An introduction to FACTS Technology


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An introduction to FACTS Technology

  1. 1. An Introduction to FACTS Presented by T.S.L.V.Ayyarao Assistant Pofessor GMRIT
  2. 2. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections?
  3. 3. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections?  India has an abundance of generation in the Eastern and North-Eastern grids, primarily coal.  But the other three grids are in deficit at peak periods, regardless of season.  Potentially significant swings in demand in the Northern or Southern grids could quickly upset the balance
  4. 4. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections?
  5. 5. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections?  Delivery of Electrical Power  To minimize the total power generation capacity and Fuel cost.  To supply electricity to the loads at minimum cost with a required reliability.  Transmission is an alternative to a new generation resource.  Economic energy or reserve sharing is constrained by transmission capacity
  6. 6. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections? Can we use the full potential of Transmission interconnections?  As power transfers grow, the system becomes more complex to operate.  The power systems of today are mechanically controlled If so what?  Switching devices are mechanical and there is little high speed  Mechanical devices cannot be initiated frequently.
  7. 7. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections?  Mechanical devices wear out quickly.  In view point of both dynamic and steady state operation, the system is really uncontrolled.  In recent years, power demand increases day by day.  Increased demand and absence of long term planning leads to less security and reduced quality of supply.
  8. 8. Opportunities for FACTS FACTS technology opens up opportunities to control power and enhance the usage capability of line  The current through the line can be controlled at reasonable cost.  Thus existing capacity of transmission lines can be enhanced (opportunity). Facts Controller  Enables the power to flow under normal & contingency conditions  Control the interrelated parameters (series impedance, shunt impedance, current, voltage, etc)
  9. 9. Opportunities for FACTS  Damp oscillations at various frequencies below rated frequency.  Enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal rating.  These constraints cannot be overcome by mechanical means without lowering transmission capacity of line.  Mechanical switching replaced with power electronics
  10. 10. Opportunities for FACTS  FACTS technology is not a single high power controller.  This technology needs incremental investment and enhances transmission capacity step by step.  Cost of FACTS controller are declining day by day.
  11. 11. Power Flow in an AC System  In ac system, the electrical generation and load must balance at all times.  The electrical system is self-regulating.  If generation is less than load, voltage and frequency drop.  Active power flows from surplus generation areas to deficit areas.
  12. 12. Power Flow in Parallel Paths
  13. 13. Power Flow in a Meshed System
  14. 14. Power Flow in a Meshed System  A adjustable series capacitor controls the power flow  Mechanically switched series capacitor is limited by wear and tear.  A series capacitor in a line may lead to subsynchronous resonance.  This occurs when mechanical resonance frequencies of the shaft of a multiple turbine generator unit coincides with 50hz minus the electrical frequency of the line.
  15. 15. Power Flow in a Meshed System If series capacitor is thyristor controlled  It can be varied as often as required  Rapidly damp any sub-synchronous resonance conditions  Damp low frequency oscillations in the power flow  Avoid risk of damage to generator shaft and system collapse  Greatly enhance stability of the network.
  16. 16. Limitations of loading capability  For best use of transmission asset and to maximize the loading capability, what are the limitations? There are three kinds of limitations  Thermal  Dielectric  Stability
  17. 17. Limitations of loading capability  Thermal For overhead line, thermal capability is a function of ambient temperature, wind conditions, conditions of conductor, and ground clearance. The FACTS technology can help in making an effective used of newfound line capability.  Dielectric Being designed very conservatively, most lines can increase operation voltage by 10% or even higher. FACTS technology could be used to ensure acceptable over- voltage and power flow conditions.
  18. 18. Limitations of loading capability  Stability The stability issues that limit the transmission capability include: 1. Transient stability, dynamic stability, steady-state stability, frequency collapse. Voltage collapse, and sub-synchronous resonance. 2. The FACTS technology can certainly be used to overcome any of the stability limits.