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The Unification of China

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The Unification of China

  1. 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age IV. The Later Han </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Kung Fuzi (Confucius) </li></ul><ul><li>Late 500s B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Wandering scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Analects , collected sayings </li></ul><ul><li>I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou </li></ul><ul><li>Role of shi gives way to military, aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants become important </li></ul><ul><li>A. Confucius and the Restoration of the Shi Concern with stability, peace </li></ul><ul><li>Role of moral elite </li></ul><ul><li>Education central </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Confucian Gentleman Moral rectitude Public and private spheres equally important Kings should be reminded of duties </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Heirs of Confucius Division: Mencius, Sunzi </li></ul><ul><li>Mencius </li></ul><ul><li>Natural goodness </li></ul><ul><li>Government should encourage goodness </li></ul><ul><li>through consent Sunzi </li></ul><ul><li>Natural weakness, evil </li></ul><ul><li>Government must be strong </li></ul><ul><li>Education improving </li></ul><ul><li> Legalists </li></ul><ul><li>D. Daoist Alternatives Laozi </li></ul><ul><li>Philosopher Retreat from society </li></ul><ul><li>State cannot solve all problems </li></ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Dao , cosmic force </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity Qin Dynasty Originally nomadic, marginal Shi Huangdi Zhou rival </li></ul><ul><li>c. 200 B.C.E. </li></ul>China from the Later Zhou to the Han Era
  6. 6. <ul><li>II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Transformation of a “Barbarian” Land </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Improved technology </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants freed </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous warrior lords weakened Shi used in bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Military transformed </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of nomads Cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>Crossbow B. The Legalists </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Yang </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute rulers under rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>All to serve the state </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity C. Shi Huangdi, Emperor of China Unification by 221 B.C.E. Warriors disarmed Upper classes to live in capital Xianyang Unification: common writing, coinage, weights and measures Great Wall </li></ul><ul><li>D. Opposition 207 B.C.E. , rebellion Lasting impact </li></ul>China from the Later Zhou to the Han Era
  8. 8. <ul><li>III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age </li></ul><ul><li>Liu Bang (Gaozu) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant </li></ul><ul><li>202 B.C.E. , becomes first ruler </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Restoration of Imperial Control Centralized state </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Hsiung-nu nomads </li></ul><ul><li>Sporadically disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Realm extended to Korea and Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Education common </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Shi Legalists replaced by shi Dominance of Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of government exams </li></ul><ul><li>Education, Examinations Examination system Meritocracy </li></ul><ul><li>The Scholar-Gentry Basic strata: the shi, other free subjects, the “mean people” </li></ul><ul><li>local property-owners linked to shi </li></ul><ul><li> scholar-gentry </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age </li></ul><ul><li>C. Class and Gender Roles in Han Society </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Range from dependent poor to more wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Production increased </li></ul><ul><li>More land in cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Horse collar, wheelbarrow </li></ul><ul><li>Formed secret societies </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>More freedom in this period Upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Education common </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine: diagnosis, remedies, acupuncture </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age </li></ul><ul><li>D. Towns and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Xian, capital </li></ul><ul><li>Walls, towers </li></ul><ul><li>Grid pattern </li></ul><ul><li>approx. 100,000 citizens </li></ul><ul><li>approx. 100,000 in hinterland &quot;Forbidden city“ </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age E. Arts and Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative period </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Compasses </li></ul><ul><li>Watermills </li></ul><ul><li>Rudders </li></ul><ul><li>Technology improves </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative arts thrive </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar: 365.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine: diagnosis, remedies, acupuncture </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>IV. The Later Han </li></ul><ul><li>A. Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor's wives </li></ul><ul><li>Wang family, 9 - 23 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang Mang </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrown by scholar-gentry and peasants </li></ul><ul><li>B. Later Han </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration, 23 C.E. Central power declines </li></ul>

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