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Academic Freedom


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Academic Freedom

  2. 2. “Truth is not only violated by falsehood; it may be equally outraged by silence“ Henri Frederic Amiel a.m.somoray
  3. 3. Historical Events that suppressed Academic Freedom a.m.somoray
  4. 4. Socrates (470-399 BC) was put to death for corrupting the youth of Athens with his ideas
  5. 5. Controversial case of University of the Philippines at Diliman Sociology Professor Sarah Raymundo who was not granted tenure due to an appeal by the minority dissenting vote within the faculty of the Sociology Department
  6. 6. Academic Freedom defined.... Freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment. Freedom to teach & do research without the constraint to discover and promulgate new ideas (Robinson & Moulton, 2002) •Freedom to teach and do research without the constrai02) Protection of the rights of the teacher in teaching and of the student to freedom in learning. (1940 Statement of Academic Freedom and Tenure)
  7. 7. Academic Freedom in the United States
  8. 8. • Heavily influenced by German universities and the growth of non sectarian universities • In 1915 The American Association of University Professors was founded and issued a Declaration of Principles of Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure
  9. 9. 1915 Declaration of Principles of Academic Freedom •Freedom of inquiry and research •Freedom of teaching within the university or college •Freedom of extramural of utterance (expression of judgment and opinions outside the classroom
  10. 10. 1915 Declaration of Academic Freedom 1st Declaration : Basis of Academic Authority Except for propriety and religious institutions, colleges and universities constitute a public trust. Trustees have no right to bind the reason or conscience of the faculty.
  11. 11. 1915 Declaration of Academic Freedom • 2nd Declaration : Nature of Academic Calling The independence of faculty applies not only to their individual work as researchers and teachers, but also appears to have implications for the shared governance of the institution: “A university is a great and indispensable organ of higher life of a civilized community, in the work of which the trustees hold an essential and highly honorable place, but in which the faculties hold an independent place, with quite equal responsibilities and in relation to purely scientific and educational questions the primary responsibility.” American Association University Professors
  12. 12. 3rd Declaration: The Function of the Academic Institution Third, the Declaration considers the functions of an academic institution, which are (a) to promote inquiry and advance the sum of knowledge; (b) to provide instruction to students; and (c) to develop experts for public service. Faculty to have complete freedom to pursue their investigations and discuss and publish their results and to express themselves fully and frankly both to their students and to the public.
  13. 13. 1940 Academic Freedom & Tenure
  14. 14. RIGHTS RESPONSIBILITY Freedom of speech Responsible not cause anyone Students have a right to hear and examine diverse opinions Academy is guided by the best knowledge available in the community of scholars. Teachers are entitled to full freedom research and in the publication Teachers are entitled to freedom in the classroom in discussing their subject Should be based upon an understanding with the authorities of the institution. Cautious not to introduce into their teaching controversial matter which has no relation to their subject Free from institutional censorship or discipline Knowledge should always be accurate
  15. 15. ArticleXIV , "Academic Freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
  16. 16. Academic Freedom for Institution
  17. 17. • The curriculum belongs to the university not the faculty. • The institution demands certain standards of teaching and evaluate the faculty against the standard • The administration belongs to the institution, not the faculty a.m.somoray
  18. 18. Academic Freedom of students a.m.somoray
  19. 19. Protection against unjust grading or evaluation. Protection of Freedom of expression Protection against improper disclosure Freedom from Arbitrary Discrimination. Freedom of Association Student Participation in Institutional Government Freedom of Student Publication
  20. 20. We are free only if we know, and so on proportion to our knowledge. There is no freedom thought. That is without choice, and there is no choicewithout knowledge Justice Cardozo
  21. 21. “A country that makes no provision for serious higher learning will suffer from the degradation of its culture, confusion of its thinkers and the ultimate cessation of its scientific progress” Anonymous