APCh. 18 The Age of the CityUrbanization-the process to moving to cities.During the three decades following the Civil War, the US transformed rapidly from a rural nation to a more urban nation.The urban population grew from about10 million in 1870 to over 30 million by 1900
By 1890, most of the population of some major urban areas consisted of foreign born immigrants :• 87% of Chicago• 80% of New York• 84% of Detroit• New York had more Irish than Dublin• New York had more Germans than Hamburg• Chicago had more Poles than Warsaw
What was the reason?• Reproduction?• Demographics?
Migration—Who was going Where?• From eastern farms Western Cities• From farms to cities• African Americans North• Southern and Eastern Europeans•
The Ethnic City• Most of the new immigrants were rural people who had a difficult time adjusting to city life. Close knot ethnic communities developed in cities—provided a smoother transition to the new world.
What factors determined how well an ethnic assimilated?
Factors for assimilating• $$$$$• Skills• American values—Education• Jews and Germans advanced economically• Italians and Irish less so• Balancing wanting to blend in and at the same time preserve traditional ethnic habits and values
Assimilation not always a choice• Public schools• Employers• Stores• Churches and synagogues
Xenophobia• Economic reasons• Social reasons• Religious reasons
Reaction• American Protective Association• Immigration Restriction league• Congress denied entry to “undesirables”• The Chinese Exclusion Act
The Urban Landscape• Cities were a place of contrast—size and grandeur or hovels and squalor.• The expanse help create new technological and industrial development.• There was also corruption in government, poverty, congestion filth, epidemics and fires.
Housing the Workers and the Poor Tenements-large multi-family apartments
Jacab Riis documented the slum life in his now famous book• “How the Other Half Lives”
Urban Transportation• Roads were not always surfaced, traveling and muddy and difficult. Horse manure created its own set of problems.• Mass transit was created to address these problems—elevated railways, cable cars, electric trolleys and the first subways were built.
The Brooklyn Bridgehttp://www.history.com/shows/ameri ca-the-story-of-us/videos/the-brooklyn-bridge#the-brooklyn-bridge http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tsi95z1Nmhg&feature=related
As city populations grew, demandraised the price of land, giving owners greater incentive to grow upward rather outward. 2 Major inventions helped with this problem: -Bessemer Steel process -Safety Elevator
Bessemer Steel Process-a way to blow air into iron ore and make steel cheaply Andrew Carnegie Between the new steel process and the invention of the safety elevator, new buildings began to appear on American skylines:
The skyscrapersThe Flatiron Building At 21 stories and 307 ft (93 meter), it was one of the city‘s most interesting buildings
The Chrysler Building Built from 1929 to 1930 Constructed of steel with brick and stainless steel on the exterior Height: 1046 ft Number of Floors: 77 Height Record: Tallest building in the world atcompletion, overtaken by the Empire State Building justone year later. Currently the third tallest building in New York City.
The Empire State Building--one year and 45 days to build--There are 102 floors--There are 1,860 steps from streetlevel to 102nd floor.--only five workers werekilled
Strains of Urban Life• Fires• Disease• Inadequate Sanitation
Urban Poverty• “deserving poor”—those caught up in unfortunate circumstances• “undeserving poor”—laziness, etc.• Salvation Army-mix of gospel and relief•
High Crime Rates• With crime , major and minor on the rise, many cities developed bigger and more professional police forces.• Theodore Dreiser wrote about the fear in the city in his novel Sister Carrie—about a young women making a life for herself in the city.
“Distinctive Political Institutions”• When there is a power vacuum that the rapid growth of cities established and city government could not keep up, the end result is a need for a “political machine”--
The Machine and the Boss Urban Politics The new immigrant needed jobs, housing, heat and police protection.• A new kind of political system developed to meet the needs of the new urban immigrant.• The Political Machine—a political group designed to gain and keep power• Party Bosses-those who ran them• In exchange for votes, party bosses provided the immigrant with necessities.
Tammany Hall, in NYC, was the mostfamous of the Political machines and William M. “Boss” Tweed was the most notorious of the Party Bosses.
Graft• George Plunkitt “He Seen His Opportunities and He Took ‘Em”• Honest Graft—Read excerpt
• Middle class saw the Machines and political bosses as dishonest and un-democratic. But in fact they did provide services, expand the role of government in an otherwise vacant structure. Bosses served as the “invisible government”• The power of the immigrants made it possible.
The Rise of Mass Consumption• American industry could not have grown as it did without the expansion of markets for the goods it produced. Incomes were rising on all levels albeit unevenly, but mainly the Middle Class.• Who were the Middle Class?
Leisure• “Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, and eight hours for what we will”• This new economy produced new forms of recreation and entertainment and also redefined the idea leisure. Simon Pattern• “Going out”• Coney Island
Popular Culture• People had more money so what were they doing?• Coney Island in NYC• Boxing• Baseball• Going to Vaudeville-a cross between theatre and a circus• Listening to Ragtime-a new music that echoed the hectic pace of the city life. Syncopated rhythms-grew out of the honky-tonk, salon pianists and banjo players using the patterns of African American music-Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin The Entertainer• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPmruHc4 S9Q• Ziegfeld Follies• Black entertainers—Al Jolson• –Thomas Edison had created the technology of the motion picture• The Movies—Birth of a Nation• http://youtu.be/k57rt58vUYw
Working Class Leisure• Saloons• The 4th of July
New movements in Art• Realism: portrayed people realistically instead of idealizing them• Thomas Eakins• He considered no day to day subject beneath his interest. He painted with realistic detail young men swimming, surgeons operating and scientists experimenting. He even painted President Hayes working in shirtsleeves instead of in more traditional formal dress.