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An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs  - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
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An Assessment of Online PPGIS Case Studies in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

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  • 1. Cities, Technologies and Planning – CTP 122012 International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications Salvador, BrazilAssessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning Geisa Bugs geisabugs@gmail.com UFRGS – Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil PROPUR – Post Graduation Program in Urban and Regional Planning
  • 2. IntroductionPublic Participation Geographic Information Systems – PPGIS• Applications designed to exploit the potential of GIS to promote community goals, connecting the technical capacity of GIS to local knowledge.• Rather than using GIS resources in a traditional way, as in spatial analysis, they are used for production of maps and stories that help to characterize the local space.• The goal is not to turn participation into GIS, but to present and organize relevant information that would not become visible through other methods.• The Internet is the dominant platform. WE PP B Web Web PPGIS GIS PPGIS GISAssessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 2
  • 3. IntroductionOnline PPGIS• Freedom to explore the question and create solutions that represent public perception.• Explore information, test possible solutions, see and compare ideas, and share visions.• Easiness to identify points of interest that connect the mind map with the system map by exploring different types of media such as photos, videos, and 3D models.• Potential to improve public participation into decision making.• Bottom-up initiatives are already emerging on Internet.• But, in general, public institutions have failed to incorporate the technologies.• There are not many experiences taking place focusing on urban planning, implemented.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 3
  • 4. IntroductionPublic Participation• A decision making process open to citizens, involving issues that directly or indirectly affect their lives in the use and ownership of a specific urban territory.• Important planning component that leads to different solutions than otherwise, once the citizens know the reality and local problems better than anyone else, and can provide detailed insights that are not normally available from other sources.Urban Planning• Deals with problems of the built, natural, and social environments.• A wide range of factors have to be balanced.• Public participation is only one of the factors involved.• Complex decision making process, there is an infinite number of possible solutions.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 4
  • 5. IntroductionE-planning and e-participation• Online information technologies are becoming essential tools, a new threshold for urban planning operation.• Enhances understanding and communication of actions and policies, trough consultation of legislation, plans, projects, surveys, discussion rooms, and online voting on proposals.• Includes multimedia communication resources (images and virtual reality) to an efficient representation of planning information to society.• Provides continuous public access on the records of the evolution and adoption of proposals and policies.• There is no restriction to geographic location or time, so more people can participate.• Could also overcome the atmosphere of confrontation and avoid the domination of the process by individuals whose views do not necessarily represent the majority.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 5
  • 6. IntroductionNeeds• More inclusive forms of participation in urban planning;• Information system provided by the authorities accessible to all;• Assess if the technological advances will promote the improvements suggested;• Lack of documental research on how users are making use of online PPGIS;• More studies investigating how Web GIS could be a PPGIS component.In order to• Contribute to the development of tools able to establish more appropriate participation channels.• Find indications on how PPGIS could be developed to face open questions: – Which GIS tools and interaction levels are adequate? – How to balance complex tolls and usability?By• Assessing study cases, applying a previously developed methodology (Steinmann et al, 2004).Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 6
  • 7. Study CasesSelection• Link accessible and operational at the time of the survey.• Project published in the last years and quoted by other research on the topic.• Have been evaluated or tested by real users.• Designed for some kind of planning decision making.4 study cases• ParticipatoryGIS, 2010, University of Western Ontario, Canada;• SoftGIS, 2004, Aalto University, Finland;• Participatory Geographic Information Systems for Transportation – PGIST, 2007, University of Washington, USA.• Canela PPGIS, 2009, University Jaume I, Spain.• Study cases can be helpful to develop general statements about a given situation.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 7
  • 8. Study CasesParticipatoryGIS• Collaborative Web GIS developed into 2 parts: MCDA (analytical) and argumentation maps (deliberative).• The goal was to bridge the gap between experts and the public.• Sets the best location for building a new parking in Canmore, combining each individual judgment with the group preferences.• There are four sites options. By clicking on each alternative a window displays its properties.• Users define how many suitability criterion must be satisfied to the site be considered, and enter preferences on the relative importance of each (none, low, medium…).• Users can see their individual map with the final classification of each alternative location and also the collective results.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 8
  • 9. Study Cases SoftGIS • Tool for assessing environmental quality. It collects resident’s perceptions systematically, questioning experiences and everyday behavior within the cities. • Forms a special GI database to be used in planning. Environment quality approach based on the residents challenges the traditional top-bottom practices.• Users follows a step by step, filling up a questionnaire about appearance, functionality, and social life of daily places.• First version was tested in the city of Järvenpää, in 2004, but subsequent work has made applications in other situations, as for example on how to evaluate children’s mobility.• Its differential is to be a permanent tool for public opinion collection, so it is not a decision support system.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 9
  • 10. Study CasesParticipatory Geographic Information Systems for Transportation - PGIST• Research generated the Internet GIS-based tool “Lets Improve Transportation”.• It generate ideas, synthesize, and reach a decision on the best-case scenario, by exploiting various activities: i) receive information on projects, learning about proposals, ii) categorize and prioritize ideas, considering potential impacts of these changes on communities, iii) determine which projects should be supported by working in collaboration with other residents.• The study took 4 weeks, at Puget Sound region, in 2007.• The task was to determine which transportation improvement projects should be constructed and what funding mechanisms should be used.• The end result contains 27 projects with total cost of 11.8 billion U.S. dollars, approved by 61% of the participants.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 10
  • 11. Study Cases• Canela PPGIS• Takes advantage of the collaborative Web 2.0 aspects.• Users can view spatial data organized by urban planning topics (housing, equipment…), post comments georeferenced to the object of interest (schools, streets…), classify the comment (hint, complaint…), and see all contributions posted.• The system stores all comments in a database that may assist spatial analysis that reveal patterns/trends.• Comments are saved along with its "context" (coordinates, zoom level, layers on…), which allows the specialist to get a understanding on the “users emotions”.• Used only on a one week workshop in Canela, Brazil, on January 2009.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 11
  • 12. CriteriaInteractivity refers to the user interaction with the application. 4 stages:• Information delivery: bottom stage, passive participation, delivery one-way flow of information, from the system to the user.• Online discussion: two-way flow of information, since it includes discussion between participants, or participants and planning authorities, for example.• Map-based discussion: communication is on the basis of an online map, through graphical expressions or comments on specific map objects. Participants can submit to the authorities their personal maps, but are not actively involved in decision making, since do not receive feedback.• Involvement in decision making: highest stage, when participants contribute actively to the decision making.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 12
  • 13. CriteriaFunctionality: the following functionalities are common in most GIS:• Topological overlay: different layers can be combined in a customized map.• Information retrieval: user may retrieve attribute data describing characteristics about a selected object with a mouse click on a spatial element.• Query: user can retrieve the data according to the related terms, phrases or features chosen.• Data selection: user can select spatial objects on the specified thematic data layer.• Zoom and Pan: enable the users to change their view and the level of detail by clicking on a location or by dragging a box to define a particular extent.• Distance measure: enables the user to measure the distance between two locations or the total distance of a route, with multiple stops, for example.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 13
  • 14. CriteriaUsability• Part of the Human Computer Interaction discipline.• Refer to evaluating whether an application works and has met its design goals according to the user’s needs.• Usability testing with real users involves watching target users or existing users of a system interact with it by performing a set of real or representative tasks.• The analysis of the extent to which a computer technology supports users to achieve specific objectives in an effective, efficient and satisfactory way.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 14
  • 15. Assessment• Currently, PPGIS projects uses little GIS functionalities: none of them make available query or data selection, for instance.• The two-way communication is not fully established.• The two applications with involvement in decision making are more complex, which consequently compromises its usability by lay people. Finding this balance is a challenge to be overcome.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 15
  • 16. AssessmentParticipatoryGIS• Interactivity: high stage, the participants contribute to the decision making. Although the intermediate steps are not guaranteed. The online discussion tool was not used by most users, indicating that the two parts, deliberative and MCDA analysis, are not totally integrated, prioritizing the multicriteria evaluation map.• Functionality: zoom, pan and information retrieval, which is restricted to the land location suitability.• Usability: the subsequent usability test concluded that this depends significantly on the previous participants experiences with GIS and Web. Probably because the multicriteria concepts turn it into a tool designed to an audience with some basic statistics understanding.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 16
  • 17. AssessmentSoftGIS• Interactivity: communication is primarily one-way, but not as often occurs from the system to the user, but as a questionnaire answered from the user to the system. So, the user communicates on a map-base, however, unilaterally. Discussions among participants do not occur.• Functionality: zoom, pan and information retrieval.• Usability: at the end of the questionnaire, the respondents gave feedback about the research and the application. In general, it was positively evaluated, although some considerable number reported “basic” difficulties about the use of the map tool, or find the map hard to orientate.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 17
  • 18. AssessmentPGIST• Interactivity: highest stage, participants contribute to the decision making. Provision of information occurs in both directions and discussion among participants is made possible through the forums. However, it is not a map-based discussion. The map serves only as a means of information communication that subsidize the participation.• Functionality: zoom, pan and information retrieval.• Usability: by enabling detailed analysis of alternative scenarios and aiming to prioritize proposals, it is a tool that requires a long time dedication to be used correctly, even though the authors advocate that the site is designed to properly orient any citizen interested in the process.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 18
  • 19. AssessmentCanela PPGIS• Interactivity: archives the third stage, communication on the basis of an online map, through comments on specific objects of the selected map. But participants were not actively involved in decision making on processes that include the return of their participation, mainly because it was not implemented.• Functionality: zoom, pan, information retrieval and topological overlay.• Usability: evaluated as satisfactory during a one week usability test developed in 2009 with local stakeholders.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 19
  • 20. Final Considerations• Internet and GIS tools encompasses new methodological possibilities for participatory urban planning, increasing opportunities.• But online PPGIS are also unilateral in some ways.• The decision making level is not always reached.• Its not an easy goal, there are many weaknesses in the participatory process that persist on the virtual.• Need to improve the processes so that it’s worth the public effort to take part.• New empirical experiences could shows to each extend the contributions collected can intervene in urban planning decisions for real.• It is about understanding that the technologies are available, must be assimilated by both experts and no experts, and, especially, about how to do it properly.Assessment of Online PPGIS Study Cases in Urban Planning | Geisa Bugs | ICCSA 12 | CTP 12 | Salvador 20
  • 21. Cities, Technologies and Planning – CTP 122012 International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications Salvador, Brazil Thank you! Geisa Bugs geisabugs@gmail.com UFRGS – Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil PROPUR – Post Graduation Program in Urban and Regional Planning

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