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Basic nutrition (pdf)

  1. 1. Basic NutritionLecture CompilationCompiled by:Ana Marie M. Somoray RND 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO NUTRITION Nutrition is a vital component to overall wellness and health. Diet affects energy, wellbeing and many disease states. There is a connection between lifetime nutritional habits andthe risks of many chronic diseases such as cardio vascular diseases, diabetes, cancer. A wellbalanced diet can prevent such conditions and improve energy levels and over all health andwellness. The basis of nutrition is FOODDefinition of terms:1) Nutrition – is the study of food in relation to health.2) Food – is any substance when ingested or eaten nourishes the body.3) Nutrient – is a chemical component needed by the body to provide energy, to build and repair tissues and to regulate life process.4) Digestion – it is a mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components.5) Absorption – it is a process where the nutrients from foods are absorb by the body into the bloodstreams.6) Metabolism – is a chemical process of transforming foods into other substance to sustain life.7) Enzymes – an organic catalyst that are protein in nature and are produced by living cells. A catalyst speeds up or slows down chemical reactions without itself undergoing change.8) Nutritional Status – is the condition of the body resulting from the utilization of essential nutrients.9) Calorie – fuel potential in a food. One calorie represents the amount of heat required to raise one liter of water one degree Celsius.10) Malnutrition – It is the condition of the body resulting from a lack of one or more essential nutrients or due to excessive nutrient supply. 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 The Digestive System• Mouth: The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food is partly broken down by the process of chewing and by the chemical action of salivary amylase (these enzymes are produced by the salivary glands and break down starches into smaller molecules). On the way to the stomach:• Esophagus – After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach. This muscle movement gives us the ability to eat or drink even when we’re upside-down.• Stomach – The stomach is a large, sack-like organ that churns the food and bathes it in a very strong acid (gastric acid). Food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme.• Small intestine – absorption happens in the small intestine. Bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.• Large intestine – Undigested food passes in the large intestine. In the large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food.• The end of the process – Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus. 3
  4. 4. PHYSIOLOGIC VALUE OF FOODFood is good to eat when it fulfills the ff. qualities: 1) It is nourishing or nutritious 2) It has satiety value 3) It is prepared under sanitary conditions 4) Its palatability factors (color, aroma, flavor, texture) 5) Within the budget and suitable to the occasion.Nutrition Classification 1) According to function 2) According to chemical nature 3) According to essentiality 4) According concentrationClassification of Nutrients 1) According to function: - Function as energy giving, body building, body regulating.2) According to chemical properties: a) Organic – protein, lipids, carbohydrates and vitamins b) Inorganic – water & minerals CHAPTER 2BASIC TOOLS IN NUTRITION Food Groups – Food guides translate quantitative nutritional requirements into simple, practical and non- technical language using available and common foods of the country. The 3 Main Food Groups: 1.Body-building foods - foods that supply good quality proteins, some vitamins and minerals. 2. Energy foods - mostly of rice and other cereals, starches, sugars and fats contribute the bulk of Calories. 3. Regulating foods - composed of fruits and vegetables that provide vitamins and minerals, particularly ascorbic acid and pro vitamin A. Dietary Guidelines strategies to promote appropriate diets and related health practices to achieve the goal of improving the nutritional condition. 4
  5. 5. 10 Nutritional Guidelines For Filipinos 1. Eat a variety of foods everyday. 2. Breast-feed infants exclusively from birth to 4-6 months and then, give appropriate foods while continuing breast-feeding. 3. Maintain children’s normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth regularly. 4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry or dried beans. 5. Eat more vegetables, fruits and root crops. 6. Eat foods cooked in edible/cooking oil daily. 7. Consume milk, milk products and other calcium-rich foods such as small Fish and dark green leafy vegetables everyday. 8. Use iodized salt, but avoid excessive intake of salty foods. 9. Eat clean and safe food. 10. For a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, exercise regularly, do not smoke and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID -FNRI (Foods & Nutrition Research Institute) 5
  6. 6. FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID (USDA) United States Dept. of AgricultureMyPyramid contains eight divisions. From left to right on the pyramid are six food groups: • Grains, recommending that at least half of grains consumed be as whole grains • Vegetables, emphasizing dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, and dry beans and peas • Fruits, emphasizing variety and deemphasizing fruit juices • Oils, recommending fish, nut, and vegetables sources • Milk,, a category that includes fluid milk and many other milk-based products • Meat and beans, emphasizing low-fat and lean meats such as fish as well as more beans, peas, nuts, and seeds RDA & RENI Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - is the information of nutrient allowance for themaintenance of good health. A tool for assessing a dietary intake of the population group. Thisemphasize the amount of foods or diet. RENI – Recommended Energy Nutrient Intake - A new standard replacing RDA, emphasizing on recommending on the nutrients rather than food or diet. - This tool serve as a guide for designing nutrition and health intervention towards an improvement of the health of the Filipinos. Food Exchange List - A classification or grouping of common foods in terms of equivalent amounts of Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat and Calories - The word exchange refers to the fact that each item on a particular list in the portion listed may be interchanged with any other food item on the same list. An exchange can be explained as a substitution, choice, or serving. 6
  7. 7. Nutritional Labeling - Primary means of communication between the producer or manufacturer and the consumer. 2 Components of Nutritional Labeling: 1. Nutrient Declaration – a standardized statement or listing of the nutrient content of food. 2. Nutrition Claim – representation which states or implies that a food has some particular nutritional proponents.Nutrient density is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to the calories itprovides. Foods low in calories and high in nutrients are nutrient dense, while foods high incalories and low in nutrients are nutrient poor. CHAPTER 3 Ideal Weight, Total Energy Requirement,Body Mass Index Basal Metabolism –the amount of energy required by an individual in the resting state, for such functions as breathing and circulation of the blood. Basal Metabolic Rate – the minimum caloric requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual. It can be looked at as being the amount of energy (measured in calories) expended by the body to remain in bed asleep all day. Factors that affect BMR 1.Genetics. Some people are born with faster metabolisms; some with slower metabolisms. 2. Gender. Men have a greater muscle mass and a lower body fat percentage. This means they have a higher basal metabolic rate. 3. Age. BMR reduces with age. After 20 years, it drops about 2 per cent, per decade. 4. Weight. The heavier your weight, the higher your BMR. Example: the metabolic rate of obese women is 25 percent higher than the metabolic rate of thin women. 5. Body Surface Area. This is a reflection of your height and weight. The greater your Body Surface Area factor, the higher your BMR. Tall, thin people have higher BMRs. If you compare a tall person with a short person of equal weight, then if they both follow a diet calorie-controlled to maintain the weight of the taller person, the shorter person may gain up to 15 pounds in a year. 7
  8. 8. 6. Body Fat Percentage. The lower your body fat percentage, the higher your BMR. The lowerbody fat percentage in the male body is one reason why men generally have a 10-15% fasterBMR than women.7. Diet. Starvation or serious abrupt calorie-reduction can dramatically reduce BMR by up to 30percent. Restrictive low-calorie weight loss diets may cause your BMR to drop as much as 20%.8. Sleep – BMR falls 10-15% below waking levels.9. Endocrine Glands – male sex hormones increase the BMR 10-15%10. Fever – increase 7% for each degree rise the body temperature above 98.6 FCOMPUTATION:1. BMR = Wt. in lbs. X 10.9 (male) 9.8 (female)Example : 125 lbs. x 9.8 = 1,225 Cal.2. BMI = Is a measure of body fat based on height and weight BMI = weight (kg) = 47 kg_____ = 47 kg. = 20.25 = 20kg/m₂ (Normal) ( ht. meters)₂ (1.524)(1.524) 2.323. DBW = ( Ht. cm – 100 ) – 10% Ex. 5‘3“ = (63 inches x 2.54) = (160.02 – 100) = (60.02- 6.002 [10%]) = 54 kg.4. TER = DBW x activity level Ex. 5’3” student = 54 x 35 = 1,890 Cal.CONVERSION: HT. WT.1 ft. = 12 inches 1 kg. = 2.2 lbs1 inch = 2.54 cm100 cm = 1 meterACTIVITY LEVEL :Bed rest = 27.5 (hospital patients)Sedentary = 30 (secretary, clerk, typist administrator, cashier, bank teller)Light = 35 ( teacher, nurse, student, Lab.Tech, house wife with maid)Moderate = 40 ( housewife w/o a maid, vendor, mechanic, jeepney & car driver)Heavy = 45 ( farmer, laborer, cargador, laborer, coal miner, fisherman, heavy eqpt.optr )BMI LEVEL: WAIST CIRCUMFERENCEObese = above 30 MALE – 94 CM.Overweight = 25-29.9 FEMALE – 80 CM.Normal = 18.- 24.9Under weight = below 18 8
  9. 9. CHAPTER 4 MACRO NUTRIENTS Macro nutrients - constitute the bulk of the food we eat, they provide energy and chemical building-blocks for tissues. 3 Macro Nutrients: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Protein 3. Fats CARBOHYDRATES - Major source of energy for the body. - Consist of 60-100% of calories. - 1 gram of carbohydrates contains 4 calories. - carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the general formula of Cm(H2O)n. Classification of Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates 1) Monosaccharide – “simple sugar”, is the simplest form of sugar. a) Glucose – “blood sugar” (usually found in grapes, corn and blood) b) Fructose – sweetest of simple sugar. Found in honey, fruits and vegetables. c) Galactose – not found in free foods. Galactose is a result when the lactose breakdown. ** Simple sugar are water soluble, and quickly absorb in the bloodstream ***2) Disaccharide – “double sugar”. Made up of 2 monosaccharide. a) Sucrose – ordinary table sugar (glucose & fructose) b) Lactose – “milk sugar” (glucose & galactose) c) Maltose –(malt sugar) is produced during the malting of cereals such as barley. 9
  10. 10. 3) Polysaccharide – “ complex sugar” Composed of many molecules of simple sugar a) Starch – most important in human. They supply energy for longer period of time. Examples: rice, wheat, corn, carrots and potatoes. Starches are not water-soluble and require digestive enzymes called amylases to break them apart. b) Dextrins – formed by the breakdown of starch. obtained from starch by the application of heat oracids and used mainly as adhesives and thickening agents. c) Cellulose – Non-digestible by humans. They lower the blood glucose level of people with diabetes.that is composed of glucose units, forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants, and isimportant in the manufacture of numerous products, such as paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals d) Pectin – Sources from fruits and are often used as a base for jellies. e) Glycogen – “animal starch” f) Hemicellulose – also indigestible, found in agar, pectin, woody fibers, leaves, stems. g) Inulin – Important medicine and nursing as it provides test of renal function.Functions of Carbohydrates: 1) Main source of energy for the body. 2) Protein sparing action 3) Necessary for normal fat metabolism 4) Cellulose stimulate peristaltic movement of the gastrointestinal tract. Absorb water to give bulk to the intestines. 5) Lactose encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria, resulting in a laxative action. 6) Glucose is the sole source of energy in the brain. Proper functioning of the tissuesSources of Carbohydrates 1) Whole grains 2) Sweet potatoes & white potatoes. Bananas, dried fruits. 3) Milk (lactose) 4) Sugar , sweets, honey, maple sugar“Empty Calories” - foods which do not contain any other nutrients except carbohydratesCommon Diseases: 1. Overweight 2. Diabetes 3. Tooth Decay 4. Depressed appetite 5. Fermentation causing gas formation 6. CancerDeficiency1)Ketosis – disease caused by lack of carbohydrates, in which the acid level of the body is raised2)Protein _ Energy Malnutrition a) Kwashiorkor – Protein Def. 10
  11. 11. b) Marasmus – Calorie Def.3) Low Blood Sugar LevelFATS or Lipids - Fats, oils, and waxes belong to the group of naturally occurring organic materials called - lipids. - Lipids are those constituents of plants or animals which are insoluble in water but soluble in other organic solvents. - Most concentrated form of energy - Contains 9 calories per gram fat - It is recommended 15-25% fat in the diet - The basic unit of fat is called “triglyceride”, which consist of molecule of glycerol attached to the 3 fatty acids3 Forms Fatty Acids 1) Saturated Fats – Shown to raise blood cholesterol. • Considered the most “dangerous” type of fat that lead to raise blood cholesterol may lead to coronary heart disease • Difficult to metabolize causing weight gain Sources: butter, lard, meat, cheese, eggs, coconut oil, chocolate, cakes, cookies 2) Monounsaturated fats – lower level of “bad” cholesterol. Sources: Vegetable oil, peanut, soybean, corn, olive oil, canola oil 3) Polyunsaturated Fats – Lower levels of total cholesterol.Classes: 1) Omega 3 - have a positive effect on reducing mortality from cardiovascular disease.  Reduced blood clotting tendency and reduced blood pressure. 2) Omega 6 – “Linoleic acid” polyunsaturated fatty acid.  lowers cholesterol levels in the blood and helps in the prevention of heart disease.  Sources of Polyunsaturated fats : unrefined safflower, corn, sesame, soybean, sunflower oil, seeds, nuts, dark green vegetables. 11
  12. 12. Fatty Acid Composition of Common Food Fats OIL POLYUNSAT. F.A MONOUNSAT. F. TOTAL UNSAT. F.A SATURATED F.ASafflower Oil 75% 12% 86% 9%Sunflower Oil 66% 20% 86% 10%Corn Oil 59% 24% 83% 13%Soybean Oil 58% 23% 81% 14%Cotton seed Oil 52% 18% 17% 26%Canola Oil 33% 55% 88% 7%Olive Oil 8% 74% 82% 13%Peanut Oil 32% 46% 78% 17%Margarine Oil 18% 59% 77% 19%Palm Oil 9% 37% 46% 49%Coconut Oil 2% 6% 8% 86%Shortening 14% 51% 65% 31% ANIMAL FATTuna fat 37% 26% 63% 27%Chicken fat 21% 45% 66% 30%Beef fat 4% 42% 46% 50%Butter fat 4% 29% 33% 62%Lard 11% 45% 56% 40%Functions: 1) Important source of calories to provide a continuous supply if energy. 2) Protein sparing 3) Maintain the constant blood temperature 4) Cushions vital organs such as kidney against injury 5) Facilitates the absorption of fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) 6) Provides satiety and delays onset on hunger. 7) Contributes flavor and palatability to the diet.CholesterolCholesterol is a major component of all cell membranes. It is required for synthesis of sex hormones,bile acids, and vitamin D. It is also a precursor of the steroid hormones.  Cholesterol is also made in the body and is taken also thru foods  But Cholesterol is a major factor in the development of heart diseases  Daily intake should not exceed 300 mg./daySource of Dietary Cholesterol • Richest: egg yolk, fish roes, mayonnaise and shell fish. 12
  13. 13. • Moderate : Fat on meat, duck, goose, cold cuts, whole milks, cream, ice cream, cheese, butter and most commercially made cakes, biscuits and pastries. • Poor : All fish and fish canned in vegetable oil, very lean meats, poultry without skin, skimmed milk , low fat yoghurt and cottage cheese. • Cholesterol free : All vegetables, and vegetable oils, fruit (including avocados and olives), nuts, rice, egg white and sugar.Vocabularies:Lipid – Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides,that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, are oily to the touch.Fat - Any of various soft, solid, or semisolid organic compounds constituting the esters of glycerol andfatty acids and their associated organic groups.Oil – is liquid at room temperature soluble in various organic solvents such as ether but not in waterCholesterol – is a form of fat in animal origin that is a factor in the development of heart disease.Transfats - fatty acids that are produced when polyunsaturated oil are hydrogenated to make themmore solid. Thus raise the level of blood cholesterol.Hydrogenated fats – unsaturated oil undergone hydrogenation to make them more solid and lessresistant to heat.Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) - A complex of lipids and proteins, with greater amounts of lipid thanprotein, that transports cholesterol in the blood. High levels are associated with an increased risk ofatherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) - A complex of lipids and proteins in approximately equal amounts thatfunctions as a transporter of cholesterol in the blood. High levels are associated with a decreased risk ofatherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.10 Foods High Transfats 1. Spreads – mayonnaise, margarine, butter 2. Package foods – cake mixes, biscuits 3. Soups – noodle soups 4. Fast foods – Mcdonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken 5. Frozen foods – frozen pies, pizza, breaded fish sticks, breaded chicken 6. Baked goods – cupcakes 7. Cookies & cakes 8. Donuts 9. Cream Filled cookies 10. Chips & Crackers 13
  14. 14. Sources of Fat 1) Animal Fats – fat from meat, fish, poultry, milk, milk products and eggs. 2) Vegetable Fats – margarine, seed and vegetable oil, nuts 3) Visible Fats – butter, cream, margarine, lard, fish liver oils, pork fat 4) Invisible Fats – cheeses, olives, cakes, nuts, pastriesDiseases: 1) Heart Disease 2) Cancer 3) ObesityPROTEIN • Known as the building blocks of the body • It contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. • Protein is made up of amino acids which is the basic component of proteinAMINO ACIDSAmino acids are known as the building blocks of protein. They perform many important functions such as: building cells, protecting the body from viruses orbacteria, repairing damaged tissue and carrying oxygen throughout the body There are 20 different amino acids. Amino acids are linked together to form peptides, which aresmall chains of amino acids. The peptides are then linked together to form larger proteins.There are thousands of different proteins that carry out a large number of jobs in the human body. Eventhough so many different proteins are at work in your body, you dont have to worry about consumingeach individual protein from the foods you eat. Your body will make those proteins. All you need to do isto make sure your body has a healthy supply of all 20 of the different amino acid "building blocks."Having enough of those amino acids is easy because your body can make 11 of them from othercompounds already in your body. That leaves eight amino acids that you must get from your diet. 14
  15. 15. Types of Amino Acids1) Essential Amino Acids –are those that are necessary for good health but cannot be produced by thebody and so must be supplied in the diet. Ex. Leucine, Isoleucine Lysine, Valine Typtophan, Phenylalanine, Methionine Serine 2) Non-Essential Amino Acids –are those that are produced by the body so not as necessary in the diet Ex. Aspartic Acid Tyrosine Glycine Cysteine Arginine Glutamic Acid Histidine Glutamine Alanine Asparagine Proline Complete and Incomplete Protein • Complete – contain all essential amino acid in sufficient quantities to supply the body’s need Sources: proteins from animals • Incomplete – those deficient in one or more essential amino acids. Sources : Plant ( grains, legumes, seeds and nutsFunctions of Proteins 1) Used in repairing worn out body tissue 2) Source of heat and energy 3) Contribute to numerous essential body secretions (mucus, milk, sperm cells) 4) Keeping fluids and pH balanced in the body 5) Play a large role in the resistance of the body to diseases 6) Contributing to enzyme activity that promotes chemical reactions in the body 7) Signaling cells what to do and when to do it 8) Transporting substances around the body 9) Serving as building blocks for hormone production 10) Helping blood clot 11) Serving as structural components that give our body parts their shapes Sources: Complete Protein 1. Meat – beef, pork, lamb 2. Poultry – chicken, turkey, duck 3. Fish 15
  16. 16. 4. Dairy Products – milk, yogurt, cheese Incomplete Protein Grains – beans, corn, oats, pasta, whole grain breads Legumes, seeds & nuts – sesame seed, sunflower seed, peas, rice, peanuts, cashew Vegetables – Brocolli Common Diseases1) Heart Disease2) Cancer (prostate, pancreas, kidney, breast and colon)3) Osteoporosis4) Weight control5) Kidney Diseases6) Ketosis Protein – Energy Malnutrition CHAPTER 5 MICRO NUTRIENTS VITAMINS & MINERALS VITAMINS • Complex organic compound to regulate body processes and maintain body tissue • “Vitamin” comes from the Latin word “vita” meaning life, “amine” means nitrogen compound. • Vitamins do not give the body energy. • Therefore, we cannot increase our physical capacity by taking extra vitamins • Vitamins do not have calorie value. Vitamins Terminologies• Precursor or Provitamins – these are compounds that can be changed to the active vitamins Ex. Carotene are precursors to Vit. A• Preformed Vitamins – naturally occurring vitamins that are inactive form and ready for its biological use. Ex. Animal sources• Avitaminosis – severe lack of vitamins 16
  17. 17. Ex. Avitaminosis A leads to night blindness• Hypervitaminosis – “vitamin toxicity” excessive accumulation of vitamins in the body• Vitamin Malnutrition – “too much or too little” NOMENCLATURE OF VITAMINS VITAMIN NOMENCLATURE Vitamin A Retinol D Calciferol E Tocopherol K Phylloquinone Vitamin B1 Thiamine B2 Riboflavin B3 Niacin B4 Adenine B5 Panthotenic Acid B6 Pyridoxine B7 Biotin B8 Inositol ( factor) B10 Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (pseudo vit) B12 Cyanocobalamin (Cobalamin) Folic Acid FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS (Vit. A D E K )• FAT Soluble Vitamins – can be absorbed in the presence of fat & stored in the body.• Fat Soluble vitamins generally have pre cursors or pro vitamins• They can be stored in the body, deficiencies are slow to develop.• Not absolutely needed daily from food sources• Stable especially in daily cookingVit. A (Retinol)- Vitamin A is a group of compounds that play an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, and cell differentiation (in which a cell becomes part of the brain, muscle, lungs, blood, or other specialized tissue.) Vitamin A helps regulate the immune system, which helps prevent or fight off infections by making white blood cells that destroy harmful bacteria and viruses . Vitamin A also may help lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) fight infections more effectively. Vitamin A promotes healthy surface linings of the eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts . When those linings break down, it becomes easier for bacteria to enter the body and cause infection. Vitamin A also helps the skin and mucous membranes function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses . Vitamin A found in foods that come from animals is called preformed vitamin A. It is absorbed in the 17
  18. 18. form of retinol, one of the most usable (active) forms of vitamin A. Sources include liver, whole milk, and some fortified food products. Retinol can be made into retinal and retinoic acid (other active forms of vitamin A) in the body. - Vitamin A that is found in colorful fruits and vegetables is called provitamin A carotenoid. They can be made into retinol in the body. In the United States, approximately 26% of vitamin A consumed by men and 34% of vitamin A consumed by women is in the form of provitamin A carotenoids. Common provitamin A carotenoids found in foods that come from plants are beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin .Among these, beta-carotene is most efficiently made into retinol - - Table 1: Selected animal sources of vitamin A [18] Food Vitamin A (IU)* %DV**Liver, beef, cooked, 3 ounces 27,185 545Liver, chicken, cooked, 3 ounces 12,325 245Milk, fortified skim, 1 cup 500 10Cheese, cheddar, 1 ounce 284 6Milk, whole (3.25% fat), 1 cup 249 5 5Egg substitute, ¼ cup 226 - Table 2: Selected plant sources of vitamin A (from beta-carotene) [18] Food Vitamin A (IU)* %DV**Carrot juice, canned, ½ cup 22,567 450Carrots, boiled, ½ cup slices 13,418 270Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 11,458 230Kale, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 9,558 190Carrots, 1 raw (7½ inches) 8,666 175Vegetable soup, canned, chunky, ready-to-serve, 1 cup 5,820 115Cantaloupe, 1 cup cubes 5,411 110Spinach, raw, 1 cup 2,813 55Apricots with skin, juice pack, ½ cup 2,063 40Apricot nectar, canned, ½ cup 1,651 35Papaya, 1 cup cubes 1,532 30Mango, 1 cup sliced 1,262 25Oatmeal, instant, fortified, plain, prepared with water, 1 cup 1,252 25Peas, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 1,050 20Tomato juice, canned, 6 ounces 819 15Peaches, canned, juice pack, ½ cup halves or slices 473 10 18
  19. 19. Peach, 1 medium 319 6 6Pepper, sweet, red, raw, 1 ring (3 inches diameter by ¼ inch thick) 313 - * IU = International Units ** DV = Daily Value. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a nutrient. The DV for vitamin A is 5,000 IU. Most food labels do not list vitamin A content. The percent DV (%DV) column in the table above indicates the percentage of the DV provided in one serving. A food providing 5% or less of the DV is a low source while a food that provides 10% to 19% of the DV is a good source. A food that provides 20% or more of the DV is high in that nutrient. It is important to remember that foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.. FUNCTIONS 1) Vision Cycle – necessary component of visual purple (rhodopsia), a pigment to make adjustments to light and dark. 2) Necessary material for maintenance of epithelial tissues. 3) Growth & Bone Development – 4) Reproduction – necessary for normal reproduction and lactation. 5) Antioxidant Deficiency & Toxicity Vitamin A (Retinol) Deficiency • Night blindness • Eye lesions • Retarded growth • Lower resistance to infections • Faulty skeletal & dental development Skin Lesions Toxicity • Liver damage • Mild dermatitis • Thickening of the skin and peeling off • Course sparse hair • Hyper carotenimia (harmless orange appearance 19
  20. 20. VIT. D (Calciferol)Vitamin D actually refers to a group of steroid molecules. Vitamin D is called the sunlight vitaminbecause the body produces it when the suns ultraviolet B (UVB) rays strike the skin. It is the onlyvitamin the body manufactures naturally and is technically considered a hormone. Vitamin D isimportant for the proper absorption of calcium from food. It is vital for the control of the levels ofcalcium in the blood and also controls the rate at which the body excretes calcium in the urine. Health BenefitsVitamin D and osteoporosis - Adequate amounts of vitamin D is necessary for preventing bone loss. Lowlevels of vitamin D and insufficient sunlight exposure are associated with osteoporosis. The body cannotabsorb calcium from food or supplements without an adequate intake of vitamin D. After menopause,women are particularly at risk for developing this condition. Vitamin Dtaken along with calcium plays a critical role in maintaining bone density. Vitamin D functions byincreasing the uptake of calcium from the intestine through interaction with the parathyroid glands incontrolling bone resabsorption and serum calcium levels. Vitamin D also increases reabsorption ofphosphate by the kidney tubule, and may directly affect the osteoblast, the cell which forms bone.Vitamin D and cancer - Vitamin Ds immunomodulatory abilities may also play a role in its anti-canceractivity. Vitamin D demonstrats a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in a number of cancercell lines. It also has a pro-differentiation effect on these cells, resulting in potent anti-cancer activity insome preliminary work. vitamin D increases the potency of cytokines and enhances the phagocyteactivity and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity of macrophages and that it boosts natural killer cell activityand helps regulate T cells, among other things. Vitamin Ds analogues show significant experimentalactivity against colorectal, renal cell, breast and prostate cancers, among others.Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases - Maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels may help decrease therisk of several autoimmune diseases such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, andrheumatoid arthritis. A daily multi-vitamin supplement containing vitamin D may reduce the risk ofdeveloping multiple sclerosis. Low intakes of vitamin D may be linked to an increased risk of arthritis ofthe hip in older women. One recent study showed that taking 400 IU or more of vitamin D daily waseffective in delaying or stopping the progression of osteoarthritis of the knees. Autoimmune responsesare mediated by immune cells called T cells. The biologically active form of vitamin D can modulate T cellresponses, such that the autoimmune responses are diminished.Vitamin D and psoriasis - Vitamin D is sometimesused in the treatment for psoriasis. Because vitamin Dand its analogues are potent antiproliferative agents for keratinocytes and stimulators of epidermal celldifferentiation. Calcipotriol has been demonstrated to significantly improve psoriatic lesions in a number 20
  21. 21. of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Because it plays a role in skin cell metabolism and growth,vitamin D may be helpful in treating the itching and flaking associated with this skin ailment.Vitamin D and other bone disorders - Vitamin D protects against the preventable bone diseases ricketsand osteomalacia (softening of the bones in adults caused by inability to properly deposit calcium). Anadequate level of Vitamin D in the body is necessary to maintain strong bones and to help preventfractures in older people. Vitamin D supplements are also used for people with genetic diseases thatinterfere with the metabolism of Vitamin D. Functions 1) Absorption of Calcium & Phosphorus 2) Essential for normal growth development. Food Sources 1) Synthesis with sunlight (10 mins/day) 2) cod liver fish, halibut [type of flatfish], salmon, sardine, egg yolk 3) Fortified Vit. A products Deficiency • Tetany ( abnormal muscle twitching and cramps • Rickets (defective bones, retarded growth) • Osteomalasia • ( softening of the bones) Toxicity • Stone formation on kidney • Demineralisation of the bone • Polyuria • Weight Loss • Hypercalcemia Vit. E (Tocopherol)The health benefits of vitamin E range include skin enhancement, wound healing, immune function, andprotection against various diseases. Also called alpha-tocopherol, vitamin E is believed to reducecholesterol and plaque buildup, reducing the risk of stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD).Vitamin E is an essential nutrient, which means the body needs it but cannot produce it on its own.However, vitamin E deficiency is rare because it is fat-soluble - it is stored in the fat tissues for up to sixmonths before getting depleted. Common food sources include nuts, poultry, wheat products, andvarious vegetable oils, particularly wheat germ oil. It is also available as a health supplement. Otherhealth benefits of vitamin E include the following:Antioxidant 21
  22. 22. One of the best health benefits of vitamin E is its antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants help remove freeradicals - unstable compounds that damage cell structure, increasing the risk of cancer and weakeningthe immune system. This also protects against eye diseases, diabetes and pancreatic disorders, andAlzheimers Disease.Cholesterol reductionVitamin E prevents cholesterol from being converted to plaque, which thickens the blood vessels andleads to stroke and heart disease. It also thins the blood and improves blood flow even with plaquebuildup on the artery walls. Studies show that vitamin E from foods can reduce the risk of stroke inpostmenopausal women, although further studies are needed to support this claim.Skin careSkin and lip protection are also well-known health benefits of vitamin E. Vitamin E helps retain moisturein the skin and prevents dryness, itchiness, and chapping. It also protects against UV radiation andspeeds up wound healing. It can be applied topically and is a main ingredient in most creams, lotions,and sunscreens.Anti-inflammatory and pain reliefStudies suggest that vitamin E can both relieve and prevent osteoarthritis. Its effects are similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are traditionally used to relieve arthritic pain. It alsoimproves joint mobility, preventing gout and buildup of waste material in the joints. Food Sources Whole grain nuts, seeds, green and leafy vegetables, polyunsaturated fats • No toxicity , this nutrient cannot be stored to a large extend in the body Vit. K ( Phylloquinone) Functions Aids in blood clotting and bone mineralization Food Sources Green leafy vegetables, soy beans • Deficiency Hemmorhagic diseases Toxicity • Vomitting • Albuminuria • Hemolysis FYI • Anti oxidant - Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals. 22
  23. 23. • Free Radicals - are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures • PHYTOCHEMICAL - natural bioactive compound found in plant foods that works with nutrients and dietary fiber to protect against disease WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS • Water soluble vitamins are B-complex group and Vit. C • Dissolve in water and are not stored, they are eliminated in urine, so we need continuous supply of this vitamins in the diet everyday. • Water-soluble vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage or preparation. • To reduce vitamin loss, refrigerate fresh produce, keep milk and grains away from strong light, and use the cooking water from vegetables to prepare soups. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning that your body doesnt store it. We get what we need,instead, from food. You need vitamin C for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. Ithelps the body make collagen, an important protein used to make skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments,and blood vessels. Vitamin C is essential for healing wounds, and for repairing and maintaining bonesand teeth.Vitamin C is an antioxidant, along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and many other plant-based nutrients.Antioxidants block some of the damage caused by free radicals, which occur naturally when our bodiestransform food into energy. The build-up of free radicals over time may be largely responsible for theaging process and can contribute to the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease,and arthritis.Evidence suggests that many people may be mildly deficient in vitamin C, although serious deficienciesare rare in industrialized countries. Smoking cigarettes lowers the amount of vitamin C in the body, sosmokers are at a higher risk of deficiency. Signs of vitamin deficiency include dry and splitting hair;gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and bleeding gums; rough, dry, scaly skin; decreased wound-healing rate, easy bruising; nosebleeds; and a decreased ability to ward off infection. A severe form ofvitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy. Functions: 1. Maintenance of bones, teeth, connective tissue,cartilages 2. Absorption of Calcium, Iron and Folacin 3. Production of brain hormones, immune factors 4. Antioxidant Deficiency: 1. Bleeding gums, scurvy, anemia 2. joint pain, increase resistance to infections, 23
  24. 24. 3. rough skin, hair loss, loose teeth Toxicity Diarrhea, bloating, cramps, formation of kidney stones FOOD SOURCESFoods that are the highest sources of vitamin C include:  Cantaloupe  Citrus fruits and juices, such as orange and grapefruit  Kiwi fruit  Mango  Papaya  Pineapple  Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries  WatermelonVegetables that are the highest sources of vitamin C include:  Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower  Green and red peppers  Spinach, cabbage, turnip greens, and other leafy greens  Sweet and white potatoes  Tomatoes and tomato juice Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)Vitamin B1, also called thiamine or thiamin, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convertfood (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, oftenreferred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitaminsare necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly,and are necessary for optimal brain function.All B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning that the body does not store them.Like other B complex vitamins, thiamine is considered an "anti-stress" vitamin because it maystrengthen the immune system and improve the bodys ability to withstand stressful conditions. It isnamed B1 because it was the first B vitamin discovered.Thiamine is found in both plants and animals and plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions. Forexample, it is required for the body to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the bodyuses for energy. 24
  25. 25. Thiamine deficiency is rare, but can occur in people who get most of their calories from sugar or alcohol.People who are deficient in thiamine may experience fatigue, irritability, depression and abdominaldiscomfort. People with thiamine deficiency also have difficulty digesting carbohydrates. As a result, asubstance called pyruvic acid builds up in their bloodstream, causing a loss of mental alertness, difficultybreathing, and heart damage (a disease known as beriberi).BeriberiThe most important use of thiamine is to treat beriberi, which is caused by not getting enough thiaminein your diet. Symptoms include swelling, tingling, or burning sensation in the hands and feet, confusion,difficulty breathing (from fluid in the lungs), and uncontrolled eye movements (called nystagmus).Although people in the developed world generally do not have to worry about getting enough thiaminebecause foods such as cereals and breads are fortified with the vitamin, people can develop a deficiencyfairly quickly, because the body does not store thiamine.Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeWernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder caused by thiamine deficiency; as with beriberi, it istreated by giving supplemental thiamine. Wernicke-Korsakoff is actually two disorders: Wernickesdisease involves damage to nerves in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is generally causedby malnutrition stemming from habitual alcohol abuse. Korsakoff syndrome is characterized by memoryimpairment and nerve damage. High doses of thiamine can improve muscle coordination and confusion,but rarely improves memory loss.CataractsPreliminary evidence suggests that thiamine -- along with other nutrients -- may lower risk of developingcataracts. People with plenty of protein and vitamins A, B1, B2, and B3 (niacin) in their diet are less likelyto develop cataracts. Getting enough vitamins C, E, and B complex (particularly B1, B2, B9 [folic acid],and B12 [cobalamin) may further protect the lens of your eyes from developing cataracts. Moreresearch is needed.Alzheimers diseaseBecause lack of thiamine can cause dementia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, it has been proposedthat thiamine might help reduce severity of Alzheimers disease. Scientific studies have not alwaysshown any benefit from thiamine, however. More research is needed before thiamine can be proposedas an effective treatment for Alzheimers disease.Heart failure 25
  26. 26. Thiamine may be related to heart failure in two ways. First, low levels of thiamine can lead to "wetberiberi," a condition where fluid builds up around the heart. However, it isnt clear that taking thiaminwill help people with heart failure not related to beriberi.Many people with heart failure take diuretics (water pills), which help rid the body of excess fluid. Butdiuretics may also cause the body to get rid of too much thiamine. A few small studies suggest thattaking thiamine supplements may help. A multivitamin, taken regularly, should provide enoughthiamine. Deficiency 1. Mental confusion; muscle weakness 2. wasting; edema; impaired growth; beriberi. Toxicity (none) None Food Sources Very good sources of vitamin B1 include asparagus romaine lettuce,mushrooms,spinach, sunflower seeds, tuna, green peas, tomatoes, eggplant and Brusselssprouts, pork, liver, whole grains, lean meats Vit. B2 (Riboflavin) Vitamin B2, also called riboflavin, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. In addition to producing energy for the body, riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. Free radicals occur naturally in the body but can damage cells and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process, as well as the development of a number of health conditions, such as heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as riboflavin can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or help prevent some of the damage they cause. Riboflavin is also needed to help the body convert vitamin B6 and folate into active forms. It is also important for body growth and red blood cell production. Defieciency Most healthy people who eat a well-balanced diet get enough riboflavin. However, elderly people and alcoholics may be at risk for riboflavin deficiency because of poor diet. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include fatigue; slowed growth; digestive problems; cracks and sores around 26
  27. 27. the corners of the mouth; swollen magenta tongue; eye fatigue; swelling and soreness of the throat; and sensitivity to light. Riboflavin is an important nutrient in the prevention of headache and some visual disturbances, particularly cataracts. Anemia Children with sickle-cell anemia (a blood disorder characterized by abnormally shaped red blood cells) tend to have lower levels of certain antioxidants, including riboflavin. The same is also true of people with iron deficiency anemia, and studies suggest that taking riboflavin supplements may improve the response to iron therapy. Cataracts Vitamin B2, along with other nutrients, is important for normal vision, and preliminary evidence shows that riboflavin might help prevent cataracts (damage to the lens of the eye, which can lead to cloudy vision). In one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, people who took a niacin-riboflavin supplement had significantly less cataracts. However, researchers dont know whether that was due to riboflavin, niacin, or the combination of the two. And levels above 10 mg per day of riboflavin can actually promote damage to the eye from the sun. More research is needed to see if riboflavin has any real benefit in preventing cataracts. Migraine Headache Several studies indicate that people who get migraines may decrease the frequency and duration of the headache by taking riboflavin. One double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed that taking 400 mg of riboflavin a day cut the number of migraine attacks in half. The study did not compare riboflavin to conventional medications used to prevent migraines, however, so more research is needed. Dietary Sources: The best sources of riboflavin include brewers yeast, almonds, organ meats, whole grains, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soybeans, milk, yogurt, eggs, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and spinach. Flours and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin. Riboflavin is destroyed by light, so food should be stored away from light to protect its riboflavincontent. While riboflavin is not destroyed by heat, it can be lost in water when foods are boiled orsoaked. During cooking, roasting and steaming preserves more riboflavin than frying or scalding. Deficiency 1. Cracks at corners of mouth; 2. Dermatitis around nose and lips; 3. Eyes sensitive to light. Toxicity (none) Food Sources 27
  28. 28. 1. Liver, milk, dark green vegetables, whole and 2. enriched grain products, eggs Vit. B3 (Niacin) Vitamin B3 is one of 8 B vitamins. It is also known as niacin (nicotinic acid) and has 2 other forms,niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate, which have different effects from niacin. All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" toproduce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the bodymetabolize fats and protein. B complex vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver.They also help the nervous system function properly.Niacin also helps the body make various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands andother parts of the body. Niacin is effective in improving circulation and reducing cholesterol levels in theblood. Symptoms of mild deficiency include indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, anddepression. Severe deficiency can cause a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra is characterized bycracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea. It is generally treated with a nutritionally balanced diet andniacin supplements. Niacin deficiency also results in burning in the mouth and a swollen, bright redtongue.Very high doses of B3 (available by prescription) have been shown to prevent or improve symptoms ofthe following conditions. However, taken at high doses niacin can be toxic, so you should take doseshigher than the Recommended Daily Allowance only under your doctors supervision. Researchers aretrying to determine if inositol hexanicotinate has similar benefits without serious side effects, but so farresults are preliminary.High CholesterolNiacin (but not niacinamide) has been used since the 1950s to lower elevated LDL ("bad") cholesteroland triglyceride (fat) levels in the blood and is more effective in increasing HDL ("good") cholesterollevels than other cholesterol-lowering medications. However, side effects can be unpleasant and evendangerous. High doses of niacin cause flushing of the skin (which can be reduced by taking aspirin 30minutes before the niacin), stomach upset (which usually subsides within a few weeks), headache,dizziness, and blurred vision. There is an increased risk of liver damage. A time-release form of niacinreduces flushing, but its long-term use is associated with liver damage. In addition, niacin can interact 28
  29. 29. with other cholesterol-lowering drugs (see "Possible Interactions"). You should not take niacin at highdoses without your doctors supervision.AtherosclerosisBecause niacin lowers LDL and triglycerides in the blood, it may help prevent atherosclerosis (hardeningof the arteries) and is sometimes prescribed along with other medications. However, niacin alsoincreases levels of homocysteine levels in the blood, which is associated with an increased risk of heartdisease. This is another reason you should not take high doses of niacin without your doctorssupervision.DiabetesSome evidence suggests that niacinamide (but not niacin) might help delay the onset of insulindependence (in other words, delay the time that you would need to take insulin) in type 1 diabetes. Intype 1 diabetes, the bodys immune system mistakenly attacks the cells in the pancreas that makeinsulin, eventually destroying them. Niacinamide may help protect those cells for a time, but moreresearch is needed to tell for sure.The effect of niacin on type 2 diabetes is more complicated. People with type 2 diabetes often have highlevels of fats and cholesterol in the blood, and niacin, often in conjunction with other drugs, can lowerthose levels. However, niacin can also raise blood sugar levels, resulting in hyperglycemia, which isparticularly dangerous for someone with diabetes. For that reason, anyone with diabetes should takeniacin only when directed to do so by their doctor, and should be carefully monitored for hyperglycemia.Dietary Sources: The best dietary sources of vitamin B3 are found in beets, brewers yeast, beef liver, beefkidney, fish, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sunflower seeds, and peanuts. Bread and cereals are usuallyfortified with niacin. In addition, foods that contain tryptophan, an amino acid the body coverts intoniacin, include poultry, red meat, eggs, and dairy products Vit. B5 (Panthotenic Acid)Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food(carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, oftenreferred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitaminsare necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly. 29
  30. 30. In addition to playing a role in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy, vitamin B5 is criticalto the manufacture of red blood cells, as well as sex and stress-related hormones produced in theadrenal glands (small glands that sit atop the kidneys). Vitamin B5 is also important in maintaining ahealthy digestive tract, and it helps the body use other vitamins (particularly B2 or riboflavin). It issometimes referred to as the "anti-stress" vitamin because of its effect on the adrenal glands, but thereis no real evidence as to whether it helps the body withstand stressful conditionsDietary Sources:Pantothenic acid gets its name from the Greek root pantos, meaning "everywhere," because it isavailable in a wide variety of foods. A lot of vitamin B5 is lost when you food is processed, however.Fresh meats, vegetables, and whole unprocessed grains have more vitamin B5 than refined, canned, andfrozen food. The best sources are brewers yeast, corn, cauliflower, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, avocado,legumes, lentils, egg yolks, beef (especially organ meats such as liver and kidney), turkey, duck, chicken,milk, split peas, peanuts, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals,lobster, wheat germ, and salmonDeficiencyUncommon due to availability in most foods;fatigue; nausea, abdominal cramps; difficulty sleeping.Toxicity (none)Vit. B6 (Pyridoxine)Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food(carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, oftenreferred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B complex vitaminsare necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly.FunctionsAids in protein metabolism, absorption;Aids in red blood cell formation;Helps body use fats.DeficiencySkin disorders, dermatitisCracks at corners of mouth;Irritability; anemia; kidney stones;Nausea; smooth tongue. 30
  31. 31. B8 (Inositol)FunctionsHelps release energy from carbohydratesAids in fat synthesis.DeficiencyFatigue; loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting;Depression; muscle pains; anemia.Toxicity – noneFood SourcesLiver, kidney, egg yolk, milk,Fresh vegetables Vit. B12 – PhylloquinoneFunction: Synthesis of red blood cellsDeficiency - Anemia, fatigue, sore tongueFood Sources – all animal productsMineralsWhat is a mineral?Minerals are elements that are not organic needed by the body in relatively small amounts to helpregulate body process and maintain tissue structure • Minerals do not broken down during digestion nor destroyed by heat or light.Trace and Major Minerals • Trace Minerals – minerals that are required in our diet at amounts less than 100 mg/day. • Major Minerals - minerals that are required in our diet at amounts greater than 100 mg/day.Primary Roles: • Metabolic health • Anti oxidant • Blood health • Bone health • Electrolyte balanceMajor Minerals: 1) Calcium 2) Phosphorus 3) Magnesium 4) Potassium 5) Sodium 31
  32. 32. 6) ChlorideTrace Minerals: 1) Iron 2) Iodine 3) Zinc 4) Flouride 5) Selenium 6) Manganese 7) ChromiumMajor Minerals Mineral Symbol Function Deficiency Food Sources Calcium Ca Maintenance of bones and teeth Osteoporosis, Dairy products, convulsion, muscle green leafy veg, spasm fish with bonesPhosphorus Ph Bone growth Milk,cereal, all foodsMagnesium Mg Muscle contraction, Green veg,,sea Bone & tooth structure foods, legumes Sodium Na Body fluid & acid-base balance Hypertension, Salt, processed edema foods Potassium K Body fluid balance All whole foods Chloride Cl Body Fluid Balance Salt, processed foodTrace Minerals Mineral Symbol Function Deficiency Food Sources Iron Fe Red Blood Cell structure Iron def. anemia Dark green leafy vegetables, liver, legumes Iodine I Thyroid hormone development Goiter Sea foods, iodized Energy metabolism sale Zinc Zn Fetal development, wound healing Whole grain, meat, egg Flouride Fl Teeth maintenance Dental carries Fortified water, tea, fish bones 32
  33. 33. WATER • Most important nutritional constituent is water • The major component of the body is water • 60 – 70% water • Water has no nutritional values and no calories • Water is necessary to transport nutrients • regulate body temperature • Remove waste materials • Participate in chemical reaction & energy production• Recommended to drink at least 8 glasses a day• If trying to loose weight 12-15 glasses a day is recommended• A high intake of water aids in fat loss• Caffeine & alcohol are both diuretics. Large intake of water is recommended• Hangover are generally cause by the dehydration action by alcohol• Match a bottle of beer with a glass of water to lessen the intensity of hangover• Vital Element, second only to oxygen• Vital every day• Things that dehydrate – Aging process – Sweat from exercise – Medications – Caffeine• Good general rule: for each glass of beverage with caffeine that you consume, drink one extra glass of water.• Other Benefits – Helps utilize stored fat for energy – Helps body recover quicker after exercise – Aids healing process when you have been ill 33
  34. 34. CHAPTER 6 NUTRITION IN THE LIFE CYCLE PREGNANCY • Pregnancy – (Gestation) is a period when the fertilized ovum implants itself in the uterus. Human pregnancy last for the period of 266 – 180 days ( 37-40 weeks) BIOLOGICAL CHANGES: • 1. Implantation Period – 1st 2 weeks • Period of organ formation- next 6 weeks • Period of rapid fetal development – remaining 7 months• Nutrition in Pregnancy:• During the total pregnancy period, the basal metabolic rate increase from 6-14%• Calorie intake is increased – 10-20% increase ( if the woman is overweight it is necessary for her o reduce)• Protein - Increase in nitrogen content of the fetus and its membranes and added protection of the mother against complications• Increase of 9.5 gms./ day• Calcium / Phosphorus / Vit. D – Increase , to calcify the fetal bones & teeth (0.5 – 0.9 of the RDA)• Iron – Increase, 700-1000 mg. of Fe is absorbed during the pregnancy• Iodine – to help the mother and the child prevent goiter in the future and for brain development• Folic Acid - women of childbearing age consume 400 micrograms (0.4 mg) of folic acid each day. Folic acid, a nutrient found in some green, leafy vegetables, most berries, nuts, beans, citrus fruits, fortified breakfast cereals, and some vitamin supplements can help reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spinal cord (called neural tube defects). 34
  35. 35. Dangerous for pregnant women• Alcohol, Caffeine & Nicotine –• Smoking – lowers the birth weight, increase the perinatal mortality, decrease oxygenation of the fetus• Alcohol – mental retardation, growth deficiencies, facial deformities. LACTATION • Calories – additional 1000 calories – help to produce milk • Protein – additional of 20 gms. , to compensate the protein lost in milk • Calcium & Phosphorous – Increase of 0.5 mg., to prevent severe depletion of maternal calcium for milk production • Iron – additional intake is recommended for blood lost • Vit. A – additional 2000 IU, needed in the ilk secretion • Riboflavin, Vit. C – increase Fluids – 8 glasses or more Factors Affecting Milk Secretion 1)Diet – intake of meat & veg. soup (tahong, tulya, malunggay) “galactogue”• Stimulate milk secretion• Water should not be drunk beyond the level of natural thirst. It suppress milk secretion 2. Nutritional State of Mother – Malnutrition and illnesses (cardiac and kidney diseases, anemia, beri-beri, tuberculosis) can lessen the quanity and quality of milk• Emotional & Physical State – relax, pleasant surroundings, lots of rest and good sleep• Suckling - suckling right after delivery stimulate milk secretion• Contraceptives & Drugs – depress milk flow 35
  36. 36. Advantages of Breast Feeding COLOSTRUM – thin yellowish fluid secreted during the first 2 days 1. Breast milk produces anti bodies, immunity against diseases 2.Lactose is higher in breast milk, to produce beneficial bacteria in the GI tract. 3.Calcium and Phosphorus level are regulated 4. Prevent dental arch 5.Cow’s milk protein causes allergy 6. Less incidence of lung cancer 7. Fast return of the uterus to its original size 8. Biologically complete 9. Easily digested 10. Convenient and dependable 11. Safe 12. Emotional satisfaction between mother & child INFANCY• Growth – increase in size due to increase in the number of cells• Development – increase in functional ability• Behavioral Development of a Healthy Baby 0-1 month suckles & smiles 2-3 months vocalize & controls head 4-5 months controls hands & rolls over 6-7 months sits briefly & crawls 8-9 months grasps & pulls up 10-11 months walks with support 12 months stars to walk alone Methods of Feeding the Infant: 1) Breast Feeding 2) Artificial Feeding – bottle feeding using infant formula 3)Mixed Feeding – combination of breast & bottle Milk Formula: A) Whole Cows Milk Formula 1. Powdered whole cow’s milk – milk dried under controlled condition (Nido, Birch Tree, Anchor Mik) 2. Full Cream evaporated Milk – whole milk from which 50-60% of water content has been removed 3. Recombined milk – skim milk powder reconstituted to normal fat content of the whole milk by adding butterfat 4.Reconstituted milk – process milk to which water is added to restore its original water content (Frisian Girl, Alpine) 36
  37. 37. B) Other type of evaporated milk not recommended for infants 1. Sweetened condensed – High in sugar resulting in very diluted milk formula 2. Evaporated Filled Milk – cow’s milk from which butterfat has been removed and replaced with vegetable oil (94% coconut oil, 6% corn oil) 3. Skim Milk – butter fat has been removed (Enfamil, Olac) 4.Acidified Milk – increase digestibility ( Pelargon, Acidolac) 5.Completely Modified Milk Formula – Protein & mineral content are adjusted to resemble human milk (SMA, S-26, Similac) 6. Non- cows Milk formula – Soybase for infant’s allergy to cow’s milk ( Sobee, Mullsoy, Isomil) Note: goat’s milk has also been found effective as hypo allergenic milk Baby’s Food During the 1st Year of Life:1. Cereal Foods – (3-4 months), milk is still continued2. Fruits – (3-4 months) , mashed 3. Vegetables – (3-4 months) , mashed (carrots, squash, sayote,) green leafy vegetables may be mashed and sieved and mix with other foods. 4. Eggs –( 4- 5 months) , only eggyolk is given5. ( 9-10 months) , can give the whole egg6. Munggo – ( 5 months) cooked well and strained7. Meat, fish or Poultry – ( 5-6 months) , ground and strained8. Other Foods – custards, puddings, plain ice cream, plain gulaman or jello HOW TO GIVE SUPPLEMENTARY FOODS• Introduce one food at a time• Give small amounts of foods• Use thin, soft consistency. Gradually, modify the consistency• Never force an infant to eat more of a food he can takes• Omit the food if the infant refuse to eat several times• slightly seasoned with small amt. of salt• Variety of foods is important• don’t show any dislikes for the food NUTRITION FOR PRE-SCHOOL• This is the most difficult stage in feeding a child since the appetite tapers off corresponding to the lower rate of growth. Foods to Give the Pre-School Child: 1) Mildly flavored foods 2) Plain foods is acceptable than mixed foods. 3) Fruits, puddings, custard, ice cream and gelatin may be given 37
  38. 38. Sign of Good Nutrition in Pre-School Child – Alert, vigorous and happy – Endurance during activities – sleeps well – Normal height and weight for age – Stands erect, arms and legs straight – Clear, bright eyes, smooth healthy skin, lustrous hair – Firm and well developed muscles – Not irritable and restless – Good attention NUTRITION FOR SCHOOL CHILD Feeding Problems Limited time for eating Poor Eating practices Unbalance program of activities & rest Recommended Solutions: allow sufficient time for meals Encourage child to eat more fruits & vegetables Provide child with properly selected snacks Regulate the activities Guidance in proper food selection NUTRITION FOR ADOLESCENTS The best nutrition advise to keep your adolescent healthy includes encouraging her to:• Eat a variety of foods• Balance the food you eat with physical activity• Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits• Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol• Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt• Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing bodys requirements. NUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY Nutritional Requirements:• Energy (calories) – decreases in calories because of reduced basal metabolic rate and reduce in physical activities. A decrease of 7.5% intake after 45 yrs. Of age• Protein – Protein allowance of 1.12 gms./kg. body weight is maintained• Necessary for the prevention and tissue wasting and susceptibility to diseases• Minerals (Calcium) – is maintained to prevent occurrence of osteoporosis• Iron – Iron allowand for women 50 and above is as low as 7.0 mg/day• Vitamins – Vit. C is needed for the absorption of calcium and iron. Intake of Vit. E to retard cellular aging.• B complex – to maintain good appetite 38
  39. 39. • Water & Fiber – 6-8 glasses a day. To prevent constipation FACTORS AFFECTING ADEQUATE FEEDING• Long standing dietary habits• Loss of teeth• Loss of taste and smell• Loss of neuromuscular coordination• Physical discomfort• Economic consideration• Social Factors• Psychological factors Diet Recommendation1. Eat good breakfast to start the day2. Eat 4-5 light meals a day3. Include essential foods (fish, vegetables, fruits)4. Eat leisurely in pleasant surroundings5. Eat the heaviest at noon6. Avoid fatty foods7. Avoid coffee8. Drink hot milk before going to bed 39
  40. 40. CHAPTER 7 PHYTOCHEMICALSA chemical subs. In plants, some of which perfom important functionsin the human body. It gives colors and flavors and protect plants against insects & diseases.AllicinAllicin, one of the sulfur compounds of garlic, possesses antioxidant activity and is shown to cause avariety of actions potentially useful for human health. Allicin exhibits hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, andprocirculatory effects. It demonstrates antibacterial, anticancer and chemopreventive activities. Inaddition, aged garlic extract possesses hepatoprotective and neuroprotective. But a factor that will limitthe biological activity of allicin is its instability. Fresh crushed garlic cloves generated antibacterialactivity and chemically detectable allicin, but this activity declines on a daily basis in aqueous andethanol solutions. Allicin is also not bioavailable and will not get absorbed in the blood, even afteringesting large amounts of allicin.AntimicrobialThe antimicrobial effect of allicin is due to its chemical reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes.The phytochemical inhibits bacteria and viruses, By its antimicrobial activity, allicin may be an effectivetherapeutic candidate to promote ulcer healing. In vitro-studies have demonstrated the antimicrobialactivity against various pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureaus, Escherichia coliand Lancefield group B streptococci.AnticancerIn vitro studies show that allicin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human colon carcinoma cells.The phytochemical also exhibits antigenotoxic action. But the anticancer effect of allicin in humansremains uncertain, because of its low stability and poor bioavailability.Heart healthGarlic has been suggested to improve heart health by lowering blood pressure, but scientific studieshave provided conflicting results. One study showed that the protective role of allicin againstatherosclerosis, is not only the direct result of its antioxidant activity but also of other mechanisms, suchas lipoprotein modification, inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. 40
  41. 41. Flavonoids Flavonoids have antioxidant activity. Flavonoids are becoming very popular because they have many health promoting effects. Some of the activities attributed to flavonoids include: anti- allergic, anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral. The flavonoids quercetin is known for its ability to relieve hay fever, eszema, sinusitis and asthma. Epidemiological studies have illustrated that heart diseases are inversely related to flavonoid intake. Studies have shown that flavonoids prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein thereby reducing the risk for the development of atherosclerosis. Red wine contains high levels of flavonoids, mainly quercetin and rutin. The high intake of red wine (and flavonoids) by the French might explain why they suffer less from coronary heart disease then other Europeans, although their consumption of cholesterol rich foods is higher (French paradox). Many studies have confirmed that one or two glasses of red wine daily can protect against heart disease. Tea flavonoids have many health benefits. Tea flavonoids reduce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, lowers the blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Soy flavonoids (isoflavones) can also reduce blood cholesterol and can help to prevent osteoporis. Soy flavonoids are also used to ease menopausal symptomsBeta-CaroteneBeta-carotene has received a lot of attention as potential anti-cancer and anti-aging phytochemical.Beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant, protecting the cells of the body from damage caused by freeradicals. Studies indicate that diets low in beta-carotene can increase the bodys susceptibility todamage from free radicals, resulting in an increased risk of chronic diseases like heart disease andcancers. Beta-carotene supplements may help reduce sun induced skin damage. Smokers should avoidlarge doses of beta carotene supplements. Beta-carotene is one of the many carotenoids that our bodycan convert into vitamin A (retinol).Anti-cancerBeta-carotene acts as an anti-cancer agent through its antioxidant property but it also seems tostimulate cell to cell communication. Poor communication between cells may eventually lead to cancer.However, beta-carotene may cause adverse effects on smokers. Two studies indicate that heavysmokers and drinkers may have an increased risk of lung cancer or heart disease, when taking dailymore than 20 mg synthetic beta-carotene as supplements. A study by Harvard School of Public Healthpublished in January 2004 issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention indicates that beta-carotene consumed as part of natural foods has no such negative effects. 41
  42. 42. Skin protectionStudies have demonstrated that beta-carotene may be used for skin protection: it reduces UV-inducedredness of the skin and improves melasma. Beta-carotene is often use in supplements or topical creamsto protect our skin. Too much intake of beta-carotene can result in carotenodermia, a condition thatshows a yellowish discoloration of the skin. This is reversible and harmless.Heart health Epidemiological studies show that beta-carotene may improve our heart health by decreasing blood pressure. Beta-carotene may also help to prevent arteriosclerosis by inhibiting the oxidation of lipids.LuteinLutein is an antioxidant which is believed to be an essential nutrient for normal vision. The protectiverole of lutein against eye damage is well document. Studies have also indicated that lutein improvesheart health, protects our skin against UV damage, reduces diabetes induced oxidative stress, andpossesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties.Eye protectionThe central part of the retina, called the macula, contains macular pigments in which lutein isconcentrated. The yellow coloured pigments protect the retina from damage of the photo-oxidativeaffect of high-energy light. Lutein offers eye protection by lowering the risk of age related vision loss,which causes gradual loss of central vision. Age related vision loss or age related macular degenerationis caused by steady damage of the retina.Heart healthLutein can also reduce the risk for artery diseases. Studies have shown that persons with the highestlutein intake showed the lowest artery wall thickening. Lutein also reduces the oxidation of LDLcholesterol thereby reducing the risk of artery clogging.Skin protection Lutein can also reduce the risk of skin cancer and sunburn. Under influence of sunlight, free radicals are formed inside the skin. These free radicals can damage the DNA of cells. Lutein can protect against the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Lutein is found in egg yolk and many plants and vegetables, including red peppers, mustard, broccoli, zucchini, corn, garden peas, spinach, leek, collard greens and kale. Lutein is responsible for the colouring of many fruits and vegetables. 42
  43. 43. LycopeneLycopene is a very efficient antioxidant, which can neutralize oxygen derived free radicals. The oxidativedamage caused by these free radicals has been linked to many degenerative diseases such ascardiovascular diseases, premature aging, cancer and cataracts. In many countries it is legally allowed toadvertise foods containing tomato lycopene as "containing antioxidants for the maintenance andsupport of healthy cells". Lycopene is generally known for its protective action against prostate cancer.Anti-cancerIn vitro-studies have shown the anti-cancer properties of lycopene against many cancer cells, includingcancer cells of prostate, stomach, lung, colon and skin. There are numerous studies about the effect oflycopene on cancer and prostate cancer in particular. Using Pubmed as a retrieval base, more than 80scientific studies have the names lycopene and prostate in their title. Most of the in-vitro experimentsusing cultured prostate cancer cells demonstrate a protective effect. However, most literature reviewstudies or clinical studies are less conclusive and often contradictory. Lycopene also shows anti-mutagenic action against chemically induced DNA damage.Antibacterial and antifungalLycopene possesses antibacterial and antifungal properties. Lycopene can help to reduce inflammationof the gums and can help to fight infections of Candida albicans.DiabetesDiabetes patients may suffer from complications as vascular disease, diabetic neuropathies orinfections. Lycopene helps to protect diabetes patients against cardiovascular disease and may improvethe immune response.However, the consumption of lycopene seems not to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.ArteriosclerosisLycopene inhibits platelet aggregation and reduces the production of foam cells which play an importantrole in the development of arteriosclerosis. Lycopene helps to prevent arteriosclerosis by reducinginflammatory agents in rats increased risk of venous thrombosis.Antitoxic In laboratory conditions, lycopene shows antitoxic properties against many toxins such as aflatoxin, cyclosporine and cadmium.Distribution Lycopene is the red pigement of ripe tomatoes. Lycopene is also found in guava, pink grapefruit, red oranges and watermelon 43
  44. 44. CHAPTER 8 RELIGION & DIETARY PRATICESSince the beginning of time, dietary practices have been incorporated into the religious practices ofpeople around the world. Some religious sects abstain, or are forbidden, from consuming certain foodsand drinks; others restrict foods and drinks during their holy days; while still others associate dietary andfood preparation practices with rituals of the faith. The early biblical writings, especially those found inLeviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy of the Old Testament (and in the Torah) outlined the dietarypractices for certain groups (e.g., Christians and Jews), and many of these practices may still be foundamong these same groups today. Practices such as fasting (going without food and/or drink for aspecified time) are described as tenets of faith by numerous religions.Buddhism.Many Buddhists are vegetarians, though some include fish in their diet. Most do not eat meat andabstain from all beef products. The birth, enlightenment, and death of Buddha are the three mostcommonly recognized festivals for feasting, resting from work, or fasting. Buddhist monks fastcompletely on certain days of the moon, and they routinely avoid eating any solid foods after the noonhour.Eastern Orthodox Christianity.An essential element of practicing an Orthodox life includes fasting, since its intrinsic value is part of thedevelopment of a spiritual life. To practicing Orthodox believers, fasting teaches self-restraint, which isthe source of all good.Hinduism.Hindus do not consume any foods that might slow down spiritual or physical growth. The eating of meatis not prohibited, but pork, fowl, ducks, snails, crabs, and camels are avoided. The cow is sacred toHindus, Many Hindus are strict vegetarians. Those who do eat meat are forbidden from eating beef,because cows occupy a sacred place in the Hindu religion.Islam.To the Muslims, eating is a matter of faith for those who follow the dietary laws called Halal, a term forall permitted foods. Those foods that are prohibited, such as pork and birds of prey, are known asHaram, while the foods that are questionable for consumption are known as Mashbooh. Muslims eat topreserve their good health, and overindulgence or the use of stimulants such as tea, coffee, or alcoholare discouraged. Fasting is practiced regularly on Mondays and Thursdays, and more often for six daysduring Shawwal (the tenth month of the Islamic year) and for the entire month of Ramadan (the ninthmonth). Fasting on these occasions includes abstention from all food and drink from sunrise to sunset. 44
  45. 45. RamadanIn the Muslim faith, the holy month of Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic year and is devoted toprayer, fasting, and charity. Muslims believe that it was during this month that God first began to revealthe holy book of Islam, the Quran, to the prophet Muhammad. Most Muslims are required to refrainfrom food and drink during daylight hours for the entire month. The fast is broken in the evening by ameal called the iftar, which traditionally includes dates and water or sweet drinks, and is resumed againat sunrise. Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five Pillars of Faith, which are the most importantreligious duties in Islam. The practice is meant to remind Muslims of the poor, to cleanse the body, andto foster serenity and spiritual devotion. Ramadan ends with Eid al-Fitr, the "Festival of Breaking theFast."Judaism.The Jewish dietary law is called Kashrut, meaning "proper" or "correct." The term kosher refers to themethods of processing foods according to the Jewish laws. The processing laws and other restrictionsregarding to the preparation of food and drink were devised for their effects on health. For example,rules about the use of pans, plates, utensils, and separation of meat from dairy products are intended toreduce contamination. Other rules include: 1. A Jewish person must prepare grape products, otherwise they are forbidden. 2. Jewish laws dictate the slaughter and removal of blood from meat before it can be eaten. 3. Animals such as pigs and rabbits and creatures of the sea, such as lobster, shrimp, and clams, may not be eaten. 4. Meat and dairy products cannot be eaten at the same meal or served on the same plate, and kosher and nonkosher foods cannot come into contact with the same plates.Mormonism.The law of health—the Word of Wisdom—contains the laws for proper eating and the rules ofabstinence for tobacco, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, and illegal drugs. Mormons must choose foodsthat build up the body, improve endurance, and enhance intellect. Products from the land, such asgrains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, are to take the place of meats; meats, sugar, cheeses, and spices areto be avoided. Reason and self-control in eating is expected in order to stay healthy.ProtestantsFew restrictions of food or fasting observations • Moderation in eating, drinking, and exercise ispromotedGod made all animal and natural products for humans enjoyment • Gluttony and drunkenness are sinsto be controlled 45