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  • 1. Dinosaurs I.G. Kenyon
  • 2. How Many Dinosaur Species? More than 500 Genera Approximately 1,000 species
  • 3. Herbivorous V Carnivorous Dromaeosarus albertensis Study of dinosaur morphology-mode of life may be established Uniformitarianism – study of modes of life of modern herbivores and carnivores and predator-prey relationships help to infer the niches that dinosaurs occupied in the Mesozoic ecosystems
  • 4. Bipedal – fast/agile runners Long balanced tail for turning at speed Large brain body mass ratio Large forward facing eyes Endothermic-covered in feathers Strong jaws with sharp teeth Sharp claws on forelimbs/feet for slashing prey May have hunted in pairs or packs Evidence for Carniverous
  • 5. Carnivorous Dinosaurs Flexible base to tail Large forward facing eyes Bipedal , fast, agile walked/ran on tiptoe
  • 6. Carnivorous Dinosaurs Tail carried upright aids manoeuvrability and change of direction when running at high speed Strong skull with powerful jaws and sharp teeth Sharp claws on fore limbs for slashing prey
  • 7. Carnivorous Dinosaurs Covered in feathers to keep warm and maintain a high metabolic rate? Probably warm blooded Sharp claw on second toe of foot used for slashing at prey May have hunted in pairs or packs
  • 8. Spinosaurus – The Largest Carnivore? 12.6 to 18 metres in length Weighed 7.0 to 20.9 tonnes Cretaceous 97-112 Ma Lived on land and in water like a modern crocodile Mainly a fish eater and had vertebrae extensions covered with skin to form a sail-like structure on its back
  • 9. Large body mass Quadrupeds/4 legged Spikes, nobbly bits, horns for defence Horny beaks with small/no front teeth Neck lengths varied according to type of grazer Gastroliths found inside the stomachs Lived in large herds/Juveniles shielded on the inside Small brain to body mass ratio Evidence for Herbiverous
  • 10. Evidence for Herbiverous - Stegasaurus Short neck and small head probably grazed bushes close to the ground Grazed in herds much like elephants do today on the plains of Africa Walnut sized brain! Four legged, bulky and heavy about the size of a double decker bus Heavily armoured, plates on back may have been thermo-regulatory
  • 11. Evidence for Herbiverous - Stegasaurus Toothless beak and small cheek teeth Sharp tail spikes to swing for protection Late Jurassic 150 to 155 Ma
  • 12. Gastroliths (Stomach Stones) Psittacosaurus fossil with gastroliths in its stomach region, American Museum of Natural History Psittacosaurus Many herbivores swallowed stones (gastroliths) to help break down tough, fibrous plant material in their stomachs Over time the stones became very smooth and polished
  • 13. Yummy! Rock Cakes on the menu again!
  • 14. Herbivorous Dinosaurs Argentinosaurus – The Largest?
  • 15. Argentinosaurus – The Largest? Incomplete Argentinosaurus femur shaft measuring 1.18 metres long From this it is estimated that the animal must have been between 30 and 35 metres in length The animal is thought to have weighed 80 to 100 tonnes Late Cenomanian (Cretaceous) 94 – 96 million years old
  • 16. Argentinosaurus – The Largest? Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Reptilia Node Dinosauria Order Saurischia Sub-Order Sauropodomorpha Branch Titanosauria Family Antarctosauridae Genus Argentinosaurus Species huinculensis Skeletal reconstruction in the Senckenberg Museum, Germany
  • 17. Relative Sizes – Dinosaurs, Elephants, Man Herbivorous dinosaurs – the largest creatures ever? Not quite, the Blue Whale today is the largest creature ever to live weighing 180 tonnes and 30m long
  • 18. Humans 7.4 – 7.8 Bottlenose Dolphin 4.14 Chimpanzee 2.2 – 2.5 Dog 1.2 Cat 1.0 Sheep 0.8 Rabbit 0.4 A more complex version of the brain to body mass ratio
  • 19. That’s All Folks!