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Problem-based Learning:Challenges, Components, and Benefits Stephen A. Bernhardt sab@udel.edu
Characteristics Needed in College Graduates        • High level of communication skills        • Ability to define problem...
21st Century Literacies        • Develop proficiency with the tools of technology        • Build relationships with others...
Employers’ Ratings of Importance of ABET Outcomes for  New HiresFigure 8. Executive Summary, Engineering Change: A Study o...
But I already assign problems . . .From Cutnell & Johnson, Physics, 1989, p. 93.
And students have to learn before they can     solve problems . . .http://www.morethanatestscore.com/2011/09/09/figuring-o...
PBL Contrasted with Subject-Based Learning                                   START   Solve problem to   demonstrate master...
PBL begins with a problem . . . a different kind    of problem     • Major League Baseball (MLB) is looking to sell the   ...
PBL Contrasted with Subject-Based Learning                                    START             Apply it while            ...
PBL is based on the Learning Cycle Students apply                            Problem posed concepts in their solution     ...
Learning cycles enhance retention          explore  invent  apply                                     EIA = Explore, Inv...
PBL: The ProcessResolution of Problem;                       Presentation of Problem(How did we do?)                      ...
But I have to cover content…
Balancing Course Objectives Tackle hard decisions about course content • What content is essential? • What is needed in su...
Typical Medical School PBL Problem:High Degree of Authenticity  Patient arrives at hospital, ER, physician’s office  prese...
The Rule of 72  Bill is working at a financial services firm as a summer  intern. Stan, the area director, calls him into ...
PBL Models for Undergraduate Courses Medical School Model     Small class, one instructor to 8-10 students Floating Facili...
Advanced Undergraduates as Peer Facilitators   • Help monitor group progress and     dynamics   • Serve as role models for...
“Hybrid” PBL Non-exclusive use of problem-driven learning in a  class May include separate lecture segments or other  acti...
General Chemistry: Hybrid Model Example  Problem-based group work                              40%  Lecture/whole-class di...
So what does the teacher do?
A Typical Day in an Undergraduate PBL Course
Instructor roles •   Establish learning goals •   Create great problems •   Keep teams on track •   Present information as...
What Makes a Good PBL Problem?• Well-formed learning objectives for content and process• The need for a solution, decision...
Technologies for Haiti Relief     • Problem: Propose a technology to address       pressing issues in Haiti post-earthquak...
PBL supports communication skills• Discussion to define, analyze, evaluate• Writing to set rules, assign tasks, manage tea...
Can we assess teamwork and problem solving?
Assessment in PBL • Evaluate knowledge, skills, behaviors, and   applied learning • Use both formative feedback and summat...
Common Features of PBL• Learning is initiated by a problem.• Problems are based on complex, real-world situations.• All in...
Course Transformation: A Balancing Act                               Learning Classroom Control            Objectives   Co...
Interested in learning more?•   Google PBL@UD•   Visit and register for the PBL Clearinghouse•   Find a colleague who want...
PBL: The ProcessResolution of Problem;                       Presentation of Problem(How did we do?)                      ...
Assessing PBL• Group problem on exams                                         • Preparation of concept  (in class or take ...
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Pbl why and how keynotelaplata 4_9_2012

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Pbl why and how keynotelaplata 4_9_2012

  1. 1. Problem-based Learning:Challenges, Components, and Benefits Stephen A. Bernhardt sab@udel.edu
  2. 2. Characteristics Needed in College Graduates • High level of communication skills • Ability to define problems, gather and evaluate information, develop solutions • Team skills -- ability to work with others • Ability to use all of the above to address problems in a complex real-world settingQuality Assurance in Undergraduate Education (1994)Wingspread Conference, ECS, Boulder, CO.
  3. 3. 21st Century Literacies • Develop proficiency with the tools of technology • Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems collaboratively and cross-culturally • Design and share information for global communities to meet a variety of purposes • Manage, analyze and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information • Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi- media texts • Attend to the ethical responsibilities required by these complex environmentsNational Council of Teachers of English, Feb. 15, 2008
  4. 4. Employers’ Ratings of Importance of ABET Outcomes for New HiresFigure 8. Executive Summary, Engineering Change: A Study of the Impact ofEC2000. ABET, 2006, p. 11
  5. 5. But I already assign problems . . .From Cutnell & Johnson, Physics, 1989, p. 93.
  6. 6. And students have to learn before they can solve problems . . .http://www.morethanatestscore.com/2011/09/09/figuring-out-the-college-lecture/
  7. 7. PBL Contrasted with Subject-Based Learning START Solve problem to demonstrate mastery Told what we need to know “Learn it” = read book, remember key formulae, etc.From Smith et al., 2005. Pedagogies of engagement: Classroom-basedpractices. J. Engineering Education, January 2005. 87-101.
  8. 8. PBL begins with a problem . . . a different kind of problem • Major League Baseball (MLB) is looking to sell the Montreal Expos, which it currently owns. Competitive bids have been submitted by two Mexican cities, Mexico City and Monterrey. Prior to making a decision, MLB has asked your consulting firm to evaluate the effect that altitude would have on a fly ball in these two baseball stadiums . . .PBL Clearinghouse “What a Drag!,” by Ed Nowak
  9. 9. PBL Contrasted with Subject-Based Learning START Apply it while Problem-posed solving problem Learn what we Identify what we need to know need to knowFrom Smith et al., 2005. Pedagogies of engagement: Classroom-basedpractices. J. Engineering Education, January 2005. 87-101.
  10. 10. PBL is based on the Learning Cycle Students apply Problem posed concepts in their solution Learning issues identified Students construct understanding of issues
  11. 11. Learning cycles enhance retention explore  invent  apply EIA = Explore, Invent, Apply IVP = Inform, Verify, Practice EAI = Explore, Apply, InventJ. Chem. Educ. 2011, 88, 1020–1025
  12. 12. PBL: The ProcessResolution of Problem; Presentation of Problem(How did we do?) Organize ideas and Integrate new Next stage of the problem prior knowledge Information; (What do we know?) Refine questions Pose questions (What do Reconvene, report we need to know?) on research; Research questions; Assign responsibility summarize; for questions; discuss analyze findings resources
  13. 13. But I have to cover content…
  14. 14. Balancing Course Objectives Tackle hard decisions about course content • What content is essential? • What is needed in subsequent courses? • What knowledge is lasting? Don’t overlook process skills •Which skills are most important to your goals? •Can content and process go hand-in-hand? Learning Content Developing Process Skills
  15. 15. Typical Medical School PBL Problem:High Degree of Authenticity Patient arrives at hospital, ER, physician’s office presenting with symptoms X, Y, Z What questions should you ask? What tests should you order? Physician interviews patient, receives results of tests Differential diagnosis Preferred therapy
  16. 16. The Rule of 72 Bill is working at a financial services firm as a summer intern. Stan, the area director, calls him into his office. Stan: One of our analysts is using the Rule of 72 to give predictions to our customers on how fast their money would grow. I’m concerned that this could get us in trouble. I’d like your recommendation on whether or not we should continue to use the rule to give estimates to our clients. Have your recommendations on my desk tomorrow. Bill: Um, sure….Mark A. Serva, University of Delaware
  17. 17. PBL Models for Undergraduate Courses Medical School Model Small class, one instructor to 8-10 students Floating Facilitator Model Small to medium class, one instructor, up to ~75 students Peer Facilitator Model Small to large class, one instructor and several peer facilitators Large Class Models Floating facilitator and hybrid PBL/other activities
  18. 18. Advanced Undergraduates as Peer Facilitators • Help monitor group progress and dynamics • Serve as role models for novice learners • Instructor works with facilitators behind the scenes
  19. 19. “Hybrid” PBL Non-exclusive use of problem-driven learning in a class May include separate lecture segments or other active-learning components Floating or peer facilitator models common
  20. 20. General Chemistry: Hybrid Model Example Problem-based group work 40% Lecture/whole-class discussion 50% Demonstrations 7% Other (Exam, lab review) 3% Source: Susan Groh, Ph. D., Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware
  21. 21. So what does the teacher do?
  22. 22. A Typical Day in an Undergraduate PBL Course
  23. 23. Instructor roles • Establish learning goals • Create great problems • Keep teams on track • Present information as needed • Evaluate outcomes • Encourage reflective learning and transfer
  24. 24. What Makes a Good PBL Problem?• Well-formed learning objectives for content and process• The need for a solution, decision, or recommendation• A “hook” or human scenario• Good prompting questions (“What do we know?” “What do we need to know?”)• Need for research• Thoughtful staging/selective disclosure• Summative and formative assessment
  25. 25. Technologies for Haiti Relief • Problem: Propose a technology to address pressing issues in Haiti post-earthquake • Research: Students research situation in Haiti and available technologies (shelter, clean water, construction, communication) • Deliverables: Proposal, progress report, technical briefing, document for wider audience, presentationSteve Bernhardt, Technical Writing, UD
  26. 26. PBL supports communication skills• Discussion to define, analyze, evaluate• Writing to set rules, assign tasks, manage team• Reading to learn what is needed• Speaking and writing to present findings, solutions, recommendations• Writing and discussing to evaluate and reflect
  27. 27. Can we assess teamwork and problem solving?
  28. 28. Assessment in PBL • Evaluate knowledge, skills, behaviors, and applied learning • Use both formative feedback and summative evaluation • Assess performance and deliverables • Use self and peer evaluation • Assess both teamwork and individual learning
  29. 29. Common Features of PBL• Learning is initiated by a problem.• Problems are based on complex, real-world situations.• All information needed to solve problem is not given initially.• Students identify, find and use appropriate resources.• Students work in permanent groups.• Learning is active, integrated, cumulative and connected.
  30. 30. Course Transformation: A Balancing Act Learning Classroom Control Objectives Course Format Assessment Problem Design
  31. 31. Interested in learning more?• Google PBL@UD• Visit and register for the PBL Clearinghouse• Find a colleague who wants to collaborate• Try a low stakes problem to get started on a unit• Watch for workshops• Ask me! sab@udel.edu
  32. 32. PBL: The ProcessResolution of Problem; Presentation of Problem(How did we do?) Organize ideas and Integrate new Next stage of the problem prior knowledge Information; (What do we know?) Refine questions Pose questions (What do Reconvene, report we need to know?) on research; Research questions; Assign responsibility summarize; for questions; discuss analyze findings resources
  33. 33. Assessing PBL• Group problem on exams • Preparation of concept (in class or take home) maps• Grade product from PBL • Authentic reports to outside problem “authority”• Ask questions related to • Student construction or PBL problem on exam critique of rubrics• Tasks integrating • Student construction or communication, thinking critique of problems skills with content • Evaluation of group process• IF-AT scratch-off forms ( and individual http://www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/default.aspx ) contributions (by group and instructor)Many traditional assessment tools are still appropriate in PBL.

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