5. Green in New York A New Yorker generates 7.1 metric tons of greenhouse gases a year, 2/3 less than the 24.5 metric ton average for a typical US resident. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  28. 28. 5. Green in New York Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  29. 29. 5. Green in New York The Rocky Mountain Institute has 4,000 sq. ft. of office space for six people in a thinly populated area only accessible by car. A second office with 12 people is located one mile away. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  30. 30. 6. Heat in Chicago 1995 Heat wave July 14 – July 20 There are 739 more deaths than typical for a hot summer week Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  31. 31. 6. Heat in Chicago A team of eighty researchers was brought in from the US Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to see what they could learn about preventing a reoccurrence. Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  32. 32. 6. Heat in Chicago The death rate in North Lawndale was 10 times that of South Lawndale Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  33. 33. 6. Heat in Chicago Toronto Region Green Building Festival North Lawndale
  34. 34. 6. Heat in Chicago Toronto Region Green Building Festival South Lawndale
  35. 35. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  36. 36. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  37. 37. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  38. 38. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  39. 39. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  40. 40. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  41. 41. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  42. 42. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Daily Walking / Biking Trips per Person Source: 2001 Transportation Tomorrow Survey (UofT) Neighbourhood Environments and Resources for Healthy Toronto Region Green Building Festival Living: A Focus on Diabetes. A Joint Initiative of St. Michael’s Hospital and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
  43. 43. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Average Number of Cars per Household Source: 2001 Transportation Tomorrow Survey (UofT) Neighbourhood Environments and Resources for Healthy Toronto Region Green Building Festival Living: A Focus on Diabetes. A Joint Initiative of St. Michael’s Hospital and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
  44. 44. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Age-Sex-Adjusted Diabetes Rates Source: Ontario Diabetes Database Neighbourhood Environments and Resources for Healthy Toronto Region Green Building Festival Living: A Focus on Diabetes. A Joint Initiative of St. Michael’s Hospital and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
  45. 45. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  46. 46. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  47. 47. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  48. 48. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  49. 49. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  50. 50. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  51. 51. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  52. 52. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  53. 53. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  54. 54. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  55. 55. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  56. 56. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  57. 57. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Source: The Regent Park Collaborative Team Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  58. 58. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  59. 59. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  60. 60. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  61. 61. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Toronto Region Green Building Festival
  62. 62. 7. Opportunity in Toronto Source: Cities for a Small Planet. Toronto Region Green Building Festival Richard Rogers and Philip Gumuchdjiam

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