Online Pedagogy

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Techniques and tools for high quality instruction in distance learning courses.

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Online Pedagogy

  1. 1. Online Pedagogy Judy Baker Foothill Global Access Foothill College May 2007
  2. 2. Technological Determinism <ul><li>Computer influences one’s world view </li></ul><ul><li>Tool of choice influences how instruction is conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of computer as teaching tool puts focus on the logical </li></ul>
  3. 3. Emphasis of Technology <ul><li>Type of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation for efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation and manipulation of data </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What’s Lost by Focus on Tech? <ul><li>Lose opportunity to develop qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of great ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of good judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning “of” vs. learning “from” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Information vs. Meaning <ul><li>Lots of information now available instantly </li></ul><ul><li>How to makes sense of it? </li></ul><ul><li>Little information actually needed for insight, creativity and good judgement </li></ul>
  6. 6. Technologies are Ecological “ Technologies send out ripples that rearrange relationships throughout the system” (L. Monke, 1998)
  7. 7. Challenge to Online Educators <ul><li>Foster knowledge acquisition through collaboration, discussion and negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student participation, collaboration, and thoughtful reflection. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Heart of an Educator <ul><li>“Good teaching cannot be reduced to technique; good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From The Courage to Teach by Parker J. Palmer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Online Communication Tools
  10. 10. Interactive Approaches
  11. 11. Techniques to Enhance Collaboration and Interaction <ul><li>Make expectations explicit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance evaluation rubric for postings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation grading requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples of acceptable postings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set or negotiate group netiquette or ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Actively monitor and moderate discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-organize postings with threads </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to answer each others' posted questions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to critique each others' posted responses </li></ul>
  12. 12. Good Practice in Online Instruction <ul><li>Encourages student-faculty contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages cooperation among students. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages active learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives prompt feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes time on task. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates high expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Seven Good Teaching Principles outlined by Chickering and Gamson (1987). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Encourage Student-Faculty Contact <ul><li>Chat : Schedule virtual office hours </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Homepages : Post photos of faculty and other students </li></ul><ul><li>Email : 1 to 1 private discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions: one to many public discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Chat: Keep individuals on task </li></ul><ul><li>Video: Maintain eye contact with camera </li></ul><ul><li>Chat: Call students by name, Praise student-initiated contact </li></ul>
  14. 14. Encourage Cooperation among Students <ul><li>Student Presentation : Small teams or groups interact via e-mail; Post student papers on Internet; students could critique each other's work </li></ul><ul><li>E mail: Between students on group projects; Problem solving in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions : Self-introductions; Provide specific opportunities for students to interact with other students </li></ul><ul><li>Chat : Assign students moderators on a rotating basis; Encourage self-introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Chat Breakout Rooms: Provide online students with the opportunity to interact in small groups </li></ul>
  15. 15. Encourage Active Learning <ul><li>Discussions and Chat: Formal debate on-line between students and experts; Students evaluate each others' postings; Invite virtual guest speakers; </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes: Use &quot;Paragraph&quot; type essay questions for student to submit regular observation/reflection/journal writings </li></ul><ul><li>Email: Journaling; Utilize a modified Delphi technique for group consensus - decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Quiz: self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Chat: As students log on and participate, send them private messages commenting on their contribution or urging them to take part in the discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>General Chat: Use primarily for student questions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Give Prompt Feedback <ul><li>Chat: Live virtual office hours where the instructor is present </li></ul><ul><li>Self - Quiz: Self-quizzes with specific feedback for all responses along with each content page </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions : Topic folders that allows students to post messages with feedback to the instructor anonymously </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes and/or Survey: Quizzes that provided immediate results; Needs assessment pre-class and post class assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments Dropbox : Require drafts; Web-based assignments clearly state how the Web may be used in completing the assignment; Web-based assignments direct students to specific websites;Provide hints for searching the Web; Web-based assignments require students to evaluate and validate Web-based information </li></ul><ul><li>Student Webpages : Individual or group projects and electronic portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Chat: respond to students questions or comments publicly or privately through the Chat area </li></ul>
  17. 17. Emphasize Time on Task <ul><li>Schedule/Calendar: Set time-achievement expectation that is laid out at the beginning of the course </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions : Set limits for number and type of postings by each student; </li></ul><ul><li>Email: Keep messages succinct; Set guidelines for file format of Emailed attachments, require virus-checking of all attached files; Require Progress Reports from students periodically </li></ul><ul><li>External Links: Maintain accurate and up-to-date links to external sites </li></ul><ul><li>Chat Transcript Logs: Review class session logs to determine amount of time on task. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Communicate High Expectations <ul><li>Provide self-assessment tools and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions Bulletin Board : Monitor ongoing student dialogues for climate setting and role modeling; Provide corrective feedback; Post netiquette guidelines; Ask student to comment on what they are doing in terms of metacognition of the Discussions process; Expect student to participate regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate in-class success by naming student or group;Document student work (for example, as portfolio material on a CD-ROM) or publishing student work on the WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes and Selective Release of Modules : Require mastery competence for information literacy prior to assigning Internet research tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Chat: Monitor student chat dialogs and set guidelines for student chat interactions. To help students understand proper etiquette, provide them with examples of appropriate electronic communication. Inform students of expectations for using the chat room. Establish guidelines and norms. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Respect Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning <ul><li>Course Content: Sequencing of content delivery: Explain theory from &quot;practical approach&quot; first, then add the structural approach; Course Content made available in manageable segments </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes : Utilize a pre-assessment inventory of learning styles, provide different Content Modules accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Resources : Making some material, such as lecture notes, available in various forms supports students who learn more effectively when they can control the pace at which material is presented </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Release of course content based on scaffolding concept: Interactive materials that allow students to proceed at their own pace and also often let them choose the order in which they encounter sections of material </li></ul><ul><li>Library Resource Links : Students have access to library resources virtually </li></ul><ul><li>Use streaming media to present content in multiple formats </li></ul><ul><li>For PDF files, video files, sound files or PowerPoint files include a link for students to download the software </li></ul>
  20. 20. Useful Websites <ul><li>Guidelines for Distance Education: Principles of Good Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wascweb.org/senior/guide/pgpa1.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chat as a Teaching Tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://illinois.online.uillinois.edu/ionpointers/ionpointers1199.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Etiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Edu/ICG/pt1.ch2.Etiquette.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.fau.edu/rinaldi/net/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.screen.com/start/guide/netiquette.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Sexist Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/26.html </li></ul></ul>

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