Hydroelectric powerHydroelectric power (often called hydro power) is(often called hydro power) isconsidered aconsidered a renewable energy source.renewable energy source. A renewable energyA renewable energysource is one that is not depleted (used up) in the productionsource is one that is not depleted (used up) in the productionof energy. Through hydro power, the energy in falling waterof energy. Through hydro power, the energy in falling wateris converted into electricity without “using up” the water.is converted into electricity without “using up” the water.
Hydro power energy is ultimately derived from the sun, which drivesHydro power energy is ultimately derived from the sun, which drivesthethe water cyclewater cycle. In the water cycle, rivers are recharged in a. In the water cycle, rivers are recharged in acontinuous cycle. Because of the force of gravity, water flows fromcontinuous cycle. Because of the force of gravity, water flows fromhigh points to low points. There ishigh points to low points. There is kinetic energykinetic energy embodied in theembodied in theflow of water.flow of water.
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Any movingobject has kinetic energy.
Humans first learned to harnessHumans first learned to harnessthe kinetic energy in water bythe kinetic energy in water byusingusing waterwheelswaterwheels..A waterwheel is a revolvingA waterwheel is a revolvingwheel fitted with blades,wheel fitted with blades,buckets, or vanes.buckets, or vanes.Waterwheels convert theWaterwheels convert thekinetic energy of flowing waterkinetic energy of flowing watertoto mechanical energymechanical energy..
Not long after the discovery of electricity, it was realized that aturbine’s mechanical energy could be used to activate a generatorand produce electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant wasconstructed in 1882 in Appleton, Wisconsin. It produced 12.5kilowatts of electricity which was used to light two paper mills andone home.
Hydroelectric power (hydro power) systems convert theHydroelectric power (hydro power) systems convert thekinetic energy in flowing water into electric energy.kinetic energy in flowing water into electric energy.However the prior use of dams came to use as it collectsHowever the prior use of dams came to use as it collectsenough water and first preserves its energy as potentialenough water and first preserves its energy as potentialenergy.energy.
How a Hydroelectric Power System Works - Part 1How a Hydroelectric Power System Works - Part 1Flowing water is directed at aturbine (remember turbinesare just advancedwaterwheels). The flowingwater causes the turbine torotate, converting the water’skinetic energy intomechanical energy.
The mechanical energy produced by the turbine is converted intoThe mechanical energy produced by the turbine is converted intoelectric energyelectric energy using a turbine generator. Inside the generator, theusing a turbine generator. Inside the generator, theshaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of copper wire. It isshaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of copper wire. It isa fact of nature that moving a magnet near a conductor causes ana fact of nature that moving a magnet near a conductor causes anelectric current.electric current.How a Hydroelectric Power System Works – Part 2
Hydro powerHydro power is available by creating dams in streamis available by creating dams in streamand river flows. Hydro power generation is anand river flows. Hydro power generation is anestablished technology and produces much as one fifthestablished technology and produces much as one fifthof the worlds electricity, which is slightly more than byof the worlds electricity, which is slightly more than bynuclear power.nuclear power.
Hydroelectric dam in cross sectionHydroelectric dam in cross section
Large Dams such as Hoover DamLarge Dams such as Hoover Damare able to provide large amounts ofare able to provide large amounts ofhydroelectric power; it has a 2.07hydroelectric power; it has a 2.07gigawatt capability.gigawatt capability.Hoover Dam is among the mostHoover Dam is among the mostrecognized and renowned structuresrecognized and renowned structuresbuilt by the Bureau of Reclamation.built by the Bureau of Reclamation.The dam was authorized under theThe dam was authorized under theBoulder Canyon Project.Boulder Canyon Project.
AdvantagesAdvantages The major advantage ofThe major advantage ofhydroelectricity is eliminationhydroelectricity is eliminationof the cost of fuel. The cost ofof the cost of fuel. The cost ofoperating a hydroelectric plantoperating a hydroelectric plantis nearly neglegible to the costis nearly neglegible to the costof fossil fuels.of fossil fuels. Where a dam serves multipleWhere a dam serves multiplepurposes, a hydroelectric plantpurposes, a hydroelectric plantmay be low construction cost,may be low construction cost,providing a useful revenueproviding a useful revenuestream for years after thestream for years after theconstruction.construction.Economics
1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constantrate.
Environmental ConsiderationsHigh-head hydro Powers systems can produce a tremendousamount of power. However, large hydro power facilities, whileessentially pollution-free to operate, still have undesirable effectson the environment.
DisadvantagesDisadvantages Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surroundingHydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surroundingaquatic ecosystems. The dams constructed consume aaquatic ecosystems. The dams constructed consume alot of space as well as it disrupts water flow. Thislot of space as well as it disrupts water flow. Thischanges the environment in which the fishes live.changes the environment in which the fishes live.Environmental damage
Population relocationPopulation relocation Another disadvantage ofAnother disadvantage ofhydroelectric dams is thehydroelectric dams is theneed to relocate theneed to relocate thepeople living where thepeople living where thereservoirs are planned.reservoirs are planned.People living close to aPeople living close to apower plant arepower plant arevonurable to the threatsvonurable to the threatsarisen by the plant. Also itarisen by the plant. Also itcauses destruction of wildcauses destruction of wildlife.life.
Installation of new large hydro power projects today is verycontroversial because of their negative environmentalimpacts. These include:floodingdeclining fish populationsdecreased water quality and flowreduced quality of upstream and downstream environmentsGlen Canyon June 1962 Glen Canyon June 1964
Scientists today are seeking ways to develop hydro power plants thathave less impact on the environment. One way is through low-headhydro power Low-head hydro Powers projects are usually lowimpact as well and have fewer negative effects on the environment.Low-head and Low Impact Hydro power
Failures of DamsFailures of Dams Failures of large dams,Failures of large dams,while rare, are potentiallywhile rare, are potentiallyserious. Dams if carefullyserious. Dams if carefullynot constructed, duringnot constructed, duringcollapse may causecollapse may causemajor destruction of livesmajor destruction of livesand property. Itsand property. Itsgenerally larger than anygenerally larger than anynaturally occuring floodsnaturally occuring floodsand many times, higherand many times, higherthan tsunami.than tsunami.
Made by :Made by :Anupam GoelAnupam GoelKendriya VidyalayaKendriya VidyalayaThe pictures were not self taken, but downloaded from the internet