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Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict
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Chapter 4 Ethnic Conflict

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Causes & Impact of Conflicts within Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland

Causes & Impact of Conflicts within Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland

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    • 1. Chapter 4: <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Essential questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What causes conflicts in multi-ethnic societies? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the consequences of these conflicts? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the challenges in managing ethnic diversity? </li></ul>
    • 2. Today’s agenda: <ul><li>Introduction to ethnic conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Background information about Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of the Sri Lankan conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Recap: Pop Quiz! </li></ul><ul><li>Next lesson: Consequences of the Sri Lankan conflict </li></ul>
    • 3. In 1948, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) enjoyed the highest literacy rate in Asia. It did not have the problem of over-population; its educational and transportation systems were advanced. For some years, Ceylon was a model for the world. But, today, it is an island known for its problems, and its reputation as a killing field only matched by that of countries such as Rwanda. Adapted from a comment by an editor of a Tamil newspaper in 2003.
    • 4. Watch this news clip: ‘The Casualties of Sri Lanka’s Conflict’ <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZD77iTj7zBw </li></ul><ul><li>What can you infer about the conflict in Sri Lanka? </li></ul><ul><li>How far do you believe what the reporter says? </li></ul>
    • 5. Why the conflict between the Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka?
    • 6. <ul><li></li></ul>
    • 7.  
    • 8. 8% 9.4% 81.9% % of Popn. Tamil and Sinhala, Islam Mainly coastal port cities Moors Tamil Hinduism Largest group in Jaffna & Batticaloa, Large minorities in other northern and eastern districts. Tamil Sinhala Buddhism Majority everywhere, except Jaffna and Batticaloa Sinhalese Language Religion Living Area Race
    • 9. Discussion: <ul><li>Given the demographics of Sri Lanka, what potential problems could occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven race distribution throughout SL means limited interaction between communities—gives rise to negative stereotypes and misconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Racial conflict becomes territorial in nature </li></ul>
    • 10. The people <ul><li>Sinhalese are natives of Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lankan Tamils are descendents of Tamils who have been living in the country since 300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Tamils: came in 1800s with the British colonial masters to work in tea plantations </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
    • 11. <ul><li></li></ul>1. Citizenship Rights 2. ‘Sinhala-Only’ Policy 3. University Admission 4. Resettlement of Population Reasons for Sinhalese -Tamil Conflict
    • 12. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship Qualification in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Given only to those who were born in Sri Lanka, or whose forefathers were born there </li></ul><ul><li>Result of Citizenship Qualification Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indian Tamils brought from India by the British to work in Sri Lanka became stateless </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Tamils not allowed to vote </li></ul><ul><li>No basic citizenship rights despite contributing to economy </li></ul>1. Citizenship Rights
    • 13. What was done: <ul><li>India tried to help stateless Tamils by holding talks with the Sri Lankan govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of the Talks </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka is to allow certain numbers of Indian Tamils to return to India </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the Indian Tamils were to be granted Sri Lankan citizenship </li></ul>By the 1980s, this agreement was not fulfilled and many Indian Tamils remained stateless Indian Tamils felt neglected and upset
    • 14. Resolution <ul><li>2003: Grant of Citizenship to Persons of Indian Origin Bill passed </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship granted to any person of Indian origin who had </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanently lived in SL since 1964, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was descended from someone who had permanently stayed in SL since that date </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Many educated Tamils could enter government service during the colonial period </li></ul><ul><li>They held important jobs in the government </li></ul><ul><li>Two questions for you to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think they were able to accomplish this? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think the Sinhalese, the majority group in Sri Lanka, feel about this? </li></ul>2. 'Sinhala-Only' Policy
    • 16. <ul><li></li></ul>Changes made after Sri Lanka gained independence from the British <ul><li>In 1956, Sinhala was made the only official language of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Tamils in the government service were given three years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed from the job. </li></ul>
    • 17. <ul><li></li></ul>Result of the policy <ul><li>Tamils were unhappy as they were now unable to get jobs or promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Organised a peaceful demonstration against the Official Language Act </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Sinhalese react? </li></ul><ul><li>The Sinhalese supporters disrupted the peaceful demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Riots occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Over a hundred deaths were reported </li></ul>
    • 18. <ul><li></li></ul>What happened after the riot over the Official language Act <ul><li>Sri Lankan Prime Minister signed a pact with Tamil leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil was made the official language of the Tamil minority. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil was allowed to be used as a language for administration. </li></ul><ul><li>However tension between the Tamils and Sinhalese continued to increase leading to more fighting and deaths </li></ul>?
    • 19. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Language was given greater recognition in the Sri Lankan Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil was made the national language and the language of the administration in the northern and eastern provinces where Tamils formed the majority. </li></ul><ul><li>English was taught in school to facilitate communication among the different racial groups. </li></ul>1978 1987 Tamil accepted as an official language.
    • 20. <ul><li></li></ul>3. UNIVERSITY ADMISSION <ul><li>Before 1970: </li></ul><ul><li>University admission criteria was based on merit </li></ul><ul><li>Examinations were held in the English language </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese were unhappy at the equal number of Sinhalese and Tamil students in the medical and engineering courses, as it was not proportionate to their numbers in the country </li></ul>
    • 21. 3. University Admission <ul><li>What was done after 1970: </li></ul><ul><li>Several educational policies were introduced to rectify this imbalance. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. it was compulsory for Tamil students to score higher marks than the Sinhalese students to enter the same courses in the universities. </li></ul>
    • 22. Minimum marks for university admission, 1971 183 204 Sinhalese Tamils Physical sciences 175 181 Sinhalese Tamils Bio-science 229 250 Sinhalese Tamils Medicine and Dentistry 227 250 Sinhalese Tamils Engineering 187 170 Sinhalese Tamils Arts Minimum marks Students Course
    • 23.  
    • 24. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Result of this policy: </li></ul><ul><li>successful in increasing the number of Sinhalese youth who were qualified to enter the universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of Tamil students who were admitted to the engineering courses fell significantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil youths unhappy and dissatisfied with the unfair educational policies </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to qualify for admission into the university esp. medical and engineering courses  limited job opportunities  disillusionment with government  supported or joined Tamil Tigers (LTTE) </li></ul>
    • 25. <ul><li></li></ul>4. Resettlement of Population <ul><li>What this policy is about: </li></ul><ul><li>the Sri Lankan government transferred Sinhalese from the densely populated south-western and and central areas into the Tamil area. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim was to provide land for the landless Sinhalese peasants to live on and to cultivate rice. </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Tamils react? </li></ul><ul><li>They were unhappy as the arrival of the peasants was accompanied by Buddhist monks and the Sri Lankan Army which was mostly Sinhalese. </li></ul>
    • 26. <ul><li></li></ul>CHECKPOINT There are 4 reasons for the conflict in Sri Lanka: 1948: Citizenship Rights —over 1 million Tamils made ‘stateless’ 1950: Government-sponsored resettlement of Sinhalese in Tamil areas began 1956: ‘Sinhala Only’ policy was introduced 1972: Government restricted Tamils’ admission into university by raising admission criteria
    • 27. <ul><li></li></ul>Consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict Political Economic Social <ul><li>Armed conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of investments from other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Fall in no. of tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of their homeland </li></ul>
    • 28. <ul><li></li></ul>1. Armed Conflict <ul><li>The policies introduced by the Sri Lankan government made the Tamils discriminated </li></ul><ul><li>Made peaceful demands to be fairly treated by the Sri Lankan government </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1950s: Federal Party asked that Tamil areas be recognised as a federation within the country </li></ul><ul><li>By 1976 demands still not met </li></ul><ul><li>New political party Tamil United Liberation Front emerged </li></ul>?
    • 29. <ul><li></li></ul>Tamil United Liberation Front <ul><li>Fought for a separate independent state. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted this independent state to be called Tamil-Eelam </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka government rejected the idea of a separate and independent state </li></ul><ul><li>Some angry and dissatisfied Tamil youths formed a militant group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) </li></ul>
    • 30. <ul><li></li></ul>Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam <ul><li>With the formation of the militant group LTTE, violence was inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>LTTE were considered to be terrorists. </li></ul><ul><li>They attacked Tamil members of the police force, and Tamil politicians who rejected their call for an independent state. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, they resorted to attacking Sinhalese </li></ul>
    • 31. <ul><li></li></ul>ARMED CONFLICT <ul><li>Sinhalese also showed violence towards the Tamils repeatedly, eg. during 1956 peaceful protest against the ‘Sinhala Only’ language policy. </li></ul><ul><li>They took part in 1983 riots </li></ul><ul><li>Armed conflict has resulted in war between LTTE and Sri Lankan government </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: more than 60,000 lives </li></ul><ul><li>Has lasted more than 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Still on-going </li></ul>
    • 32. <ul><li></li></ul>2. Unemployment <ul><li>Riots and violence led to massive unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Business in the conflict areas/districts slowed down or some stopped totally. </li></ul><ul><li>Many factories were closed and plantation workers lost their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>The jobless started to take part in vandalising, looting and burning their places of work. </li></ul>
    • 33. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>The instability caused by the riots and violence did not only led to massive unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>It resulted in the loss of investments as investors lost the confidence in investing in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy would inevitably suffer as it needs businesses from other countries. </li></ul>3. Loss of Investments from other countries
    • 34. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>The violent internal conflict made Sri Lanka an unsafe place for tourists. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, tourism which was one of the income earners for the country was damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>This decrease resulted in a loss of jobs and a fall in Sri Lanka’s earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy was badly affected and the country lacked the finances needed to build up its infrastructure </li></ul>4. Fall in Number of Tourists
    • 35. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>The conflict caught India’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>India played the role of a mediator </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated between the Sinhalese and the Tamils after the 1983 riots but was unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><li>India supported the Sri Lankan Tamils by sending supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped by the Sri Lankan navy </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Air Force dropped supplies in Jaffna </li></ul><ul><li>Violated SL air space </li></ul>? 5. Foreign Intervention
    • 36. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>India forced Sri Lanka to sign a peace accord in July 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Both parties agreed to a ceasefire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tamil-Tigers were to surrender their weapons to Indian peacekeeping troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Jaffna was captured by the Indian peacekeepers by force. </li></ul><ul><li>Clashes between the Tigers and the Indian peace-keeping troops occurred in the north and east of Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><li>1990 India withdrew its peacekeeping force from Sri Lanka. </li></ul>
    • 37. 6. Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of their Homeland <ul><li>Caused large-scale displacement beyond its borders </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. in the 1983 riots, thousands of Tamils fled to Tamil Nadu in South India </li></ul><ul><li>Abt 65,000 Sri Lankans are still refugees in India today </li></ul>
    • 38. 6. Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of their Homeland <ul><li>Early 1990s: High Security Zones (HSZ) set up by SL Army to keep LTTE away </li></ul><ul><li>Access is controlled in HSZ </li></ul><ul><li>Army occupied large parts of Tamil-dominated areas in North and East of SL </li></ul><ul><li>1995: Many Tamils had to flee their homes when SL Army moved into Jaffna </li></ul><ul><li>Many still live in overcrowded conditions </li></ul>
    • 39. <ul><li></li></ul>Overview of Lesson <ul><li>We have looked at the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The population compostion and distribution in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>2. The causes of the Sinhalese - Tamils Conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs in the Government Service </li></ul><ul><li>University Admission </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement of population </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict </li></ul>
    • 40. Causes of conflict in Northern Ireland <ul><li>Background textbook p. 111-114 </li></ul><ul><li>Causes textbook p. 114-124 </li></ul>
    • 41. Diagrammatic representation of United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland
    • 42. Map of Northern Ireland and the UK Part of the United Kingdom Independent
    • 43. Facts on Northern Ireland
    • 44. Background: Origins of the conflict <ul><li>Before 12 th century: N. Ireland + Republic of Ireland were ONE country (Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>Irish were Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>12 th C: Ireland conquered by England </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Scottish and English settlers brought over by Eng landlords </li></ul><ul><li>Northern part of Ireland became mostly Protestant </li></ul>
    • 45. <ul><li>Catholic King James II tried to defeat the Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>But failed; defeated by Protestant King William of Orange in Battle of Boyne in 1690 </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants implemented Penal Laws against Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>For years, civil war raged. </li></ul><ul><li>1800: Ireland part of UK </li></ul>Background: Origins of the conflict
    • 46. <ul><li>Hostilities continued </li></ul><ul><li>Local Irish Catholics sought limited self-govt (Home Rule) in late 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting intensified </li></ul><ul><li>1900s, British lost control of southern part of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>1921: Ireland divided into 2 separate parts based on majority religion </li></ul>Background: Origins of the conflict
    • 47. <ul><li>South: known as Irish Free State, largely Catholic gov </li></ul><ul><li>North: Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>1949: Irish Free State cut ties with Br and became Republic of Ireland </li></ul>Background: Origins of the conflict
    • 48. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>In 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>1 million Protestants, mostly of Scottish and English origin </li></ul><ul><li>600 000 Catholics, mostly descendents of local Irish inhabitants of the island </li></ul>People of Northern Ireland
    • 49. <ul><li></li></ul>Government in Northern Ireland <ul><li>Since 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>ruled by the British parliament in London </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State for Northern Ireland chosen by the British Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>finance,commerce,health and education controlled by N Ireland government </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign affairs and defence matters were in British hands </li></ul>
    • 50. <ul><li></li></ul>Causes for the Conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics Divided Loyalties The Education System Employment Housing Voting Rights
    • 51. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>The Protestant and the Catholics are intolerant of one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Give their allegiance to different countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants want to continue to be part of United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Fear union with Republic of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Fear Catholics would not be tolerant of the Protestant beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>What about the Catholics? </li></ul>1. Divided Loyalties
    • 52. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Catholics want N Ireland reunited with the Republic of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Remember persecution suffered by the Catholics during England’s conquest of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Distrust the Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Protestants still celebrate the Battle of Boyne as a mark of Protestant dominance </li></ul>What about the Catholics?
    • 53. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Education system in N Ireland deepened the rift between the Catholics and the Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Schools in N Ireland can be divided into 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Protestant Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Catholic Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Schools </li></ul></ul>? 2. The Education System
    • 54. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>In the Protestant Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Students are taught British History, play British sport and are loyal to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>In the Catholic Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn Irish History, play Irish sports and taught Irish language and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>See Britain as a foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>In Mixed Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects cater to both the Catholics and Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Schools run by private individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Unpopular </li></ul>
    • 55. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Results of the Educational System: </li></ul><ul><li>Generations of children grow to be distrustful of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility between them increases. </li></ul>
    • 56. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Competition for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics felt there is no equal opportunity for them in </li></ul><ul><li>getting the jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Catholics engineers and civil servants was not </li></ul><ul><li>proportionate to their numbers in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer Catholics in senior positions in the public or private </li></ul><ul><li>sectors </li></ul>3. Employment
    • 57. Unemployment rate by religion and sex in 2002 to 2003, Northern Ireland
    • 58. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>The provision of housing by city council- caused great concern to the Irish </li></ul><ul><li>The Councils made up of largely of Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics were delayed in getting their houses </li></ul><ul><li>They became frustrated as the shortage of houses meant they have to wait for many years to own a house </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics felt the provision of housing was unfair to them </li></ul>4. Housing
    • 59. A 1989 study on the housing situation in Northern Ireland by a government body that promotes understanding and awareness of the importance of human rights in Northern Ireland
    • 60. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>The right to vote was a problem to the Catholics prior to 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Each household was given to 2 votes while companies had more votes depending on their sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Many companies owned by Protestants- so they ended up with more votes </li></ul><ul><li>many voting districts were often drawn up to include large proportion of Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics were unhappy </li></ul>? 5. Voting
    • 61. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Since 1968, changes have been made </li></ul><ul><li>due to the changes voting rights ceased to be a problem in Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>everyone is entitled to one vote </li></ul><ul><li>must be a British subject </li></ul><ul><li>must be above 18 years old </li></ul><ul><li>has to be born in Northern Ireland or </li></ul><ul><li>must have lived in the United Kingdom for 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>voting districts have also been redrawn to ensure fairness </li></ul>
    • 62. <ul><li></li></ul>The Troubles – From Peace to Violence <ul><li>1967: The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) formed </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to end discrimination against Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted non-violent methods </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Movement organised by NICRA in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Marked the beginning of ‘The Troubles’ </li></ul>?
    • 63. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>NICRA Organised marches </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting broke out among Catholics, Protestants and police </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969, </li></ul><ul><li>the British Army was sent to Northern Ireland to help keep peace </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics welcomed their protectors </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics soon lost faith in the British Army when the army started to search their homes and made arrests </li></ul>
    • 64. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>In Jan 1972: </li></ul><ul><li>15,000 participated in illegal peaceful civil rights march </li></ul><ul><li>British soldiers shot at protesters </li></ul><ul><li>13 civilians died and many more were wounded </li></ul><ul><li>This incident is called the ‘Bloody Sunday’ incident </li></ul><ul><li>Led to great outburst of Catholic anger </li></ul>
    • 65. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>More violence resulted between Catholics and Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Inaction of local police </li></ul><ul><li>British Army often raided Catholic homes </li></ul>Violence
    • 66. <ul><li></li></ul>Involvement of Irish Republican Army (IRA) <ul><li>Desperate Catholics turned to IRA </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to destroy the state and force Br to withdraw completely through using violence </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked Br soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Bombed businesses and shops belonging to Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>1969-1993: more than 3,500 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>IRA responsible for 2/3 of deaths </li></ul>
    • 67. <ul><li></li></ul>Effects of Protestants–Catholic Conflict <ul><li>The conflict resulted in : </li></ul><ul><li>Social segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Declining economy: </li></ul><ul><li> Decrease in investment </li></ul><ul><li> Decline in tourism trade </li></ul>
    • 68. <ul><li></li></ul><ul><li>Throughout 1970s to 1990s attempts were made </li></ul><ul><li>to resolve the conflict but attempts failed </li></ul><ul><li>Peace accord was discussed in the 1990s but failed </li></ul><ul><li>Good Friday Peace Agreement reached in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Peace is uncertain as there is still tension </li></ul>Conclusion

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