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Mitigation-adaptation interdependence in tropical landscapes: rethinking our approach. By Lalisa Duguma


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Lalisa A Duguma of World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) &
ASB Partnership for the Tropical discussed Forest-based mitigation in tropical landscapes. Mitigation and adaptation as interdependent practices.

Published in: Environment
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Mitigation-adaptation interdependence in tropical landscapes: rethinking our approach. By Lalisa Duguma

  1. 1. Mitigation-adaptation interdependence in tropical landscapes: rethinking our approach Lalisa A Duguma World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) & ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins
  2. 2. Forest-based mitigation in tropical landscapes • REDD+ • Afforestation • Reforestation • Sustainable forest management • Soil carbon management • ….
  3. 3. Drivers of changes in forested landscapes  Livelihood related activities  Infrastructure  Market forces  Incidents like flooding, landslides, fire, etc.. Drivers Mitigation efforts Adaptation needs
  4. 4. Mitigation and adaptation as interdependent practices Improved livelihood [A] Land resources management Soil and water conservation [A +M] Improved adaptive capacity of the society [A] Improved agricultural productivity [A] Avoidance of soil carbon stock loss [M] Enhances carbon sinks [M] Agroforestry [M + A] Afforestation and reforestation [M] Enhanced ecosystem services provision [A+M] Biodiversity conservation [A] Reduced deforestation and forest degradation [M] Less GHG emission [M] Sustainable forest management [M + A]
  5. 5. A practical example: Northern Tanzania regional restoration programme The reference state The degradation phase The restoration phase Sustainable agropastoral 1930 1986 livelihood system Ngitili (fodder bank system) Indigenous Miombo and acacia woodlands Tse tse fly eradication (clearing of woodlands) Cash crops expansion Overstocking Increasing wood demand Deforestation for villagization Ngitili Onfarm tree conservation Improved fallows Rotational woodlots Community empowerment Long-term investment from NORAD and ICRAF Insecure tenure rights
  6. 6. Practice 1: Ngitili [M+A] Practice 4: Agroforestry [A+M] Improved honey production Practice 6: Fodder banks [M+A] Practice 7: Livestock rearing [A-M] Abundant livestock feed and thus enhanced productivity Income from grazing contracts and carbon money from pilot REDD+ projects Edible wild fruits, edible insects, herbal traditional medicines Household consumables and livestock products increased [A] Less dependence on Practice 2 (Cotton farming) and Practice 3 (maize and sorghum farming) [A-M] Better vegetation cover in the area due to reduced forest clearance [M+A] Sufficient wood for energy and construction Improved ecosystem services provision [A+M] Enhanced water availability both for household use and livestock [A] Better habitat for wildlife [A] Reduced land degradation through control of wind and water erosion [A+M] Enhanced carbon storage [M]
  7. 7. Social, environmental, livelihood benefits … Carbon sequestration 1986 - 611 ha (27428 t C) 2005 - 377756 ha (16,957,467 t C) Economic values (Monela et al. 2005) Per capita economic value : 168 USD /year Rural per capita expenditure : 102 USD /year Other ES benefits Hydrological functions: Dam construction and water management (“Water markets”) Soil management: Erosion control SOM build-up
  8. 8. Some insights  In the context of tropical landscapes, mitigation may not be successful if adaptation is not taken into account.  To minimize the long-term adaptation costs, there is a strong need to mitigate factors contributing to CC To address mitigation effectively at a landscape scale,  REALU concept  Mitigation and adaptation should be seen as interdependent components rather than viewing them as mutually exclusive.  Mitigation should not have significant leakage effects e.g. activity shifts to locations outside the landscape.
  9. 9. Thank You!