Sources of ideas Sensory learning – using our senses to explore and arrive at knowledge or understanding (Amorino, 2007). Constructive activity – making connections between what we perceive (Amorino, 2007; Hesse, 1989). Using open-ended problem solving – creating solutions (Wang, et al., 2009). When people make generalizations about a set of data (Bennet&Rolheiser, 2008).
Can we recreate conditions whichprovoke conceptual thinking?
The Inquiry Cycle INQUIRY (Asking) REFLECTION ACTION (Thinking) (Doing) (International Baccalaureate, 2008)
Inquiry uses concept formation forlearning Learners are presented with a data set Learners examine the data set items for common attributes Learners are asked to generalize among items in the data set, coming up with ideas of how these items are connected and what general idea they express or exemplify(Bilica& Flores, 2009; International Baccalaureate, 2008; Reid, 2011)
Application of Inductive Strategy Science inquiry lessons Students examine facts, data or visual information and form generalizations about observations. Generalizations are based on critical attributes of the data set. In science, teachers use an inductive method for students to form scientific concepts(Reid, 2011)
Can this strategy transfer tosubjects other than science?
Inductive Strategy in subjectsother than Science Teachers can use complex and realistic problems in their lessons Complex thinking is independent of language Scaffolding can be used to teach students how to think inductively(Felder & Prince, 2007)
Inductive Thinking across thecurriculum Taking exemplars from the content area and using them as data sets Using analytical skill to reach generalizations about the data sets Data sets can be visual, text-based, or actual objects(Hesse, 1989; Reid, 2011; Tishman, 2008)
Robertson‟s Process in Lessonsusing inductive thinking strategy Starts with EXPLORATION where teacher engages students in activities designed to set up understanding of a concept. In this phase, students draw generalizations from a data set.(Robertson, 2007)
Robertson‟s Process phase 2 Phase 2 of the process is EXPLANATION, where students use activities to explain the new concept. This phase is where the teacher introduces the students to the lexicon related to the concept, the vocabulary that they will need to discuss that concept. For example, we using the termsinquiry, generalizations, questioning, data set to talk about concept formation using inductive thinking.(Robertson, 2007)
Robertson‟s Process phase 3 The third phase of the process is ELABORATION, where students are engaged in more activities to reinforce understanding of the concept. Here the teacher may present more examples, some that are examples of the concepts, and others that are non- examples. This is used to clarify and cement understanding of the characteristic attributes of the concept.(Robertson, 2007)
An example using literature PHASE 1 EXPLORATION The teacher gives students a data set consisting of different extracts from fiction and asks the question, “What makes a piece of literature literary?” Students then have to draw on prior learning, and the data set, to come up with generalizations. Generalizations are written down for future use.(Hesse, 1989)
An example using literature,phase 2 In phase 2 EXPLANATION, the teacher may ask the students to do the following: Compare and contrast the extracts with previous literature that students think are literary Come up with a list of characteristics of what literary pieces of text are Explain why one of the extracts or more is literary or non- literary based on the characteristics Justify choices by illustrating from specific examples The teacher may teach literature terms while students engage in these activities
An example using literature,phase 3 In ELABORATION, the teacher may present other text types such as travel writing, diary entries, greeting cards, etc mixed with literary text types such as poetry, short fiction, vignettes The activity may ask students to come up with attributes of the concept “literary” using these new data sets. Interspersed with these activities might be clarification of the concept using other strategies such as cooperative learning, academic controversy, scaffolding to reinforce the concept formation.
Summary • What for? • How? Concept Formation • Process Using inductive • Integration thinking • Impact
Classroom Impact Integration (through concepts and skills) with other subject areas Form original ideas Improve conceptual thinking Discover and engage in learning Meaning-oriented approach Self-directed learning Student is at the center of the lesson(Amorino, 2007; Bilica& Flores, 2009; Felder & Prince, 2007; Hesse, 1989;Reid, 2011)
ReferencesAmorino, J. (2007). Classroom educators learn more about teaching and learning from the arts. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(3), 190-195.Bennet, B. &Rolheiser, C. (2008). Beyond Monet: The artful science of instructional integration. Toronto, Ontario: Bookation.Bilica, K. & Flores, M. (F 2009). Inductive and deductive science thinking; A model for lesson development. Science Scope, 36-41.Brown-Jeffy, S. & Cooper, J. E. (2011). Toward a conceptual framework of culturally revelant pedagogy: An overview of the conceptual and theoretical literature. Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter, 65-84.Felder, R. & Prince, M. (O 2007). The case for inductive teaching. Prism, 17(2), 55.Hesse, D. (N 1989). Canon and critical thinking. English Journal, 78(7), 16-22.
Heubner, T. (N 2008). Balancing the concrete and the abstract. Educational Leadership, 66(3), 86-87.International Baccalaureate (2008). From Principles Into Practice. Cardiff, Wales: Author.Reid, B. (J 2011). The concept attainment strategy. The Science Teacher, 51-55.Robertson, B. (J 2007). Getting past „inquiry versus content.‟ Educational Leadership, 64(4), 67-70.Tishman, S. (F 2008). The object of their attention. Educational Leadership, 65(5), 44-46.Wang, J., Wang, Y., Tai, H. & Chen, W. (2009). Investigating the effectiveness of inquiry-based instruction on students with different prior knowledge and reading abilities. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8, 801-820.
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