Madagascar:  the Mantadia Biological Corridor REDD/ AR project   BioCF Training February, 8 th  2008 With material from   ...
Madagascar and climate change <ul><li>Climate change has been observed and is perceived to be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>...
Drivers of Deforestation <ul><li>Slash-and-burn agriculture (Tavy) </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal production for use in towns ...
Reducing Deforestation <ul><li>The government’s National Environmental Action Plan has successfully reduced deforestation ...
Commitment to increase protected areas <ul><li>Presidential commitment at the World Parks Congress Durban, 2003:  </li></u...
Mantadia Biological Corridor  REDD / AR Project <ul><li>The Mantadia corridor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ankeniheny-Zahamena P...
Mantadia corridor: a multi-benefit approach <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce carbon emissions, conserve native...
Restoration of unique threatened habitat <ul><li>7 local associations running tree nurseries and planting </li></ul><ul><l...
Addressing leakage:  Sustainable Livelihoods <ul><li>Improved use of fallow land (Savoka gardens) </li></ul><ul><li>Intens...
REDD through protected area creation <ul><li>Establishment of a new 425,000 ha protected area ( site de conservation ) </l...
Emissions Reductions & financing  <ul><li>Habitat restoration/ reforestation is expected to produce 800,000 tCO 2 e of Emi...
REDD VERs estimates <ul><li>Deforestation in the 80,000 of core area: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 71,000 ha. forest cover ...
Challenges for habitat restoration <ul><li>Research and development of appropriate restoration techniques </li></ul><ul><l...
Challenges for REDD projects <ul><li>Start-up costs </li></ul><ul><li>Classic protected areas issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Thank you! André Aquino BioCarbon Fund & FCPF [email_address]
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Day 4a Bio Cf Ci Madagascar André Aquino Bio Cf Training Jan08

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  • Presentation touches on many points already discussed on the two previous days: biodiversity and carbon, the role of protected areas, methodological challenges, etc.
  • - Tavy: leads to low soil productivity. Areas are productive for only 5 years. Tavy destroys the capacity for natural regenaration and results in erosion. The result is savoka: weedy vegetation with invasive species, low biodiversity and low carbon content.
  • Landholders – small landholders, communal land, commercial land and government land.
  • Leakage strategy: seeks to compensate landholders for possible loss of income. Threats: illegal timber extraction for fuelwood and conversion back to tavy.
  • Site de conservation – new type of PA adopted at Durban (2003) with a core and buffer area. Core protected zone – secondary degraded forest. No timber extraction. Management Plans are drawn up together with communities.
  • The difference in deforestation rate in PA and Private land is due to: 1) Law enforcement, such as the ban on tavy; 2) support to income generating activities to local people
  • Day 4a Bio Cf Ci Madagascar André Aquino Bio Cf Training Jan08

    1. 1. Madagascar: the Mantadia Biological Corridor REDD/ AR project BioCF Training February, 8 th 2008 With material from James MacKinnon . Conservation International, Madagascar
    2. 2. Madagascar and climate change <ul><li>Climate change has been observed and is perceived to be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Concern over the spread of diseases, drought, coral reef degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity loss (high level of endemism) </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest source of GHG emissions is deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>> 75% of the population of 18 million is rural and dependent on the land and its natural resources </li></ul>
    3. 3. Drivers of Deforestation <ul><li>Slash-and-burn agriculture (Tavy) </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal production for use in towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of forest to plant maize for export as cattle feed </li></ul><ul><li>Legal and illegal Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Legal and illegal Mining </li></ul>
    4. 4. Reducing Deforestation <ul><li>The government’s National Environmental Action Plan has successfully reduced deforestation rates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990-2000: 0.83% loss/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000-2005: 0.53% loss/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remaining natural forest: 10 million ha (~15% of original cover) </li></ul><ul><li>Protected areas have been the key to this success; currently 0.12% loss/year (i.e. 5 times lower than the national average) </li></ul>Deforestation Data: CI/IRG/USAID, 2007
    5. 5. Commitment to increase protected areas <ul><li>Presidential commitment at the World Parks Congress Durban, 2003: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple surface area under protection (to 6 million hectares) by 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Protected Area categories that better integrate communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anticipated carbon revenues are key to financing these new protected areas </li></ul>
    6. 6. Mantadia Biological Corridor REDD / AR Project <ul><li>The Mantadia corridor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ankeniheny-Zahamena Protected Area (425,000 hectares) - REDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantadia reforestation area (3,020 hectares of habitat restoration) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project led by MEEF, with support from CI and World Bank (EP3) </li></ul><ul><li>BioCF: purchases credits (CERs + REDD VERs) </li></ul><ul><li>MEEF (Ministry of the Environment) – carbon aggregator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs agreements with landholders </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Mantadia corridor: a multi-benefit approach <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce carbon emissions, conserve native biodiversity , enhance human welfare and restore degraded land </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation (REDD) and Ecological restoration (reforestation): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD: 425,000 hectares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforestation: 3,020 hectares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agroforestry, fuelwood gardens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government led and coordinated project with a large alliance of partners (CI, WB, USAID, ANAE, etc.) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Restoration of unique threatened habitat <ul><li>7 local associations running tree nurseries and planting </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 seedlings of > 100 native species </li></ul><ul><li>45 hectares (of 3,020 ha) have been planted on government owned land </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure rights will be clarified for communities in the region </li></ul>Pale green: restoration area Dark green: Existing forest Red line: Protected Area boundaries Yellow line: Project Area boundaries
    9. 9. Addressing leakage: Sustainable Livelihoods <ul><li>Improved use of fallow land (Savoka gardens) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of agricultural practices to reduce slash and burn </li></ul><ul><li>Agroforestry techniques and fruit gardens (1,261 hectares) </li></ul><ul><li>Woodlots (660 hectares) </li></ul><ul><li>Support to land tenure regularization </li></ul><ul><li>Links to ecotourism activities in the same area </li></ul><ul><li>These activities provide both immediate and long term benefits </li></ul>
    10. 10. REDD through protected area creation <ul><li>Establishment of a new 425,000 ha protected area ( site de conservation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple use protected area: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core protected zone (80,000 ha) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community use zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Co-managed by the Forestry Department in conjunction with local authorities and local communities </li></ul><ul><li>The area was granted temporary protection from forestry and mining in Dec. 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Project to start adoption of WB REDD Methodology </li></ul>
    11. 11. Emissions Reductions & financing <ul><li>Habitat restoration/ reforestation is expected to produce 800,000 tCO 2 e of Emissions Reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Contract (ERPA) between the government and the World Bank’s Bio Carbon Fund for 200,000 CERs from restoration </li></ul><ul><li>REDD: projected to produce over 10 million tCO 2 e over 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Contract (ERPA) is currently under discussion for VERs from the REDD component. BioCF to purchase 600,000 tCO 2 e </li></ul><ul><li>REDD VERs proceeds to fund a National Environmental Trust Fund, financing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-based conservation initiatives; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site management; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term financial sustainability for PA management </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. REDD VERs estimates <ul><li>Deforestation in the 80,000 of core area: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: 71,000 ha. forest cover / 2000: 61,000 ha. forest cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of 13,4 %. 1.4% annual deforestation. However: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.07 in Protected Areas & 1.96% in Classified Forests and Private Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Data from Mark Steiniger et al. (2004)) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REDD ERs estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BAU : deforestation of 1.67% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project scenario : deforestation rate of 0.07 to be gradually achieved in 30 years. Deforestation reduction starts at year 7, when agroforestry and fuelwood gardens mature </li></ul></ul>REDD VER estimates: Up to and including 2012 : 3,541,317 tCO2e Up to a period of 14 years (2020): 5,517,556 tCO2e Over the 30-year specified project life (2036): 8,715,319 tCO2e 148.5 10.2 1991 36670 2036 30 148.5 10.2 1113 22877 2020 14 148.5 10.2 669 14638 2012 6 With-project: mature forest Baseline: ½ savoka mean With-project area deforested Baseline (without-project) area deforested Year Project year tC/ha ha
    13. 13. Challenges for habitat restoration <ul><li>Research and development of appropriate restoration techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Training of local associations in nursery and planting techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure (title needs to be clear). Different kinds of land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Funding (investment costs) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of logistics, administration and amongst multiple stakeholders </li></ul>
    14. 14. Challenges for REDD projects <ul><li>Start-up costs </li></ul><ul><li>Classic protected areas issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding appropriate alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring community benefits and involvement in the management of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of deforestation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of land cover data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expense of monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity to monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project x National Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to account for a REDD project in a national REDD strategy </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Thank you! André Aquino BioCarbon Fund & FCPF [email_address]

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