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Climate change and forests: Synergy between mitigation and adaptation


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Presented by Heti Herawati of the Center for International Forestry Research at the 3rd Asia-Pacific Rainforest Summit, on 23–25 April 2018 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Climate change and forests: Synergy between mitigation and adaptation

  1. 1. Climate Change and Forests: Synergy between Mitigation and Adaptation Hety Herawati - CIFOR
  2. 2. GHGs concentration increase in the Atmosphere Climate Change Impacts Global warming Climate Change
  3. 3.  IPCC AR5: (Compared to 1986–2005) at the end of the 21st century (2081–2100), climate change may cause: • Global mean surface temperature (T) increase about 0.3 oC – 4.8 oC • Precipitation (P)/rainfall (amount, distribution) change • Ocean temperature increase. T of top 100 m increases approx. 0.6 -2 0C - > affect ocean circulation • Sea level rise around 26-55 cm • The characteristics (magnitude, frequency) of extreme weather events (e.g. long drought, cyclone) will change Climate Change (contd)
  4. 4. Climate change beneficial Impacts -> e.g. T increase -> longer plant growing season in temperate areas. Climate change adverse impacts, e.g.  Too much or too little precipitation /rainfall -> affect e.g. agriculture activities & drinking water availability  Frequency and magnitude of climate extreme events e.g. flood, drought, cyclones may increase  Ocean circulation change -> Fish stock (population and distribution) change  Sea level rise -> island countries like Indonesia -> significant coastal area loss -> affect settlements & agriculture areas  P pattern change -> Dengue fever. T increase -> Malaria  Higher T and less P -> Higher forest fire danger Climate Change Impacts
  5. 5. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Current GHGs concentration in the Atmosphere Climate Change Impacts Responses MITIGATION (M) ADAPTATION (A) Global warming Absorb GHGs or reduce the emissions
  6. 6. Forest and climate change (1) 1. Forest -> Source GHGs Forests/trees store Carbon. If we  Clear (cut, burn) forest  Degrade forest  Drain peat swamp Forest & land will emit CO2
  7. 7. Forest and climate change (2) 2. Forest -> Mitigate CC Forests absorb CO2 <- Photosynthesis To absorb GHGs /reduce emissions:  Afforestation  Reforestation  Maintain Carbon stock in forest by e.g. avoid deforestation and forest degradation  Substitute fossil fuel -> Wood- based biofuels
  8. 8. Forest and climate change (3) 3. Forest for Adaptation Forest Ecosystem Services (FES):  Regulate water  Produce forest products e.g. food  Mangrove forest can protect coastal areas from winds & waves When CC causes e.g. long drought, agriculture crop failure, climate extreme events (strong winds & high waves), FES can be used to cope to CC.
  9. 9. Forest and climate change (4) 4. Forest is affected by CC For examples:  Higher T and less P may : ‐ Alter forest structure (tree size, density), flowering seasons, species distribution ‐ Change forest pest & disease characteristics ‐ Cause higher forest fire danger We need to make sure that forests can adapt to CC impacts
  10. 10. Mitigation and Adaptation issues and measures in forestry sector: Current conditions  There is still a segregation between Mitigation and Adaptation issues and measures. Most workshops & discussion are on Mitigation or Adaptation only  Mitigation issue more popular. More events & discussions on Mitigation  More funds are available for Mitigation topic -> more activities on Mitigation carried out. Examples in forestry sector: afforestation, reforestation, REDD and biofuel By Alain Compost
  11. 11. Mitigation needs Adaptation  Even with reduced GHGs emissions, the current GHGs concentration in the atmosphere will still cause CC. • It means: with successful Mitigation actions, we still need to anticipate/adapt to climate change impacts  Adaptation actions can make Mitigation measures more sustainable and effective. e.g. when implement REDD activities, we need to anticipate possible CC impacts on forest & fire . If CC is predicted to cause higher forest fire danger, anticipation: (1) establish wider fire break and (2) work with communities -> no fire use during long drought -> reduce forest fire risk
  12. 12. Adaptation needs Mitigation  Without Mitigation measures, it will be difficult to cope/adapt to climate change impacts For example: • With Mitigation, CC causes stronger wind & higher wave in coastal areas. Adaptation action = e.g. restoring and conserving mangrove forest. • Without Mitigation, CC can cause devastating tropical cyclones. Restoring and conserving mangrove will not be sufficient. There will be more casualties and properties damages.
  13. 13. Synergy between Mitigation and Adaptation Mitigation (M) and Adaptation (A) measures can be implemented in synergy, for examples :  Mangrove restoration absorb CO2 (M) and protect coastal areas from storms (A)  REDD activity reduces CO2 emission (M) and provide water and forest products for communities (A)  Forest conservation around hydro-electric dam avoids CO2 emission (M) and reduce sedimentation (A)  Improving community-based peat and fire management can reduce/avoid CO2 emission (M) and improve community capacity (A)  Afforestation and reforestation activities absorb CO2 (M) and need to consider possible CC impacts on forest and fire (A) By Patrice Levang
  14. 14. Conclusion By Patrice Levang  Climate is changing  Forest can become source of GHGs, mitigate CC, be used to adapt to CC but also affected by CC  There is still a segregation between Mitigation and Adaptation issues and measures  Mitigation and Adaptation Synergy can make climate change related activities more sustainable and effective  It is possible to Synergy Mitigation and Adaptation measures
  15. 15. Thank you Hety Herawati
  16. 16.  Besides those mentioned in the presentation, give one example of activities to address climate change.  Give explanation whether you consider the activity as an Adaptation or a Mitigation or as both Mitigation and Adaptation activity EXAMPLE: Subtitute fossil fuels to wind energy (Mitigation) QUIZ