NGOs activities in rural development: A critical appraisal. Course Title: Rural Development-1 Course No: Econ 2205 Submitted To: Mr. Nasif Ahsan Course Instructor Economics Discipline Khulna University Submitted By: Md. Mahbubur Rahman 2nd Year 2nd Term Student no: 031505 Economics Discipline Date of Submission: 2nd October2005 Economics Discipline KHULNA UNIVERSITY
An assignment onNGOs activities in rural development: A criticalappraisal.
Introduction: Non-Government Organization (NGOs) started in this country in a limited scale as reliefprovides following the devastating cyclone in 1970, which claimed colossal human lives andproperties in the coastal belt and the off-shore islands. Devastations caused by the War ofLiberation in 1971 prompted other foreign and newly established local NGOs to mount relief andrehabilitation Programs. Recognizing the need for development for alleviating endemic poverty in the country, NGOsbegan to shift their emphasis from relief to socio-economic development and to pursue –initiallyrather haphazardly Programs aiming at health care, family planning, income generation and selfreliance for the disadvantaged and the poor. As poverty continued to deepen and encompass everlarger numbers of people, more foreign NGOs came to work in this country and at the same time,the members of local NGOs grew fast.Definition of NGO: Generally speaking, the terminology may be used to include any institution or organizationoutside the Government, and as such, may include political parties, private and commercialenterprises, social and cultural organizations, academic and research institutions, youth andsports clubs, and similar other organizations. In fact the terminology covers all thoseorganizations outside the government, which are involved in various development and welfareactivities with the objective of alleviating poverty of the rural as well as urban poor. InBangladesh, it includes all such organizations and institutions that are registered with theGovernment under the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Council) Ordinance1961 and the Foreign Donation (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Ordinance of 1978.In the contexts of Bangladesh, the term NGO has been defined “as an association of personsformed voluntarily through personal initiatives of a few committed persons dedicated to thedesign, study and implementation of development projects at the grass root level. They functionoutside the government framework but they are bound by and work within the laws of the land.They are variously involved in multi-sectoral development projects combined with researchwelfare services, human capability development through educational training, technologydevelopment m exchange of information and social communication. Their broad objective ispoverty alleviation and their target groups are primarily the poor and the disadvantaged. Types of NGO: NGOs may be widely classified into the following broad groups, which are functioning inBangladesh.1. Donor Agencies: These comprise international NGOs dispensing funds they raise or receive from theirgovernments to various NGOs- national and expatriate-engaged in social, economic anddevelopment activities. Apart from providing funds to the local and national NGOs, some ofthem implement projects directly. Major such organizations operating in Bangladesh includeOXFAM, Swedish Free Church Aid (SFCA), Canadian University Service Overseas (CUSO),South Asia Partnership (SAP), The Aga Khan Foundation (AKF), etc.
2. International Action NGOs: Such NGOS are those expatriate organizations who operate on various geographic andsectoral areas with areas with operating funds obtained from foreign donors. Some of theseNGOs are also acting as co-financing agents of their respective governments. Such major NGOsoperating in Bangladesh include Rangpur, Dinajpur Rural Services (RDRS), Mennonite CentralCommittee (MCC), CONCERN, Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO), InternationalDevelopment enterprise (IDE), etc.3. National action NGOs: There are many of these NGOs in the country. Some of them have earned reputation aseffective organizations helping the poor and the disadvantaged through health activities,educational and training programmes, and income generating activities. Prominent such NGOsinclude Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) Proshika Manobik UnnayanKendro, Caritas Bangladesh, Nijera Kari, etc.4. Local Action NGOs: There are organizations operating in local areas covering single or few villages, and areengaged in traditionally specialized activities in the locality. Sources of funding of these NGOsinclude the government and or nationally based donor agencies and other NGOs.5. Service NGOs:There does exist some service NGOs in Bangladesh. Generally, they work i the field of medicalservice, education and family programme. Overall Activities of NGOs: Non-Government organization (NGOs) has emerged as one of the most effectiveinstitution in poverty alleviation interventions the country. Starting with their relief andrehabilitation role after independence in 1971 NGOs have vastly expanded their programs andproved to become effective change agents in the society. The NGOs are mostly involved indesign and implementation of direct action oriented projects at the grassroots level, oftencombined with research, training, and other components. Their target population is the poor.Despite variation in perception of the problems and resolution trust of the programmers. TheNGOs mostly follow the target group strategies where the poor with similar socio-economicinterest are organized into groups to achieve their objectives. The NGOs have able to bring a positive change in the lives of poor largely following aprocess by which members of a society can develop themselves and their institutions in such wayso that they can enhance their ability to mobilize and arrange resources to produce sustainablelife. In order to support social and economic empowerment of the poor, they have also includedgroup information, micro credit, formal and non formal education, training, health and nutrition,maternal and child health, family planning and welfare, women’s development, agriculture,fisheries, poultry and livestock, environment, water supply and sanitation, human rights, legalaids, land and assets distribution, etc.
Major innovation by development NGOs:NGOs in Bangladesh have pioneered a number of approaches to poverty alleviation. Below arethe notable examples of NGOs innovation that have been tried, tested, and replicated.◙ Group Based Mobilization and Beneficiary Participation:The most important NGOs innovation has been in the way reach the poor. A group based ortarget group mobilization strategy to serves to fulfill not only the goal of economic improvementbut also that of social and institutional development.◙ Micro-Credit: The identification of credit as critical need felt by the poor and cost effective deliverymechanism to service have justifiably become the most well known of the development NGOsinnovations in Bangladesh. The model pioneered by Grameen Bank has established micro-creditas the most widely replicated anti- poverty program.◙ Women as beneficiaries: The micro-credit revolution pioneered in Bangladesh has in fact a double innovationbecause women have been consciously targeted as the principal beneficiaries group. Currentlyover 80% of the Grameen Bank and other credit giving NGOs are women. A number of NGOs have organized land less group also whom collectively leased Khaslands and dry riverbeds. Some NGOs organize and mobilize fishing communities to protect thefish released into open water. Others promote production of seedling in village-based nurseries toprotect-sal (a local, self regenerating tree) forest. Besides, the following programs have beentaken:◙ Health education◙ Non formal primary education◙ Non traditional agricultural extension◙ Development of appropriate irrigation technology. Background Information of developed NGOs: GRAMEEN BANK:Grameen Bank originating as an NGO and today incorporated in the Bangladesh Bank, has beenselected for its innovation approach of supplying credit without collateral to the resource lesspopulation. Grameen Bank was establishing in 1976. The rural development activities ofGrameen Bank can be grouped into many broad categories:◙ provides income-generating activities.◙ Gives loan for housing. BRACBRAC is the pioneer organization motivating the rural poor form homogeneous target group asvehicles for integrated rural development and is the largest NGO in Bangladesh. BRACestablishes in 1972 and changed its development strategy and concentrated fully on thedevelopment of the land less.
The rural development activities of BRAC can be groped into three broad categories:◙ Capacity building and institutional development of the rural poor.◙ Economic support activities.◙ Health care and family planning. BRAC is entirely dependent on external donor agencies for financing its projects for source offund. From 1972 to 1980, it received grants and donations of Tk.63 million from variousagencies. Specially, women considered about 44 of the total members. Beside member s havebeen able to improve their economic conditions through economic support programs such asweaving, block printing, joint work, spice grinding, bamboo work, cow/goat generating,pisciculture, agriculture and kantha making etc. PROSHIKA Proshika was founded by social workers trained in BRAC who decided to concentratemainly on human development training. Today they are the one of the largest BangladeshiNGOs, experimenting with the ideas of giving the resources less population to change thebargaining power. Proshika was established in 1976. The rural development activities ofProshika can be grouped into three broad categories:◙ Building self-awareness and confidence.◙ promotion of income.◙ development education. Especially 40% groups are formed for women. Program Strategy of NGOs:Program objectives: NGOs have been established for rural poverty alleviation in response to the generousforeign funds that become available beginning with the Bangladesh war of independent in theearly.1971. They seek to accomplish this objective by an integrated holistic approach, whichassumes a comprehensive package of services that are needed to meet the succession of needs ofthe poor. The common strategy in all the program approaches is formation of grass root levelbeneficiaries group. To determine the access to the credit by the group repayment behavior,social and economic development and self-reliant program.Governing corpse and program administration: Policies, planning and budget are formulated and approved by the members of governingbody and there is a chief executive who is entrusted with the authority to assign, supervise andguide the project activities in a comprehensive range of the services to the NGO target groups.He seems to run this program by his own staffs as well as the staffs of his field offices. He withhis staffs may provide a mechanism of co-ordination among all the field units of an NGO. Sinceboth the NGOs and some governmental agencies may have common mandate of poverty
alleviation, it is possible for them to complement each other’s efforts without giving up theirinstitutional commitment while pursuing a common compatible goal. Action taken by NGOs for more rural development? NGOs should invest in action research to identify better and most cost effective means toreach the poor. NGOs working with micro cost effective program should continue to build onlessons learnt. The critical importance of credit discipline and peer responsibilities is twoexamples. Development NGOs should attempt to spread their work more evenly across the countryand avoid overlaps resulting from concentration in only a few geographical areas and definitionof target groups should reflect local realities and be adaptable to changing circumstances. Government and development NGOs should on successful practices collaboration asachieved in poverty alleviation programs. The Government should involve NGOs in the designand formation of project through facilitation by ADAB and others NGO network. In most cases it is found that every field officer has to cover too much beneficiariesgroups and supervision and demonstration cannot satisfy the beneficiaries group members,especially in case of new groups. Thus the number of competent field workers should beincreased. Concluding Remark: T here are some problems regarding the activities of NGOs, which includes rural development. There is no common or ideal modus operandi about the activities of NGOs from government officialsin rural areas. It is a great failure that the policy makers and developers did not find yet anyideal, socially viable and economically sustained mechanism for development action. Somescattered efforts have been found in this respect. But to achieve a unified and ultimate goal inpoverty alleviation and human resource development, a unique ideal and unique mechanism canpromote the fragile situation. So it is highly recommended that, the overall activities of NGOs inrural areas should be taken under deep observation by forming a especial department.