• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
AHS13 Gad Saad — The Consuming Instinct (AHS13)
 

AHS13 Gad Saad — The Consuming Instinct (AHS13)

on

  • 2,412 views

The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature ...

The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature
Gad Saad, Ph.D.

I offer a synopsis of my work in the evolutionary consumption area. This will be achieved by discussing key tenets from my books (The Consuming Instinct and The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption) including that: (1) many consumption acts can be mapped onto four key Darwinian modules (survival, mating, kin selection, and reciprocal altruism); and (2) cultural products (e.g., song lyrics, movie plotlines) are fossils of the human mind that highlight a shared biological-based human nature.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,412
Views on SlideShare
2,404
Embed Views
8

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0

1 Embed 8

https://twitter.com 8

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • http://news.softpedia.com/images/news2/12-of-the-DNA-Differs-Amongst-Human-Races-and-Populations-2.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kayan_woman_with_neck_rings.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mursi_woman.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1997_276-18A_Yaake_demonstration.jpg http://www.toptenz.net/top-ten-most-beautiful-eyes.php
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rhesus_Macaque_(Macaca_mulatta)_in_Kinnarsani_WS,_AP_W_IMG_5792.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Chlorocebus_pygerythrus_Grüne_Meerkatze.JPG
  • http://www.buzzle.com/articles/morning-sickness.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Colibri-thalassinus-001-edit.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/152/413223473_be5a4b6fc3.jpg David and Steve: The buffet comes from flickr (I think that the license allows me to use it).
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/pierreverhoeven/221230874/sizes/l/in/set-72157603590151552/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steak_4_bg_083103.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fe/Bacon_and_eggs.jpg David and Steve: The photo of the bears is from flickr. The license seems to allow me to use it. Please verify.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peacock_courting_peahen.jpg
  • http://scm-l3.technorati.com/09/10/13/129/Gift-giving.jpg
  • Photo of my daughter in utero. I hold the copyright! http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/maury_5010.jpg
  • Photo of woman is from the insert in my trade book (The Consuming Instinct) http://cdn0.cosmosmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/20110302_drinks.jpg

AHS13 Gad Saad — The Consuming Instinct (AHS13) AHS13 Gad Saad — The Consuming Instinct (AHS13) Presentation Transcript

  • The Consuming instinct:The Consuming instinct: What Juicy Burgers,What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography,Ferraris, Pornography, And gift Giving RevealAnd gift Giving Reveal About Human NatureAbout Human Nature Gad SaadGad Saad John Molson School of BusinessJohn Molson School of Business Concordia UniversityConcordia University Ancestral Health SymposiumAncestral Health Symposium Atlanta, GeorgiaAtlanta, Georgia Thursday August 15, 2013Thursday August 15, 2013
  • Are Consumers Born or Made?Are Consumers Born or Made? Wilson (1978): “The genes hold culture on a leash.” I propose: “The genes holds consumer behavior on a leash.”
  • Is Beauty Socially Constructed?Is Beauty Socially Constructed? Aishwarya Rai
  • Toy Preferences: Learned or Innate?Toy Preferences: Learned or Innate? • pre-socialization stage (Jadva, Hines, & Golombok, 2010; Alexander, Wilcox, & Woods,pre-socialization stage (Jadva, Hines, & Golombok, 2010; Alexander, Wilcox, & Woods, 2009)2009) • congenital adrenal hyperplasia (congenital adrenal hyperplasia (Berenbaum & Hines, 1992)Berenbaum & Hines, 1992) • Rhesus and vervet monkeys (Rhesus and vervet monkeys (Hassett, Siebert, &Wallen, 2008; Alexander & Hines, 2002)Hassett, Siebert, &Wallen, 2008; Alexander & Hines, 2002) • boys’ digit ratios and sex-typed play (Hönekopp & Thierfelder, 2009)boys’ digit ratios and sex-typed play (Hönekopp & Thierfelder, 2009)
  • Important Tenets of Evolutionary PsychologyImportant Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology • Mind is a product of natural selection and sexual selectionMind is a product of natural selection and sexual selection • Domain-specific view of the human mindDomain-specific view of the human mind • ““learning”, “culture”, and “socialization” are not explanations in oflearning”, “culture”, and “socialization” are not explanations in of themselvesthemselves • Mind is not an empty slate (Pinker, 2002)Mind is not an empty slate (Pinker, 2002) • Importance of both proximate and ultimate explanationsImportance of both proximate and ultimate explanations
  • Proximate versus Ultimate ExplanationsProximate versus Ultimate Explanations • Pregnancy sickness (Profet, 1992; Flaxman & Sherman, 2000; Pepper & Roberts,Pregnancy sickness (Profet, 1992; Flaxman & Sherman, 2000; Pepper & Roberts, 2006)2006) • Proximate: How do hormonal changes affect severity of symptomsProximate: How do hormonal changes affect severity of symptoms • Ultimate: Evolved mechanism to expel teratogensUltimate: Evolved mechanism to expel teratogens
  • Evidentiary threshold is much higher forEvidentiary threshold is much higher for EP-based hypothesesEP-based hypotheses Established across countless cultures using varied methodologies and measures Cross-cultural variations are adaptive responses to local environments
  • Four Key Darwinian Meta-DrivesFour Key Darwinian Meta-Drives Saad (2007, 2011)Saad (2007, 2011) 1. Survival (natural selection) 1. Reproduction (sexual selection) 1. Kin selection 2. Reciprocity Avoid predators & find food Compete for mates Invest in family members Build non-kin alliances and friendships (e.g., via gift giving)
  • Survival-Let’s Gorge!Survival-Let’s Gorge! Variety effect exacerbates our penchant to gorge (Remick et al. 2009; Epstein et al. 2010; Rolls et al. 1981; Kahn & Wansink, 2004; Rolls, Rowe, & Rolls, 1982)
  • Survival-Give Me Fat!Survival-Give Me Fat! • Restaurants & InstitutionsRestaurants & Institutions: ranking of the 400 top selling restaurant chains.: ranking of the 400 top selling restaurant chains. • The top ten in 2008:The top ten in 2008: 1.1. McDonald’sMcDonald’s 2.2. KFCKFC 3.3. Burger KingBurger King 4.4. StarbucksStarbucks 5.5. SubwaySubway 6.6. Pizza HutPizza Hut 7.7. Wendy’sWendy’s 8.8. Taco BellTaco Bell 9.9. Domino’s PizzaDomino’s Pizza 10.10.Dunkin’ Donuts.Dunkin’ Donuts. Atkins Diet
  • Darwinian GastronomyDarwinian Gastronomy (Paul Sherman & colleagues)(Paul Sherman & colleagues)
  • I’ve Got the Goods-MatingI’ve Got the Goods-Mating
  • Products/Services Tackled Using EP LensProducts/Services Tackled Using EP Lens Milinski & Wedekind 2001; Roberts et al. 2009; Wedekind et al. 2007 Haviland-Jones et al. 2005 Cronk & Dunham 2007; Uller & Johansson 2003 Hinsz et al. 2001; Mesko & Bereczkei 2004 Singh & Randall 2007 Smith 1999; Russell 2009; Samson et al. 2010; Elliot & Niesta 2008 Townsend & Levy 1990 Miller et al., 2007
  • Products as Sexual SignalsProducts as Sexual Signals Testosterone & Conspicuous Consumption (Saad & Vongas, 2009, study 1)
  • Cars as Sexual SignalsCars as Sexual Signals Dunn & Searle (2009)Dunn & Searle (2009) Red Ford Fiesta ST Silver Bentley Continental GT Same man is judged as more attractive by women when in the Bentley Men’s evaluations of the woman is unaffected by the car that she is seated in Similar findings were obtained using the hot or not website (Shuler & McCord, 2010)
  • What your car says about youWhat your car says about you (Saad & Gill, 2013)(Saad & Gill, 2013)
  • You drive a porsche: You must be tall (short)You drive a porsche: You must be tall (short)
  • You drive a porsche: You must be aYou drive a porsche: You must be a philandererphilanderer
  • Brand Mentions in Billboard Hits (2003-2005)Brand Mentions in Billboard Hits (2003-2005) Agenda Inc. (Agenda Inc. (American BrandstandAmerican Brandstand))  Top 45 top brand mentions: 23 were for cars Mercedes, Lexus, Cadillac, Lamborghini, Chevrolet, Range Rover, Bentley, Rolls Royce, Jaguar, Maybach, and Porsche 11 were for clothing and related items Gucci, Burberry, Prada, Payless Shoe Source, Dolce & Gabbana, Manolo Blahnik, Nike, Rolex, and Louis Vuitton 7 were for alcoholic beverages Cristal, Hennessy, Dom Perignon 3 were of guns AK-47 and Beretta 1 toiletry Calgon  Male singers are much more likely to utter such mentions
  • Women Too Engage in Sexual SignalingWomen Too Engage in Sexual Signaling Saad & Stenstrom (2012)Saad & Stenstrom (2012) Women were more likely to wear sexy clothes, clothes that show a lot of skin, wear a skirt, wear nice clothes, spend time beautifying, wear make- up, and go sun tanning during the fertile phase (as compared to the luteal phase) See also: Durante, Li, & Haselton (2008); Grammer, Renninger, & Fischer (2004); Haselton et al. (2007); Durante et al. (2011)
  • Gift Giving across multiple DarwinianGift Giving across multiple Darwinian domains (Saad, 2007, 2011)domains (Saad, 2007, 2011) Part of many courtship rituals “Cause if you liked it then you should have put a ring on it” Cost of engagement rings is negatively correlated to a woman’s age (Cronk & Dunham, 2007) Gift giving between kin (Saad & Gill, 2003) Differential grandparental solicitude (Euler & Weitzel, 1996; Pollet, Nettle & Nelissen, 2007; Bishop et al., 2009) Paternal resemblance and investing in offspring (Apicella & Marlowe, 2004; Alvergne, Faurie, & Raymond, 2009) a means of creating and/or solidifying bonds (Bell, 1991; Saad & Gill, 2003) “A good friend is worth many relations.” (global proverb) “Hospitality asks for equal treatment in return.” (many cultures)
  • Wedding gifts as a function of geneticWedding gifts as a function of genetic relatedness (H1):relatedness (H1): Tifferet et al., 2013Tifferet et al., 2013 Kin (M = 245, SD = 46) > non-kin (M = 162, SD = 45 (p < .001) Highly related kin (50% and 25%; M = 377, SD = 76) > more distant kin (12.5% and 6.25%; M = 125, SD = 32) (p < .001) no significant differences between the 50% (M = 393, SD = 133) and 25% (M = 353, SD = 88) groups (p = .21) No differences between the 6.25% (M = 123, SD = 35) and 12.5% (M = 122, SD = 31) groups (p = .80)
  • Wedding gifts as a function of geneticWedding gifts as a function of genetic assuredness (H2):assuredness (H2): Tifferet et al., 2013Tifferet et al., 2013 maternal lineage (M = $260, SD = $84) > paternal lineage (M = $225, SD = $67) (p = .046)
  • Personal Anecdote: The Explanatory Power of EPPersonal Anecdote: The Explanatory Power of EP Hayward & Rohwer 2004 Maury Show
  • The Future Discounting Rate:The Future Discounting Rate: Give me some sugar, sugarGive me some sugar, sugar Photos of sexy women increase men’s future discounting rates. I want it now! (Wilson & Daly, 2004; Van den Bergh, Dewitte, & Warlop, 2008) Consuming sugar decreases future discounting rates. I am willing to wait until later. (Wang & Dvorak, 2010)
  • Effects of Baby Primes on risk-taking,Effects of Baby Primes on risk-taking, conspicuous consumption, & charitableconspicuous consumption, & charitable donationsdonations (Stenstrom & Saad, 2012)(Stenstrom & Saad, 2012) Study 1: Visual baby primes versus neutral landscapes Study 2: Auditory baby primes versus neutral instrumental song Crying prime Laughing prime
  • Darwinian Roots of dark side consumptionDarwinian Roots of dark side consumption ((Saad, 2007, ch. 6; Saad, 2011, ch. 9)Saad, 2007, ch. 6; Saad, 2011, ch. 9)
  • Pornographic films and sperm competitionPornographic films and sperm competition Of all possible human mating systems, polygyny has been much more common and accepted than polyandry Yet, pornographic movies have a much greater preponderance of polyandrous situations (Pound, 2002) ⇒ The possibility of sperm competition yields a literal rise in men’s anatomy let alone libidinal drives ⇒ Kilgallon & Simmons (2005): sperm motility was greater in the samples “generated” from polyandrous images
  • Evolutionarily relevant public serviceEvolutionarily relevant public service announcementsannouncements
  • Academic Hostility Toward New IdeasAcademic Hostility Toward New Ideas ““I suppose the process of acceptance will pass through the usual four stages:I suppose the process of acceptance will pass through the usual four stages: i) this is worthless nonsense,i) this is worthless nonsense, ii) this is an interesting, but perverse, point of view,ii) this is an interesting, but perverse, point of view, iii) this is true, but quite unimportant,iii) this is true, but quite unimportant, iv) I always said so.”iv) I always said so.” —— J.B.S. HaldaneJ.B.S. Haldane • I am hopeful that evolutionary consumption will soon become “normal science” (Kuhn)I am hopeful that evolutionary consumption will soon become “normal science” (Kuhn) thus ushering consumer psychologists into stage 4 of Haldane’s progression!thus ushering consumer psychologists into stage 4 of Haldane’s progression!
  • ConclusionConclusion Dobzhansky (1973):Dobzhansky (1973): ““Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.”Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” I propose:I propose: ““Nothing inNothing in consumer behaviorconsumer behavior makes sense except in the light of evolution.”makes sense except in the light of evolution.”