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Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems for
    Remote Northern Communities



       Hydrogen Millennium
   10th Canadian Hydrogen Conference
            May 28 - 31, 2000




            Glenn D. Rambach
             FuelCellPlace@aol.com
Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems

    Hydrogen as a utility energy storage medium.


        To buffer the intermittency and phase differences of renewables an loads.

        Where current electricity values are high (premium power).

        Niche applications in isolated locations.

        Permits full autonomy from a fossil fuel supply infrastructure.

        Provides utility AND transportation functions



    Storage function of hydrogen systems is more complex than either


    battery storage systems or fossil fueled fuel cell systems.
        Batteries have one power/energy element.

        Fossil fuel cell system have two power elements and a simple energy

         element.
        Four separate power or energy elements permit optimization in H2 system.



    The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system


    are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote
    applications.

    Models are yet to be developed for optimization of design and control of a


    hydrogen system.
Energy Demographics

Country      Population             Per capita energy use
              (millions)            (Bbls oil(equiv.)/year/person)

USA             270                      23.6   (5.7 x W.A.)
                           (4.5%)

China          1200                     0.79
                                        0.79    (0.19 x W.A.)
                           (37%)
India          1000

Indonesia       202

World          6000                          4.12 (W.A.)

Two billion people on earth do not have electricity.
The relationship between renewable energy sources
and fuel cells is generally through hydrogen
The primary fuel for a fuel cell is hydrogen

Hydrogen can be produced from:
   Gasoline
   Diesel fuel                    Nonrenewable
   Propane
   Coal
   Wind, solar, hydroelectric and
   geothermal electricity         Renewable
   Biomass
   Municipal solid waste and LFG
   Natural gas, Methanol, Ethanol Either
In isolated communities, the most likely indigenous resource that
can produce local-energy-economy quantities of hydrogen are:
     Wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal electricity
     Diesel, propane may have a delivery infrastructure
     Natural gas may be locally available or deliverable as LNG
Fuel Cell Utility Power Systems
                               Configuration options

                        Reformer
  Liquid
                        and purifier
  fossil fuel


                                                                          Local grid
  - OR -
                                                Fuel cell
                               Hydrogen
                                                 PEM        Electrical
                                                 SOFC
 Delivered                                                  power
                                                 PAFC
 Hydrogen
                                                 MCFC
                                                 AFC
                                                                         Remote load
                                 Hydrogen
  - OR -                         Storage




Intermittent
                                 Electrolyzer
renewable electricity
Source, process, storage and load options


                                               Customer
                             • Community
                             • Mine
                             • Military post
                             • Autonomous device
Nature                       •__________

    • Wind
    • Sunlight
    • Water flow                                     Energy Storage

                                                    • Hydrogen-fuel cell
                                                    • Hydrogen-ICE gen
                                                    • Halogen fuel cell
   Power Production
                                                    • Zn-Air fuel cell
 • Wind turbine                                     • Zn-FeCN fuel cell
                 • m Hydro      Power logic
 • Solar PV                                         • Flywheel
                                controller
 • Low-q water turbine                              • Compressed air
                                                    • Pumped hydro
                                                    • Battery
                                                    • Grid
Design criteria for remote hydrogen
                fuel cell utility power system

Intermittent, renewable source

PRen = f(Pload-peak, hf/c, hEH2, hComp,                                       Electrolyzer
         CFRen, P(t)Ren, CostRen )            Power logic            PEH2 = f(Pload-peak, PRen)
                                               controller            PEH2-out = f(CostEH2 , TypeEH2)
                                          CostPLC = f(PThru-peak)
       Nature

                                                                      Compressor (if needed)
                                                 Fuel cell                     
                                                                      QC = f(QEH2)
                                          Pf/c = f(Pload-peak,
                                                                      PC-out = f(Ps)
                                                  Eelec. Stor)
                                                                      PC-in = f(PEH2-Out)
     Intermittent load
 P(t)load = f(COE(t), User)


                                          Cogenerated heat          Es = f(Qmax, Pload-avg)
                                                                         Hydrogen storage
                                                                    DEs = f(hf/c, vehicles)
                                          HC = f(hf/c, DCf/c)
  Customer                                                          Ps = f(Costvessel, site space)
Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell isolated power system




                                           Cogen heat
Relationship of load, capacity factor, efficiencies
to the power of renewable and electrolyzer




                  (1 - CfR) PlAV
        PE = PR = Cf h h h
                    R   E   FC C


                                     PE = Electrolyzer rated power
                                     PR = Renewable peak capacity
                                     PlAV = Average load power
                                     Cf = Capacity factor
                                     h = Efficiency (<1)
                                     FC = Fuel cell system
                                     C = Compressor
Effects of renewable capacity factor, electrolyzer
efficiency and fuel cell system efficiency on renewable
          power and electrolyzer power needed

                       Load average is 100kW
                                hE = Electrolyzer efficiency
           hE
                                hFC = Fuel cell power system efficiency
           .65
                 hFC
           .70
           .75 .40
               .40
           .70 .40
           .70
                 .54
           .75
                 .55
                 .55
Effects of renewable capacity factor and
turn-around efficiency on renewable power
and electrolyzer power needed

            Load average is 100kW
    hTurn-around
    .25



    .30


    .35

    .40
    .45
     .50
    .60
    .70
DRI residential scale, renewable hydrogen,
      fuel cell test facility and refuel station

   Wind turbines                                    Computer
   1.5 kW each                                      Controlled
                                                    Load
                                                                              Energy storage
                                                    0 - 5kW
                                                                              components
                       Computer
                       and
                       Power
                       Logic
                                     Electricity
                       Controller




                                              Hydrogen
                               Electrolyzer
                                                                       Fuel cell
                               5 kW
                                                                       2 kW PEM




                                         Hydrogen
                                                                 Hydrogen
                                         Storage
                                                                 Dispensing
                                         150 psi
Solar arrays and trackers
1.0 kW each
Components of DRI renewable hydrogen,
                     fuel cell test facility


            Two 1.5 kW
             Wind Turbines
                             Two 1 kW
                              Solar Arrays



                                             2 kW PEM Fuel Cell




Hydrogen
Generator
                                                            Hydrogen
                                                            Storage
                                                            Tank

   Hydrogen
   Refueling             Planned Hydrogen
   Station               Fuel Cell Vehicle
Renewable Hydrogen Energy Research System at DRI
Kotzebue, Alaska wind turbine site


650 kW of
wind power
in 10 wind
turbines
                                               Kivalina
                                                Kotzebue
                                Wales
                                           Deering
                                        Nome
                                                           Fairbanks



                                                             Anchorage
                                                                         Juneau

                                                            Seward
                         St. Paul

                        St. George
Kotzebue, AK wind turbine site




                          Wind Turbine Power
AOC 15/50 Wind Turbines   Control Building     KOTZ Radio
                                               Transmitter




                                  Tundra
Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell power for KOTZ Radio Transmitter




                                                                                               11-MW Diesel
                                            Village of Kotzebue, AK                            Power Plant
Conceptual design done as
part of a system study for
USDOE on hydrogen for                                                      Three
energy storage of intermittent,                                            miles
renewable power in isolated
areas.


                                  Excess
                                  Excess
                                  Wind
                                  Wind
                       Power
                                  Power
                                  Power
                       Grid
                                                                                                                 Project
                                                                                                                 addition
                                           Wind
                                                                                     Switch
                                           Power
                                                                                      Out

                                                                                        Condenser
                                                                  Fuel cell system
                                                                                                              Propane-to-
                                                                  and inverter
                                                                                                              hydrogen
                                                                                       Water recycling
                                                                                                              reformer




                                                                      Hydrogen storage
                                                                                                         Propane
                                                      100% penetration wind turbine modifications
650 kW AOC 10 wind turbine array
Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell power for village loads

                                                                        Fuel cell system
                                                     Switch             and inverter
                                                      Out




                                                        11-MW Diesel
                     Village of Kotzebue
                                                        Power Plant

                                             Three
                                             miles

                                                                   Three
                                                                   miles



                                                     Hydrogen transmission line
                                                     250-psig, 1/2” Dia.

                              Proportional
                              Power




                                                              Water storage




650 kW AOC 10 wind turbine array
Evolution of system capital costs for different loads



                       Evolution of system capital costs for different loads

                  50
                  45
                  40
                  35
    System $/Wp




                                                              KOTZ Radio transmitter
                  30
                                                              Kivalina Village
                  25
                                                              St. George Island
                  20
                                                              Kotzebue Village
                  15
                  10
                   5
                   0
                        Today      Near-term    Far-term
                                  Time frame
Summary


    Integrated hydrogen utility systems are an ultimate goal for future power


    systems.
         The inclusion of transportation fuel in remote locations adds significant

          value.
         Other storage systems include pumped hydro and batteries.



    Wind power, micro-hydroelectric and low-q water current are promising power


    input stream sources for northern communities.

    The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system


    are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote
    applications.
        Cost is a greater challenge than technological development at this point.



    New system models are key enablers to permitting development of the market


    for integrated hydrogen systems
How do we implement hydrogen in the near term?

• Implement: To render commercially practical. To get into the mainstream
   of society. To transition from exclusively publicly funded research to
   successful private enterprise.

• Test out implementation ideas for hydrogen with people who want to make
  money in the commercial marketplace, not the research marketplace.
    • With what we now know, can we think of a way to convince financing
       sources to invest in selling any niche product?
         • Niche is where it’s at!
    • How much of this is an individual activity? How much is a group
      (NHA?) activity?

• Niche markets. (High value, small production runs)

• Past the “valley of death” for new technologies, from early adopters to
  small, sustained commercial support.

          Implement hydrogen? Find the beginning. Start there.
Carbon management

CO2 sequestration:
   • Sequester CO2 from the atmosphere in the form of
      biomass. (50 - 500 million years ago)
   • Convert biomass into chemically and physically stable form
     of sequestered carbon.
   • Maintain chemically and physically stable form of
     carbon (coal and oil) for 10s to 100s of millions of years.
CO2 recovery:
   • Recover sequestered carbon and call it hydrocarbon fuel.
   • Convert it into energy and the original CO2 to power a
     few 10’s of decades of humanity.
CO2 resequestration:
   • Collect CO2 from power systems.
   • Reinsert into oceans, earth, aquifers, only a physical process away
      from the environment.
         • Since any CO2 resequestered remains as CO2 forever, the
           resequestering needs to last longer than the sequestering
           of nuclear waste.
Ponderous points to ponder

• An automobile engine is made in the U.S. every 2.1 seconds, 24
  hours a day, 7 days a week. (15 million/year)

• The U.S. pays $1 billion a week to import foreign oil. (more than
  1/3 of trade deficit)

• The U.S. spends over $50 billion a year to defend our oil interests in
  the Persian Gulf, not counting periodic conflicts. (over 65¢/gallon)

• Health care costs in the U.S. related to fossil fuel combustion are
  in excess of $50 billion a year. (over 65¢/gallon)

• 2 billion people (1/3 of the world population) have yet to benefit
  from utility electricity.

•The US and the world are beginning to become customer bases
 for new energy technologies. Who will be the purveyors?

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Renewable Hydrogen Energy Storage

  • 1. Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems for Remote Northern Communities Hydrogen Millennium 10th Canadian Hydrogen Conference May 28 - 31, 2000 Glenn D. Rambach FuelCellPlace@aol.com
  • 2. Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems Hydrogen as a utility energy storage medium.   To buffer the intermittency and phase differences of renewables an loads.  Where current electricity values are high (premium power).  Niche applications in isolated locations.  Permits full autonomy from a fossil fuel supply infrastructure.  Provides utility AND transportation functions Storage function of hydrogen systems is more complex than either  battery storage systems or fossil fueled fuel cell systems.  Batteries have one power/energy element.  Fossil fuel cell system have two power elements and a simple energy element.  Four separate power or energy elements permit optimization in H2 system. The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system  are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote applications. Models are yet to be developed for optimization of design and control of a  hydrogen system.
  • 3. Energy Demographics Country Population Per capita energy use (millions) (Bbls oil(equiv.)/year/person) USA 270 23.6 (5.7 x W.A.) (4.5%) China 1200 0.79 0.79 (0.19 x W.A.) (37%) India 1000 Indonesia 202 World 6000 4.12 (W.A.) Two billion people on earth do not have electricity.
  • 4. The relationship between renewable energy sources and fuel cells is generally through hydrogen The primary fuel for a fuel cell is hydrogen Hydrogen can be produced from: Gasoline Diesel fuel Nonrenewable Propane Coal Wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal electricity Renewable Biomass Municipal solid waste and LFG Natural gas, Methanol, Ethanol Either In isolated communities, the most likely indigenous resource that can produce local-energy-economy quantities of hydrogen are: Wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal electricity Diesel, propane may have a delivery infrastructure Natural gas may be locally available or deliverable as LNG
  • 5. Fuel Cell Utility Power Systems Configuration options Reformer Liquid and purifier fossil fuel Local grid - OR - Fuel cell Hydrogen PEM Electrical SOFC Delivered power PAFC Hydrogen MCFC AFC Remote load Hydrogen - OR - Storage Intermittent Electrolyzer renewable electricity
  • 6. Source, process, storage and load options Customer • Community • Mine • Military post • Autonomous device Nature •__________ • Wind • Sunlight • Water flow Energy Storage • Hydrogen-fuel cell • Hydrogen-ICE gen • Halogen fuel cell Power Production • Zn-Air fuel cell • Wind turbine • Zn-FeCN fuel cell • m Hydro Power logic • Solar PV • Flywheel controller • Low-q water turbine • Compressed air • Pumped hydro • Battery • Grid
  • 7. Design criteria for remote hydrogen fuel cell utility power system Intermittent, renewable source PRen = f(Pload-peak, hf/c, hEH2, hComp, Electrolyzer CFRen, P(t)Ren, CostRen ) Power logic PEH2 = f(Pload-peak, PRen) controller PEH2-out = f(CostEH2 , TypeEH2) CostPLC = f(PThru-peak) Nature Compressor (if needed) Fuel cell   QC = f(QEH2) Pf/c = f(Pload-peak, PC-out = f(Ps) Eelec. Stor) PC-in = f(PEH2-Out) Intermittent load P(t)load = f(COE(t), User) Cogenerated heat Es = f(Qmax, Pload-avg) Hydrogen storage DEs = f(hf/c, vehicles) HC = f(hf/c, DCf/c) Customer Ps = f(Costvessel, site space)
  • 8. Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell isolated power system Cogen heat
  • 9. Relationship of load, capacity factor, efficiencies to the power of renewable and electrolyzer (1 - CfR) PlAV PE = PR = Cf h h h R E FC C PE = Electrolyzer rated power PR = Renewable peak capacity PlAV = Average load power Cf = Capacity factor h = Efficiency (<1) FC = Fuel cell system C = Compressor
  • 10. Effects of renewable capacity factor, electrolyzer efficiency and fuel cell system efficiency on renewable power and electrolyzer power needed Load average is 100kW hE = Electrolyzer efficiency hE hFC = Fuel cell power system efficiency .65 hFC .70 .75 .40 .40 .70 .40 .70 .54 .75 .55 .55
  • 11. Effects of renewable capacity factor and turn-around efficiency on renewable power and electrolyzer power needed Load average is 100kW hTurn-around .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .60 .70
  • 12. DRI residential scale, renewable hydrogen, fuel cell test facility and refuel station Wind turbines Computer 1.5 kW each Controlled Load Energy storage 0 - 5kW components Computer and Power Logic Electricity Controller Hydrogen Electrolyzer Fuel cell 5 kW 2 kW PEM Hydrogen Hydrogen Storage Dispensing 150 psi Solar arrays and trackers 1.0 kW each
  • 13. Components of DRI renewable hydrogen, fuel cell test facility Two 1.5 kW Wind Turbines Two 1 kW Solar Arrays 2 kW PEM Fuel Cell Hydrogen Generator Hydrogen Storage Tank Hydrogen Refueling Planned Hydrogen Station Fuel Cell Vehicle
  • 14. Renewable Hydrogen Energy Research System at DRI
  • 15. Kotzebue, Alaska wind turbine site 650 kW of wind power in 10 wind turbines Kivalina Kotzebue Wales Deering Nome Fairbanks Anchorage Juneau Seward St. Paul St. George
  • 16. Kotzebue, AK wind turbine site Wind Turbine Power AOC 15/50 Wind Turbines Control Building KOTZ Radio Transmitter Tundra
  • 17. Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell power for KOTZ Radio Transmitter 11-MW Diesel Village of Kotzebue, AK Power Plant Conceptual design done as part of a system study for USDOE on hydrogen for Three energy storage of intermittent, miles renewable power in isolated areas. Excess Excess Wind Wind Power Power Power Grid Project addition Wind Switch Power Out Condenser Fuel cell system Propane-to- and inverter hydrogen Water recycling reformer Hydrogen storage Propane 100% penetration wind turbine modifications 650 kW AOC 10 wind turbine array
  • 18. Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell power for village loads Fuel cell system Switch and inverter Out 11-MW Diesel Village of Kotzebue Power Plant Three miles Three miles Hydrogen transmission line 250-psig, 1/2” Dia. Proportional Power Water storage 650 kW AOC 10 wind turbine array
  • 19. Evolution of system capital costs for different loads Evolution of system capital costs for different loads 50 45 40 35 System $/Wp KOTZ Radio transmitter 30 Kivalina Village 25 St. George Island 20 Kotzebue Village 15 10 5 0 Today Near-term Far-term Time frame
  • 20. Summary Integrated hydrogen utility systems are an ultimate goal for future power  systems.  The inclusion of transportation fuel in remote locations adds significant value.  Other storage systems include pumped hydro and batteries. Wind power, micro-hydroelectric and low-q water current are promising power  input stream sources for northern communities. The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system  are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote applications.  Cost is a greater challenge than technological development at this point. New system models are key enablers to permitting development of the market  for integrated hydrogen systems
  • 21. How do we implement hydrogen in the near term? • Implement: To render commercially practical. To get into the mainstream of society. To transition from exclusively publicly funded research to successful private enterprise. • Test out implementation ideas for hydrogen with people who want to make money in the commercial marketplace, not the research marketplace. • With what we now know, can we think of a way to convince financing sources to invest in selling any niche product? • Niche is where it’s at! • How much of this is an individual activity? How much is a group (NHA?) activity? • Niche markets. (High value, small production runs) • Past the “valley of death” for new technologies, from early adopters to small, sustained commercial support. Implement hydrogen? Find the beginning. Start there.
  • 22. Carbon management CO2 sequestration: • Sequester CO2 from the atmosphere in the form of biomass. (50 - 500 million years ago) • Convert biomass into chemically and physically stable form of sequestered carbon. • Maintain chemically and physically stable form of carbon (coal and oil) for 10s to 100s of millions of years. CO2 recovery: • Recover sequestered carbon and call it hydrocarbon fuel. • Convert it into energy and the original CO2 to power a few 10’s of decades of humanity. CO2 resequestration: • Collect CO2 from power systems. • Reinsert into oceans, earth, aquifers, only a physical process away from the environment. • Since any CO2 resequestered remains as CO2 forever, the resequestering needs to last longer than the sequestering of nuclear waste.
  • 23. Ponderous points to ponder • An automobile engine is made in the U.S. every 2.1 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. (15 million/year) • The U.S. pays $1 billion a week to import foreign oil. (more than 1/3 of trade deficit) • The U.S. spends over $50 billion a year to defend our oil interests in the Persian Gulf, not counting periodic conflicts. (over 65¢/gallon) • Health care costs in the U.S. related to fossil fuel combustion are in excess of $50 billion a year. (over 65¢/gallon) • 2 billion people (1/3 of the world population) have yet to benefit from utility electricity. •The US and the world are beginning to become customer bases for new energy technologies. Who will be the purveyors?