AP Ch. 10America’s Economic Revolution The American economic revolutionhad dramatic changes—changes that affected not just the economy, but society, culture and politics as well. In order to have an industrial revolution—a large labor force
The Changing American Population• 3 Trends of American population (1820-1840)• --increased rapidly (1840-17 million)-mainly in the Northeast and Northwest-Natural population—better public health – immigration from Europe—cheap transportation and economic opportunities— Irish Catholics
Trends• Many were migrating West- agricultural opportunities• Rural to urban migration
Immigration and Urban Growth• Northeastern Cities grew by 12% as well as Western cities.• Foreign immigration—by 1850 almost 10% of the population was foreign born—majority from Ireland—escaping the potato famine and oppressive English rule and Germans
The Rise of Nativism• Some saw the new immigrates as a source of opportunity• -large supply of cheap labor• -expanding the west and helping it develop• -expanding voting population
Nativist issues• Other Americans viewed the growing foreign born population with alarm—• Forms of nativism:• Racism• Competition for jobs• Religion• politics
Coping with the Problem• Secret societies—Native American Association, The Native American Party, the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner.• All supported immigrant restrictions, immigrants holding offices, limited voting rights and naturalization laws• Know Knowings—political party
Transportation, Communication, and Technology.• An industrial revolution requires an efficient and effective system of transportation, and communication.• The Canal construction boomed during this time—responsibility fell to states• The Erie Canal –connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River and ultimately connects the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean
• By 1840, railroads were the primary form of transportation—most were in the Northeast— lessened the dependence on the waterways— founded by private companies and federal government.
Communication and Journalism• Telegraph—Samuel B. Morse—essential in operating Railroads, permitted instant communication between major cities—mainly in the North. Low cost helped it spread quickly• Newspaper Circulation-with the help of the steam cylinder rotary press and the telegraph—news could be circulated more efficiently
Expansion of Business• Business grew because of population, transportation and new practices—specialty stores were efficient—small merchant capitalist companies dominated but some larger businesses gave way to corporation— Limited liability.
The Expansion of Industry and Technology• Between 1840-1860 the US saw an intense growth in industry—factories in the NE employed over 1.3 million workers, advanced beyond Europe-interchangeable parts- coal became a key industrial fuel• Inventions: in 1830 448 patents by 1860 4,778• Charles Good year-vulcanized rubber, Elias Howe and Isaac Singer- sewing machine
Men and Women at work• Changes in labor—competition drove wages down, work hours up and living condiditon deterorated• Organized unions developed• Commonwealth v. Hunt : Supreme Court case that declared unions were lawful and that a strike was a lawful weapon
Patterns of Society• The Industrial Revolution was making the US dramatically wealthier by the year—but this wealth was more unequal and it was transforming social relationship and every life at almost every level.
The Rich and the Poor• Uneven distribution of wealth• 5% of the families controlled 50% of the wealth• Who did share in the wealth at all?• Who had the money?
• Merchants and industrialists—culture of wealth began to emerge—they walked the walk and talked the talk—had the “right stuff”—servants, educated, right clothes, mansions carriages and much leisure time— museuem and theater
• Poor-almost entirely without resources— immigrants, widows, orphans• The same system that was causing the US to grow was the same on that was so hard on the poorest ones
Social Mobility• Class conflict did not really exist—why?• Opportunity• Geographical mobility
Middle Class Life• Fastest growing group in America-who were they?
The Changing Family• The family as a principal economic unit gave way to individual wage earners.• “ Cult of Domesticity”-women emerged to be the guardians of domestic virtues—to have special qualities different than men—keepers of morality• Decline in birth rate—1800-average 7 children by 1860—5 children
• Changes in sexual behavior—increased abstinence—life was more ordered—• Women’s sphere developed:• Stronger friendships and network among women, clubs formed, women’s magazines, romantic novels
• Benefits: greater material comfort, higher value on their “female virtues”• Drawbacks: left women detached from the public world and with few outlets for their personal interests and energies
• Even farms became commercialized –new farm techniques and inventions used—John Deere’s steel plow and Cyrus McCormick’s automatic reaper