Tentative Policy Measures  for Madrid’s Climate Change Plan 2013 - 2017 Alessandro Faia, Judith Cruxent, María Arnal, Mari...
<ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Work Areas </li></ul><ul><l...
Background
Madrid is the result of political decisions made centuries ago
Constant annual population growth rate in non urban settlements. Roquer and Blay (2008)
www.avex-asso.org/dossiers/pl/espagne/index.html
<ul><li>3,273,049 </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Source: INE (2010) </li></ul>
<ul><li>7,869,420 </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming Tourists in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Municipality of Madrid (2010) </li...
The Problem
Impacts of climate change in Spain will be harsher for the center-east of the Iberian peninsula (Garcia and Alvarez, 2008)
Madrid’s climate is mediterranean continental plus Urban Heat Island effect
5.000.000 in a radius<50km 20% <5 years old and >65 years old (Garcia and Alvarez, 2008)
PUSECC 2008 contains 55 measures to achieve 14% emissions abatement by 2012 € 101,229,000
Work areas
<ul><li>RCI + Industry + Transport represent the bulk of final energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>
Source: Summary of GHG Emissions Inventory of the City of Madrid. (1990-2007)
Source: Summary of GHG Emissions Inventory of the City of Madrid. (1990-2007)
Methodology
Methodology CRITERIA Environmental effectiveness  Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viability Scale issues Tim...
<ul><li>Review and analysis of official docs and scientific literature combined with  emerging data from semi-structured e...
Elite interviews TOPICS QUESTIONS   Energy efficiency certification What kinds of certifications exist in the field of ene...
Policy Measures
“ Ideas are works of bricolage…they are, almost inevitably, networks of other ideas.” Steven Johnson “ Where Good Ideas Co...
Proposal A Cool Roofs
Cool Roofs have higher solar reflectance and thermal emittance than conventional roofs
Cool Roofs have been used in Europe for thousands of years Santorini, Greece
<ul><li>The cooling  potential of cool roofs in all major tropical and temperate cities is equivalent to offsetting roughl...
<ul><li>PROS </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation  and mitigation  </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Urban Heat Island effect </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>Coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Single-ply  membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective tiles </...
<ul><li>Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m 2 /day  </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid 4.62 </li></ul><ul><li>Athens 4.56 </l...
<ul><li>Ideal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Flat surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>RCI buildings </li></ul><ul><li>High A/C consum...
Aestethic and practical reasons rule out implementation of Cool Roofs in the city centre
Bus stations, train stations, public offices are ideal for Cool Roofs
<ul><li>Proposed measure </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cool Roofs campaign” </li></ul><ul><li>Municipality </li></ul><ul><li>Introdu...
<ul><li>Software simulation (Metris Archiwizard)  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Residential Building </li></ul><ul><li>681m 2  façade - 245m 2  roof </li></ul>
Cooling costs:  3,046€/year Decrease:  3,275€/year Heating costs:  18,873€/year  Increase:    2,331€/year Total savings:  ...
<ul><li>245(sqm) * 12€ (low market price) = 2,940€ </li></ul><ul><li>Energy savings in 4 years: 944€ * 4 =  3,776€ </li></ul>
PROPOSAL A COOL ROOFS CRITERIA EVALUATION Environmental effectiveness  Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viabi...
Proposal B Intermodal parkings
120 international missions to gather insights about Madrid’s public transportation system  (Comunidad de Madrid, 2010)
Source: www.esmadrid.com Beltways
Source: www.esmadrid.com Freeways
Source: www.esmadrid.com Tolled Highways
Congestion
1,100,000 Circulating vehicles 532,000 Experience congestion Source: RACC, 2009
329,000h/day 3.4m€/day   Source: RACC, 2009
7 work days Per each citizen per year 839m€/year   Source: RACC, 2009
CMT - PARKING PLAN 50.000 spots 30 locations 16 «ideal» 2 completed
<ul><li>Additional capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Parking lots in the outskirts </li></ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul><ul><li>2....
<ul><li>Proposed measure </li></ul><ul><li>Create a brand for “Park&Ride”  </li></ul><ul><li>Preminent role of the municip...
<ul><li>Dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Use social media </li></ul><ul><li>On site advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Install h...
PROPOSAL B INTERMODAL PARKINGS CRITERIA EVALUATION Environmental effectiveness  Legal competence Cost effectiveness Techni...
Proposal C ISO 50001
<ul><li>Why do companies choose certification? </li></ul><ul><li>Saving costs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement from clients <...
<ul><li>Energy Management Systems are a growing market in Spain (+240% in 2010 for Aenor) </li></ul><ul><li>Companies can ...
<ul><li>ISO 50001 will be released at the end of 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to save up to 60% of the world’s energy ...
<ul><li>16,527   </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14001 certificates in Spain (Source: AENOR, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>1st country in ...
<ul><li>Potential market to exploit: </li></ul><ul><li>Companies with implemented energy policy  </li></ul><ul><li>(ISO 14...
<ul><li>Proposed measures </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of ISO 50001 as a requirement in the grading system for public te...
<ul><li>Returns in energy savings are higher than the costs for certification  </li></ul><ul><li>(based on experience from...
PROPOSAL C ISO50001 CRITERIA EVALUATION Environmental effectiveness  Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viabili...
Conclusions  <ul><ul><li>Solutions to climate change can come from cities but they have to be tailored (no «one size fits ...
Q&A
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Climate change adaptation and mitigation measures - Madrid

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Presentation by students off IE University's Master in Global Environmental Change for the Biari (Brown International Advanced Research Institute) international workshop on world cities and climate change, held from 31 May to 2 June in Madrid.

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  • Generates more wealth than the national average Attracts knowledge and labour – professionals, migrants Prominent tertiary sector Weaknesses Energy and resources demand &gt; production capacity Need to import raw materials and energy Pressure on land use change
  • Total population of Comunidad de Madrid 606 km2 0.12% national territory 7% total population 10% of national income Mediterranean continental climate Rigid winters, hot summers Average temperature: 12° Urban Heat Island effect
  • 49 mitigation, 6 adaptation
  • Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduces its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere
  • Retrofitting 100 m2 of roof has an effect on radiative forcing equivalent to a one-time offset of 10 tonnes of CO2. Cool roofing can be undertaken immediately outside of international negotiations to cap CO2 emissions. Akbari et al. (2008) estimate the worldwide cooling potential of white roofs and cool pavements in all major tropical and temperate cities (about 1% of Earth’s land area) is equivalent to offsetting roughly 44 Gt CO2 emissions. This in turn would be equivalent to avoiding a year’s worth of global CO2 emissions.
  • The values are generally expressed in kWh/m2/day. This is the amount of solar energy that strikes a square metre of the earth&apos;s surface in a single day. Of course this value is averaged to account for differences in the days&apos; length. There are several units that are used throughout the world.
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Roughly 30% of the sun&apos;s visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth&apos;s surface. The reflectivity of the Earth or any body is referred to as its albedo, defined as the ratio of light reflected to the light received from a source, expressed as a number between zero (total absorption) and one (total reflectance).
  • Climate change adaptation and mitigation measures - Madrid

    1. 1. Tentative Policy Measures for Madrid’s Climate Change Plan 2013 - 2017 Alessandro Faia, Judith Cruxent, María Arnal, Mariana Botero Master in Global Environmental Change
    2. 2. <ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Work Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Measures </li></ul>
    3. 3. Background
    4. 4. Madrid is the result of political decisions made centuries ago
    5. 5. Constant annual population growth rate in non urban settlements. Roquer and Blay (2008)
    6. 6. www.avex-asso.org/dossiers/pl/espagne/index.html
    7. 7. <ul><li>3,273,049 </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Source: INE (2010) </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>7,869,420 </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming Tourists in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Municipality of Madrid (2010) </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Problem
    10. 10. Impacts of climate change in Spain will be harsher for the center-east of the Iberian peninsula (Garcia and Alvarez, 2008)
    11. 11. Madrid’s climate is mediterranean continental plus Urban Heat Island effect
    12. 12. 5.000.000 in a radius<50km 20% <5 years old and >65 years old (Garcia and Alvarez, 2008)
    13. 13. PUSECC 2008 contains 55 measures to achieve 14% emissions abatement by 2012 € 101,229,000
    14. 14. Work areas
    15. 15. <ul><li>RCI + Industry + Transport represent the bulk of final energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>
    16. 16. Source: Summary of GHG Emissions Inventory of the City of Madrid. (1990-2007)
    17. 17. Source: Summary of GHG Emissions Inventory of the City of Madrid. (1990-2007)
    18. 18. Methodology
    19. 19. Methodology CRITERIA Environmental effectiveness Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viability Scale issues Time issues Stakeholders Political opportunity
    20. 20. <ul><li>Review and analysis of official docs and scientific literature combined with emerging data from semi-structured elite interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment of a set of criteria </li></ul>
    21. 21. Elite interviews TOPICS QUESTIONS   Energy efficiency certification What kinds of certifications exist in the field of energy efficiency for businesses? ISO 16001, ISO 50001 What characteristics and improvements have been made to the ISO 50001 from ISO 16001? Industrial sector What advantages are generated for the industrial sector by certification, beyond enhancing its image? Are there substantial business gains? The role of public entities What role can the Municipality of Madrid play with the ISO 50001 in terms of reduction in energy consumption and in emissions? Possibility and effectiveness of incentives   What are the requirements and advantages of ISO 50001? Is it probable that the Municipality will give incentives to businesses that get certified under ISO 50001? What role can the Municipality play with ISO 50001? Was UNI EN 16001 effective in terms of GHG emissions? How many businesses have undertaken it in Madrid?
    22. 22. Policy Measures
    23. 23. “ Ideas are works of bricolage…they are, almost inevitably, networks of other ideas.” Steven Johnson “ Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation&quot;
    24. 24. Proposal A Cool Roofs
    25. 25. Cool Roofs have higher solar reflectance and thermal emittance than conventional roofs
    26. 26. Cool Roofs have been used in Europe for thousands of years Santorini, Greece
    27. 27. <ul><li>The cooling potential of cool roofs in all major tropical and temperate cities is equivalent to offsetting roughly 44 Gt CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1 year’s worth of global CO 2 emissions emissions. (Akbari et al. 2008) </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>PROS </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation and mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Urban Heat Island effect </li></ul><ul><li>+ Energy savings - Energy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced roof maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>CONS </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heat in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for cold climates </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>Coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Single-ply membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective tiles </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul><ul><li>PRICE RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>12-40 €/square m. (acrylic painting) </li></ul><ul><li>24€/square m. (single-ply membranes) </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m 2 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid 4.62 </li></ul><ul><li>Athens 4.56 </li></ul><ul><li>Rome 4.21 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Whitlock, C. E., et al., Release 3 NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy Data Set for Renewable Energy Industry Use. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Ideal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Flat surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>RCI buildings </li></ul><ul><li>High A/C consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 7 stories buildings </li></ul>
    32. 32. Aestethic and practical reasons rule out implementation of Cool Roofs in the city centre
    33. 33. Bus stations, train stations, public offices are ideal for Cool Roofs
    34. 34. <ul><li>Proposed measure </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cool Roofs campaign” </li></ul><ul><li>Municipality </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Cool Roofs whenever financially </li></ul><ul><li>and technically possible </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Web Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot a roof (citizen’s indication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt a roof (for companies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or paint your own! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build white roof map </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Software simulation (Metris Archiwizard) </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Residential Building </li></ul><ul><li>681m 2 façade - 245m 2 roof </li></ul>
    37. 37. Cooling costs: 3,046€/year Decrease: 3,275€/year Heating costs: 18,873€/year Increase: 2,331€/year Total savings: 944€/ year
    38. 38. <ul><li>245(sqm) * 12€ (low market price) = 2,940€ </li></ul><ul><li>Energy savings in 4 years: 944€ * 4 = 3,776€ </li></ul>
    39. 39. PROPOSAL A COOL ROOFS CRITERIA EVALUATION Environmental effectiveness Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viability Scale issues Time issues Stakeholders Political opportunity
    40. 40. Proposal B Intermodal parkings
    41. 41. 120 international missions to gather insights about Madrid’s public transportation system (Comunidad de Madrid, 2010)
    42. 42. Source: www.esmadrid.com Beltways
    43. 43. Source: www.esmadrid.com Freeways
    44. 44. Source: www.esmadrid.com Tolled Highways
    45. 45. Congestion
    46. 46. 1,100,000 Circulating vehicles 532,000 Experience congestion Source: RACC, 2009
    47. 47. 329,000h/day 3.4m€/day   Source: RACC, 2009
    48. 48. 7 work days Per each citizen per year 839m€/year   Source: RACC, 2009
    49. 49. CMT - PARKING PLAN 50.000 spots 30 locations 16 «ideal» 2 completed
    50. 50. <ul><li>Additional capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Parking lots in the outskirts </li></ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul><ul><li>2. ADIF (RENFE) parking (railroad public transport) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Legal competence of other municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>4. Unregulated free parking lots near train stations </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>Proposed measure </li></ul><ul><li>Create a brand for “Park&Ride” </li></ul><ul><li>Preminent role of the municipality </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a fee – that includes public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Offer discounts – with metro pass </li></ul><ul><li>Create interactive website: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map: location,access and type public transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for distances, how to get to a spot, time saved, reduction in emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform about parking fees </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Use social media </li></ul><ul><li>On site advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Install highway billboard publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Price interactive website: 10,000€/year </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity in highway: 5,040€/year </li></ul><ul><li>Web manager salary (24,000€) </li></ul>
    53. 53. PROPOSAL B INTERMODAL PARKINGS CRITERIA EVALUATION Environmental effectiveness Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viability Scale issues Time issues Stakeholders Political opportunity
    54. 54. Proposal C ISO 50001
    55. 55. <ul><li>Why do companies choose certification? </li></ul><ul><li>Saving costs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement from clients </li></ul><ul><li>Image building </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>Energy Management Systems are a growing market in Spain (+240% in 2010 for Aenor) </li></ul><ul><li>Companies can achieve reductions in energy consumption of 3% to 15% </li></ul><ul><li>(according to our interviewees) </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>ISO 50001 will be released at the end of 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to save up to 60% of the world’s energy use in industry and commercial and institutional sectors </li></ul><ul><li>(McKane et al. 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to ISO 50001 easier for companies that already have energy policy and efficiency goals </li></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>16,527 </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14001 certificates in Spain (Source: AENOR, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>1st country in Europe, 3rd in the world </li></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><li>Potential market to exploit: </li></ul><ul><li>Companies with implemented energy policy </li></ul><ul><li>(ISO 14001 – UNI EN 16001) </li></ul><ul><li>Target: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Managers </li></ul>
    60. 60. <ul><li>Proposed measures </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of ISO 50001 as a requirement in the grading system for public tenders issued by the Municipality </li></ul><ul><li>Set up information and awareness campaign for energy managers to facilitate transition to ISO 50001 </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>Returns in energy savings are higher than the costs for certification </li></ul><ul><li>(based on experience from current schemes) </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of transitioning to another certification are reasonable </li></ul>
    62. 62. PROPOSAL C ISO50001 CRITERIA EVALUATION Environmental effectiveness Legal competence Cost effectiveness Technical viability Scale issues Time issues Stakeholders Political opportunity
    63. 63. Conclusions <ul><ul><li>Solutions to climate change can come from cities but they have to be tailored (no «one size fits all») </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a crisis responses to climate change can rely on optimizing existing infrastructures or knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures proposed are simple, effective and address both mitigation and adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These measures do not alter people’s lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They don’t require abrupt behavior changes </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Q&A
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