Bobby Barker
Overview Uses of hydrogen Hydrogen economy Hydrogen production Challenges to a hydrogen economy Storage of hydrogen
Uses of Hydrogen Haber Process – Roughly 50% of hydrogen use.    Producing ammonia for fertilizers Hydrocracking – Roug...
Hydrogen Economy John Bockris – 1970 A solution to the pollution emission from hydrocarbon  fuels One pound of hydrogen...
Hydrogen EconomyGraphic: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Realizing.the.Hydrogen.Economy.chart.gif
Methods of Hydrogen Production   Graphic: http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/basics/images/HydrogenProductionPat...
Methods of Hydrogen Production Steam Reformation of Natural Gas    Cheapest method    CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 at 700 – 110...
Methods of Hydrogen Production Electrolysis    2H2O + energy → 2H2 + O2    Uses electric current to split water; many m...
Methods of Hydrogen Production Kværner-process    Carbon Black and Hydrogen (CB&H) method    Produces hydrogen and carb...
Methods of Hydrogen Production Renewable Liquid Reforming    Biomass used to make biofuels can be reacted with high-    ...
Main Challenges to a HydrogenEconomy Cost reduction    Transportation technology    Production technology    Conversio...
Storage of Hydrogen One of the foremost challenges to the hydrogen    economy   Compressed gas in high-pressure tanks  ...
Storage Technologies    Graphic: http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/basics/storage.htm
Infrastructure Pipeline transport    Expensive, but still cheapest. Hydrogen stations Hydrogen embrittlement    Typic...
References References: 1. Hydrogen Economy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_ec...
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The manufacturing and storage of hydrogen

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The manufacturing and storage of hydrogen

  1. 1. Bobby Barker
  2. 2. Overview Uses of hydrogen Hydrogen economy Hydrogen production Challenges to a hydrogen economy Storage of hydrogen
  3. 3. Uses of Hydrogen Haber Process – Roughly 50% of hydrogen use.  Producing ammonia for fertilizers Hydrocracking – Roughly 50% of hydrogen use.  Cracking – complex organics to simpler molecules  Converting heavy petroleum fractions into lighter ones Hydrogen Economy  Hydrogen as an energy carrier, not a source  Must be generated Expanding enterprise
  4. 4. Hydrogen Economy John Bockris – 1970 A solution to the pollution emission from hydrocarbon fuels One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 BTU, three times the energy of a pound of gasoline Many issues  Storage  Purity 99.999% for fuel cells  Costs
  5. 5. Hydrogen EconomyGraphic: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Realizing.the.Hydrogen.Economy.chart.gif
  6. 6. Methods of Hydrogen Production Graphic: http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/basics/images/HydrogenProductionPaths.gif
  7. 7. Methods of Hydrogen Production Steam Reformation of Natural Gas  Cheapest method  CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 at 700 – 1100 °C in the presence of a metal-based catalyst.  CO + H2O → CO2 + H2  Still emits pollution as CO2  Carbon capture
  8. 8. Methods of Hydrogen Production Electrolysis  2H2O + energy → 2H2 + O2  Uses electric current to split water; many methods.  High-pressure, high-temperature, biocatalyst, thermal, solar, etc. Gasification  Coal or Biomass converted into gaseous components by heat, under pressure, in the presence of steam.  Carbon capture
  9. 9. Methods of Hydrogen Production Kværner-process  Carbon Black and Hydrogen (CB&H) method  Produces hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbons  Energy-efficient, pure 100% carbon and hydrogen. Biological  Bacteria consume water in light or without light to produce hydrogen as a byproduct. Graphic: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Algae_hydrogen_production.jpg
  10. 10. Methods of Hydrogen Production Renewable Liquid Reforming  Biomass used to make biofuels can be reacted with high- temperature steam to produce hydrogen. Global production (2006):  48% from natural gas  30% from oil  18% from coal;  Water electrolysis accounts for only 4%.
  11. 11. Main Challenges to a HydrogenEconomy Cost reduction  Transportation technology  Production technology  Conversion processes over other sources of energy Storage Infrastructure
  12. 12. Storage of Hydrogen One of the foremost challenges to the hydrogen economy Compressed gas in high-pressure tanks Liquid in tanks (-253°C) Solid by absorbing or reacting with metals Issues:  Operating pressure and temperature  Life span of the storage material  High energy content compared to weight, low energy content compared to volume, especially for gas.
  13. 13. Storage Technologies Graphic: http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/basics/storage.htm
  14. 14. Infrastructure Pipeline transport  Expensive, but still cheapest. Hydrogen stations Hydrogen embrittlement  Typical natural gas lines require coatings or replacement Idea of on-site applications Explosion leaks  Hydrogen-oxygen flames in UV range  Odorless
  15. 15. References References: 1. Hydrogen Economy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_economy (accessed 26 Feb 2012). 2. Hydrogen Technologies. http://www.interstatetraveler.us/Reference- Bibliography/Bellona-HydrogenReport.html (accessed 26 Feb 2012). 3. Hydrogen Production. http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_production.pdf (accessed 26 Feb 2012). 4. Hydrogen. http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/index.htm (accessed 26 Feb 2012).

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