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Processing
Uses of ICT Systems
Processing Pages 105-107, 153, 159
 What is processing – research this..
What is processing
 Processing is the work the computer does on the data to
convert it into information. This might involve calculations,
local operations such as sorts and queries or changing the
shape of a sound wave to make a sound higher in pitch.
What is information?
 Research what is information..
What is information?
 A computer is data processing machine. Computers process
data to produce information. Information is data that has
been processed into something that is meaningful.
Supermarket data from a barcode is processed to produce a
receipt with the item names and the prices included.
 Exam results might be represented by a graph that clearly
shows the different percentages that students in particular
classes have achieved. The raw exam marks could have been
entered in as data, the processing would involve converting
those marks to standardized scores and allocating the
appropriate grade before presenting it in graphical format.
ICT Systems are made up of…..
There are different ways processing data depending on the
output. These 3 processes are called:
 Batch
 Interactive/Transaction (there are differences)
 RealTime
http://www.teach-ict.com/as_a2_ict_new/ocr/A2_G063/332_designing_systems/processing_methods/miniweb/index.htm
Batch
 Data is collected together in a group or batch before processing takes place.
Transaction files store jobs in queues until the computer system is ready to
start processing.When the job is run, the data held in the transaction file is
used to update the master file.The master file is stored on disk and stays the
same until a new update takes place by a new transaction file.While running
the program there is no interaction between computer and user.This allows for
overnight jobs to be completed using spare capacity in the ICT system. Backing
up is simple and can be done after each new job.
 Examples…payroll system, power supply bills for customers.
 Batch processing is best suited to regular jobs that happen at scheduled times
and involve large quantities of data. Because of the time available, batch
processing tends to have strong error-checking features built in and the
information produced is extremely accurate. Uses fewer system resources than
interactive processing as is does not need a live communication link between
the computer and a user for most of the time .
So basically..
 A batch job is where data is collected together in a group or batch before
processing is taken place.
 Transaction files are stored in queues until the computer system is ready to
start processing.
 When the job is run the data held in the transaction file is used to update the
master file
 The master file is stored on disk and stays the same until any updating takes
place by a new transaction file
 While running the program there is no interaction between the computer and
user
 This allows overnight jobs to be completed using spare capacity between the
ict system
interactive
 There is interaction between the ICT system and the user.The user reacts to
prompts from the computer and the computer uses these prompts to process
data. Many computer systems in the modern world work this way.
 The interaction occurs in real time and the input-process-output is controlled
by the user, the computer is available to receive the input from the user.
 The data is processed at the time it is input and output is also immediate.
 Example… student queries their record in the school library database, to see if
they have exceeded the max number of books they can get issued. The reply
from the system will be displayed immediately which means they know
whether or not they can take out another book.
 Can you think of any more examples?
transaction
 Allows many users to access and update a system at the
same time. Each transaction must be completed before the
next transaction has begun.
 The main aim of a transaction processing system is to be able
to work quickly with a large amount of different transactions
taking place, sometimes from many different users.
 Example…
 A travel booking system or when purchasing cinema tickets
Questions ICT Systems
 When Mrs Brown received her gas bill she found that it was for £10,000, which she knew
was not correct. When she telephoned the gas company to complain, the explanation she
received was that the computer had got it wrong. Describe a more likely explanation. (3
marks)
 Three stags of a data processing system are input, processing and output. State, using an
example for each one, what is meant by: input, process, output (6 marks)
 People are one key components of an ICT system, name three other components.
 Every ICT task involves the input of data, which is then processed and information is
output. Using an example of an ICT task with which you are familiar:
 State what the task it
 Give one example of data that is input, stating how it is input
 Describe one process needed to fulfill the task.
 Give ne example of information output, stating how it is output.
Questions Data and Information
 Information is a commodity and it can have a monetary
value. State three factors that could affect the value of
information. (3 marks)
 Explain using examples the following terms as they are
applied within ICT: Data, Information (4 marks)
 On of the things ICT can provide is a vast storage capacity
 How is this of benefit to an organisation? (1 mark)
 Give to other things that ICT can provide and for each one state a
different benefit. ( 4 marks)
Homework - QuestionsTransfer of Data
p.120-125 Deadline next lesson!
You may need to do some research on the following topics if you have no previous knowledge… a starting point would
be the pages above in book!
 Describe two possible differences between a LAN and aWAN.(4 marks)
 Explain what is meant in terms of Internet andWorldWideWeb (4 marks)
 Give one reason why a de facto standard might become popular in the ICT industry. (1 mark)
 Discuss the benefits of a de jure standard being implemented in the ICT industry. (2 marks)
 There are 10 employees in a local estate agents office. Each employee uses a networked PC on a LAN
 Give 4 benefits to the office of using a network rather than stand-alone. (4 marks)
 Give 2 benefits if the estate agents using the WAN. (2 marks)
 The local office has purchased a digital camera to take pictures of the houses that it is selling. Give 2 benefits to the
office of using a digital camera. (2 marks)
 A company is having a 16-station LAN installed,
 Describe what is meant by the term Local Area Network (2 marks)
 State thee items of hardware and/or software that could be needed if the LAN is to be connected to the internet. (3
marks)

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ICT Systems Processing Data

  • 2. Processing Pages 105-107, 153, 159  What is processing – research this..
  • 3. What is processing  Processing is the work the computer does on the data to convert it into information. This might involve calculations, local operations such as sorts and queries or changing the shape of a sound wave to make a sound higher in pitch.
  • 4. What is information?  Research what is information..
  • 5. What is information?  A computer is data processing machine. Computers process data to produce information. Information is data that has been processed into something that is meaningful. Supermarket data from a barcode is processed to produce a receipt with the item names and the prices included.  Exam results might be represented by a graph that clearly shows the different percentages that students in particular classes have achieved. The raw exam marks could have been entered in as data, the processing would involve converting those marks to standardized scores and allocating the appropriate grade before presenting it in graphical format.
  • 6. ICT Systems are made up of….. There are different ways processing data depending on the output. These 3 processes are called:  Batch  Interactive/Transaction (there are differences)  RealTime http://www.teach-ict.com/as_a2_ict_new/ocr/A2_G063/332_designing_systems/processing_methods/miniweb/index.htm
  • 7. Batch  Data is collected together in a group or batch before processing takes place. Transaction files store jobs in queues until the computer system is ready to start processing.When the job is run, the data held in the transaction file is used to update the master file.The master file is stored on disk and stays the same until a new update takes place by a new transaction file.While running the program there is no interaction between computer and user.This allows for overnight jobs to be completed using spare capacity in the ICT system. Backing up is simple and can be done after each new job.  Examples…payroll system, power supply bills for customers.  Batch processing is best suited to regular jobs that happen at scheduled times and involve large quantities of data. Because of the time available, batch processing tends to have strong error-checking features built in and the information produced is extremely accurate. Uses fewer system resources than interactive processing as is does not need a live communication link between the computer and a user for most of the time .
  • 8. So basically..  A batch job is where data is collected together in a group or batch before processing is taken place.  Transaction files are stored in queues until the computer system is ready to start processing.  When the job is run the data held in the transaction file is used to update the master file  The master file is stored on disk and stays the same until any updating takes place by a new transaction file  While running the program there is no interaction between the computer and user  This allows overnight jobs to be completed using spare capacity between the ict system
  • 9. interactive  There is interaction between the ICT system and the user.The user reacts to prompts from the computer and the computer uses these prompts to process data. Many computer systems in the modern world work this way.  The interaction occurs in real time and the input-process-output is controlled by the user, the computer is available to receive the input from the user.  The data is processed at the time it is input and output is also immediate.  Example… student queries their record in the school library database, to see if they have exceeded the max number of books they can get issued. The reply from the system will be displayed immediately which means they know whether or not they can take out another book.  Can you think of any more examples?
  • 10. transaction  Allows many users to access and update a system at the same time. Each transaction must be completed before the next transaction has begun.  The main aim of a transaction processing system is to be able to work quickly with a large amount of different transactions taking place, sometimes from many different users.  Example…  A travel booking system or when purchasing cinema tickets
  • 11. Questions ICT Systems  When Mrs Brown received her gas bill she found that it was for £10,000, which she knew was not correct. When she telephoned the gas company to complain, the explanation she received was that the computer had got it wrong. Describe a more likely explanation. (3 marks)  Three stags of a data processing system are input, processing and output. State, using an example for each one, what is meant by: input, process, output (6 marks)  People are one key components of an ICT system, name three other components.  Every ICT task involves the input of data, which is then processed and information is output. Using an example of an ICT task with which you are familiar:  State what the task it  Give one example of data that is input, stating how it is input  Describe one process needed to fulfill the task.  Give ne example of information output, stating how it is output.
  • 12. Questions Data and Information  Information is a commodity and it can have a monetary value. State three factors that could affect the value of information. (3 marks)  Explain using examples the following terms as they are applied within ICT: Data, Information (4 marks)  On of the things ICT can provide is a vast storage capacity  How is this of benefit to an organisation? (1 mark)  Give to other things that ICT can provide and for each one state a different benefit. ( 4 marks)
  • 13. Homework - QuestionsTransfer of Data p.120-125 Deadline next lesson! You may need to do some research on the following topics if you have no previous knowledge… a starting point would be the pages above in book!  Describe two possible differences between a LAN and aWAN.(4 marks)  Explain what is meant in terms of Internet andWorldWideWeb (4 marks)  Give one reason why a de facto standard might become popular in the ICT industry. (1 mark)  Discuss the benefits of a de jure standard being implemented in the ICT industry. (2 marks)  There are 10 employees in a local estate agents office. Each employee uses a networked PC on a LAN  Give 4 benefits to the office of using a network rather than stand-alone. (4 marks)  Give 2 benefits if the estate agents using the WAN. (2 marks)  The local office has purchased a digital camera to take pictures of the houses that it is selling. Give 2 benefits to the office of using a digital camera. (2 marks)  A company is having a 16-station LAN installed,  Describe what is meant by the term Local Area Network (2 marks)  State thee items of hardware and/or software that could be needed if the LAN is to be connected to the internet. (3 marks)