Electronicdevices

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EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Project Center For Research in Power Electronics and Power Systems
IEEE 2010 , IEEE 2011 BASED PROJECTS FOR FINAL YEAR STUDENTS OF B.E
Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com,
Cell: +919952749533, +918608603634
www.researchprojects.info
OMR, CHENNAI
IEEE based Projects For
Final year students of B.E in
EEE, ECE, EIE,CSE
M.E (Power Systems)
M.E (Applied Electronics)
M.E (Power Electronics)
Ph.D Electrical and Electronics.
Training
Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.
EXPERT GUIDANCE IN POWER SYSTEMS POWER ELECTRONICS
We provide guidance and codes for the for the following power systems areas.
1. Deregulated Systems,
2. Wind power Generation and Grid connection
3. Unit commitment
4. Economic Dispatch using AI methods
5. Voltage stability
6. FLC Control
7. Transformer Fault Identifications
8. SCADA - Power system Automation

we provide guidance and codes for the for the following power Electronics areas.
1. Three phase inverter and converters
2. Buck Boost Converter
3. Matrix Converter
4. Inverter and converter topologies
5. Fuzzy based control of Electric Drives.
6. Optimal design of Electrical Machines
7. BLDC and SR motor Drives

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  • The finite slope of the I C -V CE plot would manifest itself as an output resistance. This would appear in a more detailed a.c. equivalent circuit of the transistor than the one we shall derive from the ideal curve. I C depends on V CE because an increase in V CE means that the CB junction becomes more reverse biased. The depletion layer width increases into the base, reducing the effective base width. Hence the base transport efficiency ( α) and hence β increase with increasing V CE. The effect is known as base width modulation or the Early effect.
  • Electronicdevices

    1. 1. EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com expertsyssol@yahoo.com Cell: 9952749533 www.researchprojects.info PAIYANOOR, OMR, CHENNAI Call For Research Projects Final year students of B.E in EEE, ECE, EI, M.E (Power Systems), M.E (Applied Electronics), M.E (Power Electronics) Ph.D Electrical and Electronics.Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.
    2. 2. Transistor Amplifier Basics• It is critical to understand the notation used for voltages and currents in the following discussion of transistor amplifiers.• This is therefore dealt with explicitly ‘up front’.• As with dynamic resistance in diodes we will be dealing with a.c. signals superimposed on d.c. bias levels.
    3. 3. Transistor Amplifier Basics• We will use a capital (upper case) letter for a d.c. quantity (e.g. I, V).• We will use a lower case letter for a time varying (a.c.) quantity (e.g. i, v)
    4. 4. Transistor Amplifier Basics• These primary quantities will also need a subscript identifier (e.g. is it the base current or the collector current?).• For d.c. levels this subscript will be in upper case.• We will use a lower case subscript for the a.c. signal bit (e.g. ib).• And an upper case subscript for the total time varying signal (i.e. the a.c. signal bit plus the d.c. bias) (e.g. iB).This will be less common.
    5. 5. Transistor Amplifier Basicsib 0+IB=iB
    6. 6. Transistor Amplifier Basics• It is convention to refer all transistor voltages to the ‘common’ terminal.• Thus in the CE configuration we would write VCE for a d.c. collector emitter voltage and VBE for a d.c. base emitter voltage.
    7. 7. Common Emitter Characteristics• For the present we consider DC behaviour and assume that we are working in the normal linear amplifier regime with the BE junction forward biased and the CB junction reverse biased
    8. 8. Common Emitter CharacteristicsTreating the transistor as a current node: IE = IC +IB• Also: IC =α IE + Ico
    9. 9. Common Emitter Characteristics• Hence: IC = α( ΙC +IB) + ICOwhich after some rearrangement gives  α   ICO  IC =  IB +   1−α   1- α 
    10. 10. Common Emitter Characteristics• Define a common emitter current-transfer ratio β  α  β=  1− α  Such that:  ICO  IC = βIB +    1- α 
    11. 11. Common Emitter Characteristics• Since reverse saturation current is negligible the second term on the right hand side of this equation can usually be neglected (even though (1- α) is small)• Thus IC ≈ βIB
    12. 12. Common Emitter Characteristics• We note, in passing that, if β can be regarded as a constant for a given transistor then ic ≈ βib• For a practical (non-ideal) transistor this is only true at a particular bias (operating) point.
    13. 13. Common Emitter Characteristics• A small change in α causes a much bigger change in ß which means that ß can vary significantly, even from transistor to transistor of the same type.• We must try and allow for these variations in circuit design.
    14. 14. Common Emitter CharacteristicsFor example;α = 0.98, β = 49α = 0.99, β = 99α = 0.995, β =199
    15. 15. Common Emitter Characteristics∀ β is also known as hFE and may appear on data sheets and in some textbooks as such.• For a given transistor type data sheets may specify a range of β values
    16. 16. Common Emitter Characteristics• The behaviour of the transistor can be represented by current-voltage (I-V) curves (called the characteristic curves of the device).• As noted previously in the common emitter (CE) configuration the input is between the base and the emitter and the output is between the collector and the emitter.
    17. 17. Common Emitter Characteristics• We can therefore draw an input characteristic (plotting base current IB against base-emitter voltage VBE) and• an output characteristic (plotting collector current Ic against collector-emitter voltage VCE)
    18. 18. Common Emitter Characteristics• We will be using these characteristic curves extensively to understand:• How the transistor operates as a linear amplifier for a.c. signals.• The need to superimpose the a.c. signals on d.c. bias levels.• The relationship between the transistor and the circuit in which it is placed.
    19. 19. Common Emitter Characteristics• Once these basics are understood we will understand:• Why we can replace the transistor by a small signal (a.c.) equivalent circuit.• How to derive a simple a.c. equivalent circuit from the characteristic curves.• Some of the limitations of our simple equivalent circuit.
    20. 20. IDEAL CE INPUT (Base) Characteristics
    21. 21. IDEAL CE INPUT Characteristics• The plot is essentially that of a forward biased diode.• We can thus assume VBE ≈ 0.6 V when designing our d.c. bias circuits.• We can also assume everything we know about incremental diode resistance when deriving our a.c. equivalent circuit.• In the ‘non-ideal’ case IB will vary slightly with VCE. This need not concern us.
    22. 22. IDEAL CE OUTPUT(Collector) Characteristics
    23. 23. IDEAL CE OUTPUT (Collector) CharacteristicsAvoid thissaturationregionwhere wetry toforwardbias bothjunctions
    24. 24. IDEAL CE OUTPUTAvoid this cut-off region where we try to reversebias both junctions (IC approximately 0)
    25. 25. IDEAL CE OUTPUT (Collector) Characteristics• The plots are all parallel to the VCE axis (i.e. IC does not depend on VCE)• The curves strictly obey IC = βIB• In particular IC = 0 when IB = 0.• We shall work with the ideal characteristic and later on base our a.c. equivalent circuit model upon it.
    26. 26. ACTUAL CE OUTPUT Characteristics IB =
    27. 27. ACTUAL CE OUPUT Characteristics• Salient features are:• The finite slope of the plots (IC depends on VCE)• A limit on the power that can be dissipated.• The curves are not equally spaced (i.e β varies with base current, IB).
    28. 28. ACTUAL CE OUPUT Characteristics• You will get to measure these curves in the lab.• There is also a PSPICE sheet “DC sweep analysis and transistor characteristics” to help aid you understanding.

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