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<ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids III. The Mughal...
<ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1200s, Mongols defeat Seljuks </l...
<ul><li>The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders   </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Sultans and their Court </li></...
<ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Problem of...
<ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>E. Military Rever...
<ul><li>II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>Safavid family </li></ul><ul><li>Sufi preachers, mystics...
<ul><li>II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>A. Politics and War under the Safavid Shahs </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>D. Society and Gender Roles: Ottoman...
<ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>Babur </li></ul><ul><li>Driven fro...
<ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>B. Social Refo...
<ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>E. Court Politics and the Position...
<ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Beginnings of Imperial Decl...
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The Muslim Empires

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Transcript of "The Muslim Empires"

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1200s, Mongols defeat Seljuks </li></ul><ul><li>Ottomans emerge dominant </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Into Balkans, 14th, 15th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>1453, take Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East, north Africa, Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Dominate Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A. A State Geared to Warfare Military dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Turkic horsemen become warrior nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Janissary infantry </li></ul><ul><li>Conscripted youth from conquered peoples </li></ul>The Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires
  3. 4. <ul><li>The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders   </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Sultans and their Court </li></ul><ul><li>Use factions against each other </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Vizier </li></ul><ul><li>Oversees large bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Succession </li></ul><ul><li>No clear rules </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C. Constantinople Restored and the </li></ul><ul><li>Suleymaniye mosque, 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial center </li></ul><ul><li>Government control of trade, crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Artisan guilds </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish prevails </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Expansion of the Ottoman Empire
  4. 5. <ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Problem of Ottoman Decline </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Strong until late 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Extended </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on conquest </li></ul><ul><li>End of conquest brings deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Regional leaders divert revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Sultans less dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>I. The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>E. Military Reverses and the Ottoman Retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Stop military, technological reform </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lepanto, 1571 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated by Spain, Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Turks lose control of eastern Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese outflank Middle East trade </li></ul><ul><li>Sail around Africa into Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Victories over Muslim navies </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by New World bullion </li></ul><ul><li>Comes at same time as loss of revenue from control of trade </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>Safavid family </li></ul><ul><li>Sufi preachers, mystics </li></ul><ul><li>Sail al-Din </li></ul><ul><li>Leads revival </li></ul><ul><li>1501, Ismâ'il takes Tabriz </li></ul><ul><li>Named shah </li></ul><ul><li>Chaldiran, 1514 </li></ul><ul><li>Safavids defeated by Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>The Safavid Empire
  7. 8. <ul><li>II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>A. Politics and War under the Safavid Shahs </li></ul><ul><li>Tahmasp I </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes shah </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Abbas I (1587-­1629) Height of Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Persians as bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>B. State and Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt Persian after Chaldiran </li></ul><ul><li>Also Persian court traditions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Shi'ism modified </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads to entire empire </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C. Elite Affluence and Artistic Splendor Abbas I supports international trade, Islamic culture </li></ul><ul><li>Building projects </li></ul><ul><li>Mosques in Isfahan </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>II. The Shi’a Challenge of the Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>D. Society and Gender Roles: Ottoman and Safavid Comparisons Commonalities </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior aristocracies </li></ul><ul><li>Move to rural estates after conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to central power </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans patronized </li></ul><ul><li>International trade encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Women lose freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate to fathers, husbands </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>E. The Rapid Demise of the Safavid Empire Abbas I </li></ul><ul><li>Removes heirs </li></ul><ul><li>Weak grandson inherits </li></ul><ul><li> Decline begins </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Internecine conflict, outside threats </li></ul><ul><li>1772, Isfahan taken by Afghanis </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Nadir Khan Afshar Shah, 1736 </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>Babur </li></ul><ul><li>Driven from Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Invades India, 1526 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkic </li></ul><ul><li>Panipat, 1526 Defeats Muslim Lodi dynasty Khanua, 1527 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeats Hindu confederation </li></ul><ul><li>1530, death </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded by Humayn </li></ul><ul><li>Flees to Persia </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mughal rule restored by Humayn by 1556 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A. Akbar and the Basis for a Lasting Empire Akbar </li></ul><ul><li>Humayn's 13-year-old son </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation with Hindus </li></ul><ul><li>New religion, Din-i-Ilahi </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of Islam and Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Toleration </li></ul>The Growth of the Mughal Empire from Akbar to Aurangzeb
  10. 11. <ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>B. Social Reform and Social Change Women </li></ul><ul><li>Position improved </li></ul><ul><li>Widows encouraged to remarry </li></ul><ul><li>Child marriages discouraged </li></ul><ul><li>S ati prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Seclusion undermined by women's market days </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C. Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts Death of Akbar </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms don't survive </li></ul><ul><li>Empire strong </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton textiles to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Especially among laboring and middle classes </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>D. Artistic Achievement in the Mughal Era Jahangir and Shah Jahan, 17th century </li></ul><ul><li>Continue toleration </li></ul><ul><li>Less energetic </li></ul><ul><li>Support arts </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>E. Court Politics and the Position of Elite and Ordinary Women Nur Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>Wife of Jahangir </li></ul><ul><li>Head of powerful faction </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mumtaz Mahal </li></ul><ul><li>Wife of Shah Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>Also powerful </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary women </li></ul><ul><li>Position declines </li></ul><ul><li>Sati spreads among upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>Other of Akbar's reforms die out </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>III. The Mughals and the Apex of Muslim Civilization in India </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Beginnings of Imperial Decline Aurangzeb </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeds Shah Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Rule all India </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanse Islam of Hindu taint </li></ul><ul><li>1707, controls most of India Expensive, distracting </li></ul><ul><li>Other developments disregarded </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy of local leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus exluded from high office </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims taxed </li></ul><ul><li>Marattas and Sikhs challenge rule </li></ul>
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