Basic cooking principles

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Basic cooking principles

  1. 1. BASIC COOKINGBASIC COOKING PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES HRM 212 LEC/LABHRM 212 LEC/LAB
  2. 2. COOKING : • Application of heat in food preparation • Heat brings about chemical, physical and microbiological changes. Purpose of Cooking: 1.To make its maximum value available in palatable form. 2. To develop and enhance flavor 3. To improve its digestibility 4. To increase palatibility by improving its color color, texture and flavor. 5. To destroy pathogenic organisms and substances found in raw foods
  3. 3. 3 Ways of Heat Transfer3 Ways of Heat Transfer 1) Conduction – heat moves directly from one item to1) Conduction – heat moves directly from one item to something touching it (range to pot)something touching it (range to pot) ( pan to it’s handle)( pan to it’s handle) 2) Convection – Heat is spread by the movement of air,2) Convection – Heat is spread by the movement of air, steam or liquidsteam or liquid a)a) Natural – hot liquid rises while cooler air sinksNatural – hot liquid rises while cooler air sinks b)b) Mechanical – In convection ovens, fans speed theMechanical – In convection ovens, fans speed the circulation of heat.Heat transferred more quicklycirculation of heat.Heat transferred more quickly into the food.into the food.
  4. 4. 3)3) RadiationRadiation – energy is transferred by waves from the– energy is transferred by waves from the source to the food. The waves are not heat energy,source to the food. The waves are not heat energy, but changed into heat energy when they strike to thebut changed into heat energy when they strike to the foodfood a)a) InfraredInfrared – in a broiler, an electric element heated by– in a broiler, an electric element heated by gas flame becomes to hot that gives off infraredgas flame becomes to hot that gives off infrared radiation that cooks foodradiation that cooks food b)b) MicrowaveMicrowave – the radiation generated by oven– the radiation generated by oven penetrates into the food, where it agitates thepenetrates into the food, where it agitates the molecules of water. The friction caused by thismolecules of water. The friction caused by this agitation creates heat, which cooks foodsagitation creates heat, which cooks foods
  5. 5. 3 Factors Affecting Cooking Time3 Factors Affecting Cooking Time 1)1) Cooking temperatureCooking temperature 2)2) Speed of heat transfer (convection oven isSpeed of heat transfer (convection oven is faster than conventional oven)faster than conventional oven) 3)3) Size, temperature, individual characteristicsSize, temperature, individual characteristics of foodof food ex. Small meat cooks faster than large meatex. Small meat cooks faster than large meat Frozen meat takes longer to broil than theFrozen meat takes longer to broil than the one at room temperature.one at room temperature.
  6. 6. Cooking MethodsCooking Methods 1)1) MOIST HEATMOIST HEAT – cooking method in which the heat– cooking method in which the heat is conducted to the food product by water or steam.is conducted to the food product by water or steam. a)a) Poach, simmer , boil, BlanchPoach, simmer , boil, Blanch  Boil – to cook in a liquid at 100C or 212F.Boil – to cook in a liquid at 100C or 212F.  Simmer – cook in a liquid at the temp 185F-Simmer – cook in a liquid at the temp 185F- 205F (85C-96C)205F (85C-96C)  Poach – cook in a small amount of liquid (160F-Poach – cook in a small amount of liquid (160F- 180F) (71C – 82C)180F) (71C – 82C)  Blanch – to cook food partially or brieflyBlanch – to cook food partially or briefly
  7. 7. b) Steam – to cook food by exposing themb) Steam – to cook food by exposing them directly to heat. Done on a rack above boilingdirectly to heat. Done on a rack above boiling water.water. Steam at normal pressure is 212 F, same asSteam at normal pressure is 212 F, same as boiling water (mostly vegetables) (siopao/boiling water (mostly vegetables) (siopao/ siomaisiomai c)Braise – to cook in a small amount of liquid,c)Braise – to cook in a small amount of liquid, usually after browning (braised beef/adobo)usually after browning (braised beef/adobo)
  8. 8. Dry Heat:Dry Heat: - Cooking method in which the heat is conducted- Cooking method in which the heat is conducted to without the moisture, by hot air, hot metal,to without the moisture, by hot air, hot metal, radiation of hot fat.radiation of hot fat. 2 categories:2 categories: 1)1) Without fatWithout fat 2)2) With fatWith fat
  9. 9. Without FatWithout Fat 1)1) Roast & Bake – cook in dry airRoast & Bake – cook in dry air - roasting – meats and poultry- roasting – meats and poultry - baking – breads, pastries, vegetables & fish- baking – breads, pastries, vegetables & fish - barbeque – cook by burning hardwood or hot- barbeque – cook by burning hardwood or hot coalscoals - smoke – done in closed container, using- smoke – done in closed container, using wood chips to make smoke.wood chips to make smoke.
  10. 10. 2) Broil – cook with radiant heat from above2) Broil – cook with radiant heat from above Rules in Broiling:Rules in Broiling: 1)Turn heat on full1)Turn heat on full 2) Use lower heat for larger, thicker items2) Use lower heat for larger, thicker items Higher heat for thinner pieces, for the items to beHigher heat for thinner pieces, for the items to be cooked rarecooked rare 3) Pre heat the broiler3) Pre heat the broiler 4) Foods may be dipped in oil to prevent sticking. Too4) Foods may be dipped in oil to prevent sticking. Too much oil may cause a firemuch oil may cause a fire 5. Turn foods over only once, to avoid unnecessary5. Turn foods over only once, to avoid unnecessary handlinghandling
  11. 11.  ““Salamander” – is used for browning orSalamander” – is used for browning or melting the top of some items before servicemelting the top of some items before service 3) Grill, Griddle, Pan Broil3) Grill, Griddle, Pan Broil * Grill – done in an open grid over a heat source* Grill – done in an open grid over a heat source like charcoallike charcoal • Griddling- done I a solid cooking surfaceGriddling- done I a solid cooking surface called griddlecalled griddle • * Pan Broiling – like griddling, except it is* Pan Broiling – like griddling, except it is done in a saute pan or skilletdone in a saute pan or skillet

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