Information System Development


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Information System Development

  1. 1. Information System Development
  2. 2. Data and Information Data is represented with the help of characters like alphabets (A-Z,a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters(+,-,/,*,<,>,= etc).
  3. 3. Data and Information Information is organized or classified data so that it has some meaningful values to the receiver. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based. For the decision to be meaningful, the processed data must qualify for the following characteristics Timely - Information should be available when required. Accuracy - Information should be accurate. Completeness - Information should be complete.
  4. 4. Data Processing Cycle
  5. 5. Input - In this step the input data are prepared in some convenient form for processing. The form will depend on the processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data could be recorded on any one of several types of input medium, such as magnetic disks, tapes and so on.
  6. 6. Processing - In this step input data are changed to produce data in a more useful form. For example, pay-checks may be calculated from the time cards, or a summary of sales for the month may be calculated from the sales orders.
  7. 7. Output -Here the result of the proceeding processing step are collected. The particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data. For example, output data may be pay- checks for employees.
  8. 8. Types of Information Systems Office Information Systems / Office Automation System An information system that uses hardware, software and networks to enhance work flow and facilitate communications among employees. Employees perform tasks electronically using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually. With an office information system, for example, a registration department might post the class schedule on the Internet and e-mail students when the schedule is updated. In a manual system, the registration department would photocopy the schedule and mail it to each student’s house.
  9. 9. The software an office information system uses to support these activities include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, e-mail, Web browsers, Web page authoring, personal information management, and groupware. Office information systems use communications technology such as voice mail, facsimile (fax), videoconferencing, and electronic data interchange (EDI) for the electronic exchange of text, graphics, audio, and video. An office information system also uses a variety of hardware, including computers equipped with modems, video cameras, speakers, and microphones; scanners; and fax machines.
  10. 10. Types of Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems An information system that captures and processes data generated during an organization’s day- to-day transactions. A transaction is a business activity such as a deposit, payment, order or reservation. Clerical staff typically perform the activities associated with transaction processing, which include the following:
  11. 11. 1. Recording a business activity such as a student’s registration, a customer’s order, an employee’s timecard or a client’s payment. 2. Confirming an action or triggering a response, such as printing a student’s schedule, sending a thank-you note to a customer, generating an employee’s paycheck or issuing a receipt to a client. 3. Maintaining data, which involves adding new data, changing existing data, or removing unwanted data.
  12. 12. The first transaction processing systems usually used batch processing. With batch processing, transaction data is collected over a period of time and all transactions are processed later, as a group. As computers became more powerful, system developers built online transaction processing systems. With online transaction processing (OLTP) the computer processes transactions as they are entered. When you register for classes, your school probably uses OLTP. The registration administrative assistant enters your desired schedule and the computer immediately prints your statement of classes. The invoices, however, often are printed using batch processing, meaning all student invoices are printed and mailed at a later date.
  13. 13. Types of Information Systems Management Information Systems A management information system, or MIS (pronounced em-eye-ess), is an information system that generates accurate, timely and organized information so managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress. Because it generates reports on a regular basis, a management information system sometimes is called a management reporting system (MRS).
  14. 14. An MIS generates three basic types of information: detailed, summary and exception. Detailed information typically confirms transaction processing activities. A Detailed Order Report is an example of a detail report. Summary information consolidates data into a format that an individual can review quickly and easily. To help synopsize information, a summary report typically contains totals, tables, or graphs. An Inventory Summary Report is an example of a summary report.
  15. 15. Exception information filters data to report information that is outside of a normal condition. These conditions, called the exception criteria, define the range of what is considered normal activity or status. An example of an exception report is an Inventory Exception Report is an Inventory Exception Report that notifies the purchasing department of items it needs to reorder. Exception reports help managers save time because they do not have to search through a detailed report for exceptions. Instead, an exception report brings exceptions to the manager’s attention in an easily identifiable form. Exception reports thus help them focus on situations that require immediate decisions or actions.
  16. 16. Types of Information Systems Decision Support Systems A decision support system (DSS) is an information system designed to help users reach a decision when a decision-making situation arises. A variety of DSSs exist to help with a range of decisions. A decision support system uses data from internal and/or external sources.
  17. 17. Internal sources of data might include sales, manufacturing, inventory, or financial data from an organization’s database. Data from external sources could include interest rates, population trends, and costs of new housing construction or raw material pricing. Users of a DSS, often managers, can manipulate the data used in the DSS to help with decisions.
  18. 18. Some decision support systems include query language, statistical analysis capabilities, spreadsheets, and graphics that help you extract data and evaluate the results. Some decision support systems also include capabilities that allow you to create a model of the factors affecting a decision. A simple model for determining the best product price, for example, would include factors for the expected sales volume at each price level. With the model, you can ask what-if questions by changing one or more of the factors and viewing the projected results. Many people use application software packages to perform DSS functions. Using spreadsheet software, for example, you can complete simple modeling tasks or what-if scenarios.
  19. 19. A special type of DSS, called an executive information system (EIS), is designed to support the information needs of executive management. Information in an EIS is presented in charts and tables that show trends, ratios, and other managerial statistics. Because executives usually focus on strategic issues, EISs rely on external data sources such as the Dow Jones News/Retrieval service or the Internet. These external data sources can provide current information on interest rates, commodity prices, and other leading economic indicators.
  20. 20. Types of Information Systems Expert Systems An information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision-making processes for those who have less expertise. Expert systems are composed of two main components: a knowledge base and inference rules. A knowledge base is the combined subject knowledge and experiences of the human experts. The inference rules are a set of logical judgments applied to the knowledge base each time a user describes a situation to the expert system.
  21. 21. Expert systems are one part of an exciting branch of computer science called artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the application of human intelligence to computers. AI technology can sense your actions and, based on logical assumptions and prior experience, will take the appropriate action to complete the task. AI has a variety of capabilities, including speech recognition, logical reasoning, and creative responses.
  22. 22. Integrated Information Systems With today’s sophisticated hardware, software and communications technologies, it often is difficult to classify a system as belonging uniquely to one of the five information system types discussed. Much of today’s application software supports transaction processing and generates management information. Other applications provide transaction processing, management information, and decision support. Although expert systems still operate primarily as separate systems, organizations increasingly are consolidating their information needs into a single, integrated information system.
  23. 23. Best of Information Relevance - it is easy to access - it is very fast - the results are meaningful in relation to the search string - it has global reach for the sourcing as well as the distribution - it offers a fairly complete view of publicly, digitally available information - different results can be compared
  24. 24. Best of Information Timeliness Most information sources indicate a date of publication. If a source provides no information on when it was created or published, it may not be appropriate to use if timeliness is important for your topic. In the Web environment, a date of publication is not always given. When it is, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the date refers to when the information was first written, placed on the Web, or last revised.
  25. 25. Best of Information Accurate Many documents contain references and in-text citations that can be used to confirm data or factual statements. When reading scholarly or peer-reviewed publications you can expect to see references to verify the facts and perspectives presented. If these references are not available, the accuracy of the information may be questionable.
  26. 26. Best of Information Economy Appropriate resources must be used cost efficiently Efficiency The use of resources in the implementation of any of them have something to look forward to successful outcome and the results obtained by using the least resources, under the action is going to save.
  27. 27. System Development Life Cycle SDLC 1 Project Planning Phase 2 Analysis Phase 3 Design Phase 4 Implementation Phase 5 Maintenance Phase
  28. 28. Project Planning Phase It involves creating of a set of plans to help guide your team through the execution and closure phases of the project. The plans created during this phase will help you to manage time, cost, quality, change, risk and issues. They will also help you manage staff and external suppliers, to ensure that you deliver the project on time and within budget.
  29. 29. Project Planning Phase Summarize of this phase -Define problem -Feasibility study -Scheduling -Established team -Project implementation
  30. 30. Analysis Phase Analysis should come early in any project, and the most important part of that analysis is the gathering of business requirements. Learn about product and process requirements and how to effectively determine and prioritize customer needs.
  31. 31. Analysis Phase Main concepts of the analysis phase: -What business requirements are…….. -How to gather business requirements -Process modeling (Used Data Flow Diagram: DFD) -Data modeling (Used Entity-Relationship Diagram: ERD)
  32. 32. Design Phase Often this phase of the systems development lifecycle is divided into Logical and Physical design. Logical design maps the conceptual model to a particular DBMS model or a representation of the software. Physical design is concerned with technical specifications. Hardware and network issued are considered along with data storage structures for files or databases.
  33. 33. Design Phase Main concepts of the design phase: -Approach to systems development -System architecture design -Data Based design -Output design -Input design -User interface design -Prepare the prototype -Program design
  34. 34. Implementation Phase
  35. 35. Maintenance Phase Maintenance of the system also spans many phases of the systems development lifecycle. Maintenance includes adjusting the system to meet any altered or additional requirements, adjusting the system documentation to reflect those changes, and rectifying any problems uncovered in testing.
  36. 36. Installation Techniques -- Direct Installation -- Parallel Installation -- Phased Installation -- Pilot Installation
  37. 37. Direct Installation Advantages: -The new system is executed immediately -Easy to planning -Low cost Disadvantages: -May be errors while using the system -The imperfections of the new system -High risk
  38. 38. Parallel Installation Advantages: -Safety -Likened the process to work Disadvantages: -High costs -Wasting time -Difficult to plan
  39. 39. Phased Installation Pilot Installation
  40. 40. Do the exercise at sheet In the topic of Information System Development Page 1-3 Deadline >>> ………………………………