Data The word data is derived from Latin language. It is plural ofDatum (But Data is usually used as a singular term.) Datum (singular) – Data (plural). Data is any collection of facts of figures. The data is the raw material to be processed by a computer.Example Names of students, marks obtained in the examination, designation of employees, addresses, quantity, rate, sales figures or anything that is input to the computer is data. Even pictures, photographs, drawings, charts and maps can be treated as data. Computer processes the data and produces the output or result
Types of DataMainly Data is divided into two types: 1. Numeric Data 2. Character Data1. Numeric DataThe data which is represented in the form of numbers is known as Numeric Data. This includes 0-9 digits, a decimal point (.), +, /, – sign and the letters “E” or “D”.2. Character DataCharacter data falls into two groups. i. String Data ii. Graphical DataString Data String data consists of the sequence of characters. Characters may be English alphabets, numbers or space. The space, which separates two words, is also a character. The string data is further divided into two types. a. Alphabetic Data b. Alphanumeric DataGraphical Data It is possible that pictures, charts and maps can be treated as data. The scanner is normally used to enter this type of data. The common use of this data is found in the National Identity Card.
InformationA collection of data which conveys some meaningful idea is information. It may provide answers to questions like who, which, when, why, what, and how. orThe raw input is data and it has no significance when it exists in that form. When data is collated or organized into something meaningful, it gains significance. This meaningful organization is information orObservations and recordings are done to obtain data, while analysis is done to obtain information
Data ProcessingData processing: Any operation or set of operations performed upon data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection, recording, organization, storage, adaptation or alteration to convert it into useful information.
Data Processing Cycle Once data is collected, it is processed to convert it into useful information. The data is processed again and again until the accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle. The data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. Usually, data processing activity involves three basic activities.1. Input2. Processing3. Output
Data Processing CycleStep-11. Input It is the process through which collected data is transformed into a form that computer can understand. It is very important step because correct output result totally depends on the input data. In input step, following activities can be performed.i) Verification The collected data is verified to determine whether it is correct as required. For example, the collected data of all B.Sc. students that appeared in final examination of the university is verified. If errors occur in collected data, data is corrected or it is collected again.ii) Coding The verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through computer.iii) Storing The data is stored on the secondary storage into a file. The stored data on the storage media will be given to the program as input for processing.
Data Processing CycleStep-22.Processing The term processing denotes the actual data manipulation techniques suchas classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, comparing, etc. thatconvert data into information.i) ClassificationThe data is classified into different groups and subgroups, so that each group orsub-group of data can be handled separately.ii) StoringThe data is arranged into an order so that it can be accessed very quickly as andwhen required.iii) CalculationsThe arithmetic operations are performed on the numeric data to get the requiredresults. For example, total marks of each student are calculated.iv) SummarizingThe data is processed to represent it in a summarized form. ft means that thesummary of data is prepared for top management. For example, the summary ofthe data of student is prepared to show the percentage of pass and fail studentexamination etc.
Data Processing CycleStep-33. Output After completing the processing step, output is generated. The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later user. In output step, following activities can be performed.i) Retrieval Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time. For example, result of students is prepared and stored on the disk. This result can be retrieved when required for different purposes.ii) Conversion The generated output can be converted into different forms. For example, it can be represented into graphical form.iii) Communication The generated output is sent to different places. For example, weather forecast is prepared and. sent to different agencies and newspapers etc. where it is required.
Types of Data Processing1. Manual Data Processing: This method of data processing involves human intervention. The manual process of data entry implies many opportunities for errors, such as delays in data capture, as every single data field has to be keyed in manually, a high amount of operator misprints or typos, high labor costs from the amount of manual labor required. Manual processing also implies higher labor expenses in regards to spending for equipment and supplies, rent, etc.
Types of Data ProcessingEDP EDP (electronic data processing), an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems), is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication. EDP evolved from "DP" (data processing), a term that was created when most computing input was physically put into the computer in punched card form or in ATM cards form and output as punched cards or paper reports.
Types of Data Processing3.Real time processing In a real time processing, there is a continual input, process and output of data. Data has to be processed in a small stipulated time period (real time), otherwise it will create problems for the system. For example, when a bank customer withdraws a sum of money from his or her account it is vital that the transaction be processed and the account balance updated as soon as possible, allowing both the bank and customer to keep track of funds.
Types of Data Processing4.Batch processing In a batch processing group of transactions collected over a period of time is collected, entered, processed and then the batch results are produced. Batch processing requires seperate programs for input, process and output. It is an efficient way of processing high volume of data. For example: Payroll system, Examination system and billing system.
Computer Processing Operations A computer can perform only the following four operations which enable computers to carry out the various data processing activities we have just discussed. (a) Input/Output operations A computer can accept data (input) from and supply processed data (output) to a wide range of input/output devices. These devices such as keyboards, display screens, and printers make human-machine communication possible.
Computer Processing Operations(b) Calculation and text manipulation Operations Computer circuits perform calculations on numbers. They are also capable of manipulating numerics and other symbols used in text with equal efficiency.
Computer Processing Operations(c) Logic/Comparison Operations A computer also possesses the ability to perform logical operations. For example, if we compare two items represented by the symbols A and B, there are only three possible outcomes. A is less than B (A<B); A is equal to B (A=B): or A is greater than B (A>B). A computer can perform such comparisons and the, depending on the result, follow a predetermined path to complete its work. This ability to compare is an important property of computers.
Computer Processing Operations(d) Storage and Retrieval Operations Both data and program instructions are stored internally in a computer. Once they are stored in the internal memory, they can be called up quickly or retrieved, for further use.