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Forests and Climate Change: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation


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There are two approaches to combating climate change, adaptation and mitigation, and forests can contribute to both. Too often these two approaches are treated as separate strategies. In this presentation, titled “Forests and Climate Change: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation”, CIFOR and CIRAD scientist Bruno Locatelli explains the possible synergies between adaptation to and mitigation of climate change.

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Forests and Climate Change: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation

  1. 1. Forests and Climate Change: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation <ul><li>Bruno Locatelli, CIRAD-CIFOR </li></ul>Thursday 29 September 2011 CIFOR , Bogor, Indonesia
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Recent interest in research and policy on linking climate change adaptation and mitigation (e.g., Tol 2005; Swart & Raes 2007; Ayers & Hug 2009; Laukkonen et al. 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergies and conflicts at different scales (Klein 2005, Liverman 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sector highly relevant to both mitigation & adaptation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. MITIGATION Greenhouse gas concentrations Climate change Impacts Responses ADAPTATION <ul><li>Global ecosystem service: Carbon sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: CDM, REDD </li></ul>Ecosystem-Based Mitigation Ecosystem-Based Adaptation <ul><li>Local ecosystem services: Water regulation, provision of goods... </li></ul><ul><li>Policies: EBA </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ecosystem-Based Mitigation: Examples e.g. Afforestation & Reforestation (CDM) Increasing carbon in ecosystems t With reforestation Carbon in ecosystem Baseline Avoiding loss of carbon from ecosystems Conservation Carbon in ecosystem t Baseline (deforestation) e.g. Avoided Deforestation (REDD)
  5. 5. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation: Examples Increasing rainfall intensity => Increased soil erosion, sedimentation in hydroelectric dams. Upstream soil conservation = Adaptation. Soil conservation and hydroelectricity in Central America Climate events affect local communities. Forest products less sensitive than agriculture. Forests = Safety nets. Better forest management = Adaptation. Forests and local people in Central Africa Coastal vulnerability (storms, waves, sea level rise). Protective role of mangroves + provision of goods. Better mangrove management = Adaptation. Mangroves and coastal areas in Asia
  6. 6. Outline <ul><li>Synergies between adaptation and mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subnational initiatives (forestry projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation =>Adaptation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation =>Mitigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitating integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research ideas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Synergies between adaptation & mitigation in ecosystem services <ul><li>Synergies between carbon and ecosystem services relevant to adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation AND mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mangroves storing carbon (M) and protecting coastal areas from storms and waves (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests storing carbon (M) and regulating waters or providing safety nets to local communities when agriculture is affected by climate events (A) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Synergies in subnational initiatives: Mitigation influencing adaptation Locatelli, B, Evans, V, Wardell, A, Andrade, A & Vignola, R 2011, ‘Forests and Climate Change in Latin America: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation’, Forests , vol 2, no 1, pp431-450 http://www. mdpi .com/1999-4907/2/1/431/pdf Link Rationale Examples in Latin America Mitigation => Adaptation of forest REDD+ projects can increase ecosystem resilience in landscapes No explicit reference Mitigation => Adaptation of people REDD+ projects influences livelihoods and community adaptation Noel Kempff (Bolivia), Chinchiná (Colombia), Scolel Té (Mexico), Juma (Brazil)
  9. 9. Synergies in subnational initiatives: Adaptation influencing mitigation Locatelli B., Evans V., Wardell A., Andrade A., Vignola R., 2011. Forests and Climate Change in Latin America: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation. Forests 2(1): 431-450. Link Rationale Ex. in Latin America Adaptation of forest => Mitigation Adaptation measures can increase the permanence of carbon in a changing climate Klinki (Costa Rica), Return to Forests (Nicaragua) Adaptation of people => Mitigation (i) EBA projects conserve ecosystems (and carbon). (ii) EBA projects can benefit the clean energy sector (iii) Adaptation in agriculture can preserve agricultural yield and avoid displacement of agriculture to forests (i) Tegucigalpa water (Honduras), Colombian mountains (Colombia), AdapCC (Peru) (ii) Chingaza (Colombia) (iii) No explicit reference
  10. 10. Reasons for integrating mitigation & adaptation in forestry projects <ul><li>Mitigation needs Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD+ projects more sustainable & carbon more permanent with A measures for communities and ecosystems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating A also increases the local legitimacy of REDD+ projects, as A puts emphasis on local needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation needs Mitigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An A project contributing to M may benefit from carbon funding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donors may favor projects with global benefits such as M, in addition to the local A benefits. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What can facilitate the integration of mitigation & adaptation in forests? (1/2) <ul><li>National policies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval procedures of M projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National conservation or development policies (Mexico’s strategy for protected areas: “adaptive capacity of ecosystems and people […] and greenhouse gas mitigation”). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International policies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So far A and M have been treated separately, even though some countries have asked for synergistic measures. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What can facilitate the integration of mitigation & adaptation in forests? (2/2) <ul><li>Standards. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the Climate Community Biodiversity Standards integrate A criteria for evaluating impact of M projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge generation, communication and capacity-building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge the two ‘separate’ communities -> need for informing M stakeholders about A and vice-versa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for more research on synergies and trade-offs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Research ideas: Ecosystem services <ul><li>Synergies and trade-offs between carbon and local ecosystem services that are relevant to adaptation </li></ul>Synergies and trade-offs between carbon, biodiversity and local services in Costa Rica (Locatelli, Imbach & Wunder, submitted)
  14. 14. Research idea: Livelihoods and governance Scenarios Best practices (e.g. combining scientific modelling and participatory assessment) for defining and analysing future scenarios and pathways for mitigation & adaptation
  15. 15. Research ideas: Subnational initiatives <ul><li>Analysis of the impacts of climate change on the success of REDD+ initiatives (through impacts on forests and carbon, or impacts on local population) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of how to include adaptation in REDD+ initiatives for increasing social and ecological resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the contribution of different adaptation options to mitigation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research ideas: Policy <ul><li>Assessment of the political economy of mitigation & adaptation trade-offs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. mitigation as a global issue driven by developed countries vs. adaptation driven by local and national needs in developing countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis of institutional and financial mechanisms for fostering the synergies between mitigation & adaptation (e.g. pro-poor payments for multiple ecosystem services) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thank you!