This document is the sole publication of the Author. Any misuse and the mis-
interpretation of this document by anyone, author does not take the
responsibility for the same.
Er. Amit Pokhrel
M.Sc. Urban design and conservation, 3rd semester student
Khwopa Engineering College
• Poverty is the state of human beings who are poor
• Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or
• Absolute poverty refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly
includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education.
Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or
society in which people live.
People living in slums and a squatter settlement
• Nepal’s Poverty is explained by many factors- high illetracy, poor health and low
sanitation,low food grain productivity, high child malnutrition, poor access to basic
services and inequities resulting from the tradition-driven social structure
• Among the population groups, poverty is the highest among of the people so
called “lower” castes and indigenous groups
• According to the NLSS in 1995/96 the poverty line people are 42%, it was highest
– as high as 72 percent-in the far western hill and mountain regions. but
comparing at 2003/04 there is a decrease by 11% and came to 31% , which
shows reduction to poverty incidence.
• It also showed higher poverty levels in rural areas. However the rural-urban
disparities are still alarming. NLSS 2003/04 reported rural poverty at 35 percent,
compared to 10 percent in urban areas (only 3% in urban areas of Kathmandu
valley). By development region, the incidence of the poverty is lowest in the
central development region(27%) and highest in the mid-western development
• There are smaller proportion of population below the poverty line in the Tarai and
more in the hill and the mountain regions.
Traditional strucure of the society is the main responsible to
Main reason of Poverty incidence
• High illetracy
• No land to cultivate and survive
• Joint family with poor income source
• Damage of development Infrastructure
• Low private sector Investment
• Slow government spending on development
• Mergers and closures of financial, industrial and service establishments,
• Disruption of work of I/NGOs, community organizations and other development
• Disruption of production, trade and transport by frequent closures, and
• General insecurity in both urban and rural areas.
• Political Instability and the resulting protest and general stikes (bandhas, chakka
• And people’s behaviour in context of Kathmandu valley oriented
Poverty Reduction Measures
• Community participation for the development
• Promotion of co-operative and contract farming
• Lease hold forestry programs
• Improving access to education
• Focus to public health programs and sanitation
• Inclusion in rural watersupply and sanitation
• Skill oriented training
• Program offering income generating oppurtunities
• Food for work program
• Improving the local area by developing market centres, industries and trade centers.
• Institutional reforms and governance
• Corruption control
• Resource need and aid harmonization
• Poverty monitoring and analysis system
• National Living Standard Survey and The Nepal Demographic and Health Survey should be
done each at 2 years, so to find the result based datas
People living within the jungle due to poverty
In the name of their house, they only have their boat from 7 years which his
grandfather build it to catch fish and eat to survive moments.
Interesting thing is that- They don’t even have their homes to live. They are
living from the begining in that boat . place:--- Congo/supported by : National
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