<ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Ara...
<ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and  the Birth of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman decline </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation:  Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Ottoman Empire fr...
<ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation:  Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A. Reform...
<ul><li>II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muhammad Ali and the Fai...
<ul><li>II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands B. Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and Str...
<ul><li>II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands </li></ul><ul><li>C. Jihad: The Mahdist Revol...
<ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China Nurhaci (1559-1626) </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu ...
<ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty:  The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China A. Economy and Society in the Early Centurie...
<ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China B. Rot from Within: Bureaucratic Breakdown an...
<ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China D. A Civilization at Risk: Rebellion and Fail...
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26. Civilization in Crisis

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26. Civilization in Crisis

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman decline </li></ul><ul><li>By early 1700s </li></ul><ul><li>Power struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry with the West for trade </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian Habsburgs </li></ul><ul><li>Ottomans driven from Hungary, northern Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>Russians expand into Caucasus, Crimea </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Balkans challenge Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks, independent, 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia, 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1870, most of the Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>Capital threatened </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Ottoman Empire from Late 18th Century to World War I
  4. 5. <ul><li>I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A. Reform and Survival Europeans fear Ottoman breakup </li></ul><ul><li>British support Ottomans v. Russia </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Selim III </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms anger Janissaries </li></ul><ul><li>1807, deposed, assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mahmud II </li></ul><ul><li>Professional army </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces Janissaries, 1826 </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms: Tanzimat </li></ul><ul><li>Universities on Western models </li></ul><ul><li>Railways </li></ul><ul><li>1876, European-style constitution </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muhammad Ali and the Failure of Westernization in Egypt Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Defeats Ottoman Mamluk vassals in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Ali </li></ul><ul><li>Emerges after French withdraw </li></ul><ul><li>Albanian Ottoman </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Military: army, navy </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural modernization </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands B. Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and Strategies of Resistance Muhammad Ali's successors </li></ul><ul><li>Drop reform </li></ul><ul><li>Ayans profit from peasantry </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial export crop </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Indebtedness to foreign creditors </li></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal, open, 1869 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>University of al-Azhar Center of Muslim thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh </li></ul><ul><li>Push for Westernization </li></ul><ul><li>Underline traditional Muslim rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmad Orabai </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt against khedive, 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>British intervene </li></ul><ul><li>Period of puppet khedives under British </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands </li></ul><ul><li>C. Jihad: The Mahdist Revolt in the Sudan Sudan challenges British </li></ul><ul><li>Can't control camel nomads </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Achmad, the Mahdi </li></ul><ul><li>Proclaims jihad against Egyptians, British </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded by Khalifa Abdallahi </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>General Kitchner </li></ul><ul><li>Omdurman, 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Mahdists crushed </li></ul>Ottoman Empire from Late 18th Century to World War I
  8. 9. <ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China Nurhaci (1559-1626) </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu leader </li></ul><ul><li>Drives Chinese south of Great Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Signification of Manchuria </li></ul><ul><li>1644, take Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Found Qing dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Qing </li></ul><ul><li>Retain Ming rule </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Qing Empire from Opium War of 1839-1841 to World War I
  9. 10. <ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China A. Economy and Society in the Early Centuries of Qing Rule Qing social system maintained </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu </li></ul><ul><li>Rural reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Burdens lessened </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Silver influx to 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Compradors </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants along coast </li></ul><ul><li>Tie China to outside </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China B. Rot from Within: Bureaucratic Breakdown and Social Disintegration Qing decline </li></ul><ul><li>Exam system corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow River dikes not maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Unrest: migration, outlaws </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C. Barbarians at the Southern Gates: The Opium War and After British </li></ul><ul><li>Import Indian opium to China </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese react </li></ul><ul><li>Lin Zexu </li></ul><ul><li>Blockades European trade </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>British invade, 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong to British </li></ul><ul><li>Ports forced to reopen </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China D. A Civilization at Risk: Rebellion and Failed Reforms Hong Xiuquan </li></ul><ul><li>Taiping rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for social, land reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Criticize Qing, Manchus </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed by Empress Cixi, 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Boxer Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-foreign conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed by Western powers </li></ul><ul><li>E. The Fall of the Qing: The End of a Civilization? Resistance goes underground </li></ul><ul><li>Plots to push Westernization </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Yat-sen </li></ul><ul><li>1905, civil service exams ended </li></ul><ul><li>End of scholar-gentry </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1911, rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1912, last Qing emperor removed </li></ul>

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