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Activity Based Learning (ABL) Through Effectively Developed Lesson Plan

Activity Based Learning (ABL) Through Effectively Developed Lesson Plan

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Activity Based Learning (ABL) Through Effectively Developed Lesson Plan

  1. 1. ABL THROUGH EFFECTIVELY DEVELOPED LESSON PLAN Col Muhammad Khalid Khan
  2. 2. 35
  3. 3. TRANSLATION Recite in the name of your Lord who created. Created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous. Who taught by the pen Taught man that which he knew not.
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES By the end of this session, participants will be able to:  Understand what is Activity Based Learning (ABL)?  Identify Interactive Learning  Explain Communicative Approach  Promote use of ABL in Teaching Learning Process  Step by step learning with the help of a Model lesson plan.  Identify hurdles in implementation of interactive learning.  Overcome the fear of unknown
  5. 5. AIM  The aim of this presentation is to apprise you about ABL through effectively developed Lesson Plan and to abolish the fear of unknown to make it known to all of you being a fun activity.
  6. 6. CONTENTS  Introduction  Activity Based Learning  Interactive Teaching  Sample Activities – Grade II  Communicative Approach  Sample Activities – Grade VII  Lesson Plan  Stages of a Lesson  Activities of a Lesson  Sample Activities – Grade V  Impediments in Implementation of ABL  Recommendations  Questions / Answers  Conclusion
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION  FFMS NSR successfully designed and implemented ABL through effectively developed lesson plans based on three PPP system given by J. Harmer. Teachers were trained in a free and friendly atmosphere by the Principal and some of the selected faculty members. The fear of change remained predominant in old teachers since they were afraid of unknown. The efforts of the institution were appreciated by IE&T dept.
  8. 8. QUOTATION Arrow goes forward only after pulling into backwards. Bullet goes forward only after pressing the trigger backward. Every human being will get happy only after facing the difficulties in their life path……So do not afraid to face your difficulties. They will push you forward. “Tell me & I forget. Teach me & I remember. Involve me I learn”.
  9. 9. WHY ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING (ABL)?  The information processing theory in psychology views learners as active investigators of their environment  In the process of learning, Students experience, memorize and understand  It requires active problem solving by students in finding patterns in the information through their own investigation and analysis. Students learn not the content of the lesson but also develop many other skills.
  10. 10. WHY ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING (ABL)?  It enhances creative aspect of experience.  It gives reality for learning.   Uses all available resources.  Provides varied experiences to the students to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge, experience, skills and values.  Builds the student’s self-confidence and develops understanding through work in his/her group.  Gets experiences, develop interest, enriches vocabulary and provides stimulus for reading.  Develops happy relationship between students and students, teachers and students.   An activity is said to be the language of the child.  Subjects of all kind can be taught through activity.  Social relation provides opportunity to mix with others.
  11. 11. ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING  Activity-based learning or ABL describes a range of pedagogical approaches to teaching. Its core premises include the requirement that learning should be based on doing some hands- on experiments and activities. The idea of activity-based learning is rooted in the common notion that children are active learners rather than passive recipients of information. If child is provided the opportunity to explore by their own and provided an optimum learning environment then the learning becomes joyful and long-lasting.
  12. 12. HISTORY OF ACTIVITY-BASED LEARNING  Activity-based learning started sometime in 1944 around World War II when a British man David Horsburgh came to India and finally decided to settle down there. He was an innovative thinker and charismatic leader. He started teaching in Rishi Valley School. He joined the British Council and worked in Chennai and Bangalore for many years. After his voluntary retirement, he located a 7-acre site in Kolar District and opened his school, Neel Bagh. Neel Bagh was based on an innovative idea of Horsburgh and known for its creative methods in teaching well-planned learning materials.
  13. 13.  With his wife Doreen and his son Nicholas, Horsburgh developed a diverse curriculum, which included music, carpentry, sewing, masonry, gardening, as well as the usual school subjects, English, mathematics, Sanskrit, and Telugu. These pedagogic materials were systematically planned, with sketches and drawings and an occasional touch of humour. Later Horsburgh created a magnificent library in Neel Baugh that was accessible to teachers and students. This initiative of Horsburgh was later proved to be one of the pioneer and milestones in ABL. In modern time ABL is the method of education followed in the Corporation schools of Chennai, from 2003, as an effort to provide special schools for children who had been freed from bonded labour.
  14. 14. PHILOSOPHY  The philosophy of ABL finds its antecedents in the common notion that learning can be best when it is initiated by the surrounding environment and motivated by providing optimum opportunities to learn.  A fearless and freedom to express environment always adds to best learning outcomes.
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVITY- BASED LEARNING  The key feature of the ABL method is that it uses child-friendly educational aids to foster self-learning and allows a child to study according to his/her aptitude and skill. Under the system, the curriculum is divided into small units, each a group of Self Learning Materials (SLM) comprising attractively designed study cards for English, Tamil, Maths, Science and Social Science. When a child finishes a group of cards, he completes one "milestone". Activities in each milestone include games, rhymes, drawing, and songs to teach a letter or a word, form a sentence, do maths and science, or understand a concept. The child takes up an Exam Card only after completing all the milestones in a subject. If a child is absent one day, he/she continues from where he/she left unlike in the old system where the children had to learn on their own what they missed out on.
  16. 16. INTERACTIVE TEACHING  The first thing to realize about interactive teaching is that it is NOT something new or mysterious. If you are a teacher and you ask questions in class, assign and check homework, or hold class or group discussions, then you already teach interactively. Basically then interactive teaching is just giving students something to do, getting back what they have done, and then assimilating it yourself, so that you can decide what would be best to do next.
  17. 17. THREE DISTINCT REASONS FOR INTERACTIVE TEACHING  SUMMATIVE :For interactive teaching it is an attempt to see what actually exists in the brains of your students. This is the "summative" aspect. It is the easiest aspect to understand and it is well described in the literature. But, it is far from being the only perspective!  FORMATIVE : The second reason is "formative", where the teacher aims through the assigned task to direct students' mental processing along an appropriate path in "concept-space". The intent is that, as students think through the issues necessary in traversing the path, the resulting mental construction that is developed in the student's head will possess those properties that the teacher is trying to teach. As Socrates discovered, a good question can accomplish this result better than, just telling the answer.
  18. 18. THREE DISTINCT REASONS FOR INTERACTIVE TEACHING  MOTIVATIONAL : The third may be termed "motivational". Learning is hard work, and an injection of motivation at the right moment can make all the difference. One motivating factor provided by the interactive teacher is the requirement of a response to a live classroom task. This serves to jolt the student into action, to get his brain off the couch, so to speak. Additional more subtle and pleasant events follow immediately capitalizing on the momentum created by this initial burst. One of these is a result of our human social tendencies. When teachers ask students to work together in small groups to solve a problem, a discussion ensues that not only serves in itself to build more robust knowledge structures, but also to motivate. The anticipation of immediate feedback in the form of reaction from their peers, or from the teacher is a very strong motivator..
  19. 19. Topic: Our Country Time: 4 min Stage: Presentation (Warm up) Class: II
  20. 20. Mountains Topic: Our Country Time: 10 min Stage: Practice 1 Class: II
  21. 21. Topic: Our Country Stage: Practice 2 Class: II Rivers
  22. 22. Fertile Plains Topic: Our Country Stage: Practice 3 Class: II
  23. 23. Deserts Topic: Our Country Stage: Practice 4 Class: II
  24. 24. Communicative Approach  Communicative language teaching originated in the late 60s  English Teaching methods reform of the mid-70s to be further developed.  U.S. linguist D. Hymes proposed the theory of communicative competence  It should not only have the language knowledge, but also has the ability to use language, with particular attention to linguistic appropriateness  Krashen language acquisition theory of language learning stressed the use of free verbal communication, rather than through training, language skills.
  25. 25. Communicative Approach A •Form •Usage •Competence •Language-like behavior •Atomistic •Discrete-point •Analytic •Manipulative •Qualitative •Norm-referenced •Teacher Centered B •Function •Use •Performance •Authentic behavior •Holistic •Integrative •Synthetic •Communicative •Qualitative •Criterion-referenced •Student Centered
  26. 26. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH  A teacher's main role is-a facilitator & monitor  Lessons are usually topic or theme based  Lessons are built round situations/functions practical and authentic in the real world  Activities set by the teacher have relevance and purpose to real life situations  Dialogues around communicative functions  Emphasis on engaging learners in more useful and authentic language  Emphasis on fluency and meaning rather than accuracy.  Emphasis is put on the “appropriacy” of language  Communicative competence is the desired goal  Emphasis is put on correct pronunciation, choral (group) and individual drilling  Authentic listening and reading texts  Use of songs and games  Feedback and correction
  27. 27. Topic: First Aid Level: Grade 7 Stage: Presentation Time: 3 min Subject: English
  28. 28. Topic: First Aid Level: Grade 7 Stage: Practice 1 Time: 06 min Subject: English
  29. 29. Topic: First Aid Activity 1 (Conditionals) Work in Pair – Share Level: Grade 7 Stage: Practice 2 Time: 5 min Subject: English Instructions: Complete the given sentences in pairs and then share with the class one by one. If it rains ______________________________________________________ If you happen to be alone _________________________________________ If someone knocks at the door _____________________________________ If nose bleeds _________________________________________________ If the snake is killed _____________________________________________ If the bite is on arm ______________________________________________ If it is a serious burn by fire ________________________________________
  30. 30. Topic: First Aid Activity 2 (Conditionals) Work in Pair – Share Level: Grade 7 Stage: Practice 3 Time: 4 min Subject: English Instructions: Complete the given sentences in pairs and then share with the class one by one. If swallowed poison ______________________________________________ If stung by a bee ________________________________________________ If slipped from stairs ______________________________________________ If I were a billionaire ______________________________________________ If I were a fish ___________________________________________________
  31. 31. Column A Column B To smell a rat To be very comfortable Hand to mouth To be suspicious Up to a point To give up A bed of roses To be in difficult time To throw in the cards To a limit Topic: First Aid Activity 3 (Conditionals) Work in Pair – Share Level: Grade 7 Stage: Practice 4 Time: 2 min Subject: English Instructions: Complete the given sentences in pairs and then share with the class one by one.
  32. 32. Instructions: Class will be divided into five groups. Each group will be given a flash card. They will read and discuss in groups. Then the group leader will come in front of the class and explain the given technique to the class. Topic: First Aid Time: 35 min Stage: Production Class: VII
  33. 33. Group A
  34. 34. Group B
  35. 35. Group C
  36. 36. Group D
  37. 37. Group E
  38. 38. WHAT IS A LESSON PLAN ?  It is the framework for my lesson.  It is the map I follow during class.  It is a pain in the neck.  It is the product of my thoughts about the class to give and what I hope to achieve.
  39. 39. Why planning?  Planning helps you to reduce uncertainty or panic and gives you confidence and clarity.  It reminds you to prepare materials beforehand, and makes it easier for you to organize the time and activities flow in classes.  For students, evidence of a plan shows them the teacher has devoted time to thinking about the class.  It is a way to help gain the respect of your students.  It suggests professionalism and commitment.  Planning ensures that the class you are teaching gets a balanced mixture of different materials, content and interaction types.  Planning helps you to develop a personal style.
  40. 40. What to Consider?  Engage: get the students interested in the class and hopefully enjoying what they are doing. Study: It is a focus of language, such as grammar or vocabulary and pronunciation. It does not have to be NEW language input. Activate: The students do writing and or speaking activities which require them to use not only the language they are studying that day, but also other language that they have learnt.
  41. 41. STAGES OF A LESSON According to J.Harmer following are the three main stages of a lesson.  The Presentation Stage (Controlled/ Warm up): In this stage the students are introduced to the new item or point which they are about to learn. Students will remain receptive while teacher will talk. Sometimes the teacher elicits different responses with the help of visual stimulus such as a picture, a flash card or any other visual aid.  The Practice Stage (Guided): In this stage the teacher acts as a facilitator. And is responsible for providing much stimulus to speak as possible. Hence, this stage is purely student centered and activity based, while the teacher remains a time keeper.  The Production Stage (Free): In this stage real communication takes place based on natural expression and functions learned. This stage is also student centered but controlled by teacher.
  42. 42. PREPARATION STAGE Model of Taba (1962:12), in which seven steps are taken in order:  Needs analysis;  Formation of objectives;  Selection of content;  Organization of content;  Selection of learning activities;  Organization of learning activities;  Decisions about what needs evaluating and how to evaluate.
  43. 43. Stages of ABL in a Lesson Plan Stages Activities Time (35 min) A/V aids Presentation Warm up activity an icebreaker Asking Q / A Using pictures / charts, a situation 5 min Text book Board Flash cards Charts Pictures Models Practice Topic declaration, use of writing board, brief summary, through flash cards / charts , mind map words / meaning Activities in Practice Stage through 1. Individual work 2. Pair work 3. Trio work 4. Group work 25 min Production Natural Responses of the students on the topic with the help of verbal as well as written work. 5 min
  44. 44. Individual Work Activities Pair Work Activities Group Work Activities Drawing for Understanding Ask the Winner True or False? Real-World Concept Mapping Opposites Student Storytelling Think-Pair- Share Pair-Share- Repeat Peer Review Writing Task Invented Dialogues My Eid Gift Jigsaw Pick the Winner Definitions and Applications Simulation Classroom Assessment Quality Circles Imaginary Show and Tell
  45. 45. IMPEDIMENTS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ABL  Almost all the teachers are the product of traditional lecture method.  By nature they don’t want to work extra.  They have fear of unknown.  They are free in whimsical approach i.e, time tested lecture method and don’t want to change it into Communicative Approach.  They have the fear of time constraints and believe that syllabus cannot be covered with the help of any new activity based trend.  They don’t have any resources in the shape of cash or kind, while in their opinion new trends require maximum resources in the shape of money.
  46. 46. IMPEDIMENTS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ABL  They are afraid of challenging situations being faced with the implementation of ABL.  They believe that they will lack control over the class since lot of noise will be there in the class.  They have the fear of being caught by the authorities concerned since the new trends are highly timed.  The math and science teachers consider this trend as highly illogical.  The old teachers are deadly against these ever changing trends.  The teachers have developed the sense of being commanders while new trends make them facilitators.  Class rooms are not spacious.
  47. 47. RECOMMENDATIONS  In service training course be run to make ABL viable.  The teachers so trained should train the other teachers of the institution.  At trial basis ABL may be implemented from Nur to class 5th .  VPs being academic heads should encourage the teachers to take this onerous task.  IE&T department is already developing ABL based syllabus which is appreciable and be propagated to the teachers.  Reasonable amount to be given to the institutions to meet the expenditure of resources.  Incentives in the shape of cash or kind be awarded to the best teachers in the field of implementation of ABL.
  48. 48. Questions / Answers
  49. 49. CONCLUSION The various methodologies serve one purpose i.e. to facilitate the learner to evince a more satisfactory response from a student/learner in a classroom. Though in practice one finds out that even the best of us cannot consistently and perfectly do all the things that are defined in various methodologies, what suffice is a deep interest and an unfailing commitment coupled with a willingness to change that would lead to further innovations and endeavors in the field of teaching. So far we have tasted and tested very many methods, let us taste and test this method also. We want something better for ourselves, for our children, and we look to a present and future source of improvement.
  50. 50. Bibliography Brumfit, Christopher ; Commutative Methodology in Language Teaching. CUP; 1984. Riaz ul Haq, Anjum ; English Language Teaching. NAHE, UGC ; 1984. Ur, Penny: A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. CUP; 1999. Woodward, Tessa; Planning Lessons & Courses; CUP; 2009. Rebertson; C.; Acklam, R.; Action Plan for teachers; BBC world service, 2000. Harmer, Jeremy; How to Teach English; Longman 2001. Heath O’ Rayn, Jaem; The CELTA course handouts; 2007. http:/www.teachingenglish.org.uk

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