Chap 12: Mongols in Eurasia

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Mongol conquest of Asia and Eastern Europe by Genghis and Khan Kublai Khan. Also additional information on Mongolia, Russia, the Yuan & Ming Empire, Vietnam, Korea and Japan.

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Chap 12: Mongols in Eurasia

  1. 1. Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath 1200-1500 C.E.
  2. 2. The Rise of the Mongols 1200-1260 C.E.
  3. 3. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia <ul><li>Nomadic groups depended on scarce water and pasture resources. </li></ul><ul><li>There were many conflicts in times of scarcity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many alliances formed and much migration at this time because of conflict. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Mongol Groups <ul><li>Strongly hierarchical organization headed by a single leader or khan. </li></ul><ul><li>Khans had to ask that their decisions be ratified by a council of leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful Mongol groups demanded and received tribute in goods and slaves from those less powerful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some groups lived on tribute alone. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Federations <ul><li>Various Mongol groups formed complex federations that were often tied to marriage alliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Women from prestigious families often played an important role in negotiating these alliances. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mongol Woman
  7. 7. Seasonal Movements <ul><li>Movements of Mongol tribes brought them into contact with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manichaeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongols accepted religious pluralism. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sky God <ul><li>Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky God. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He transcended all cultures and religions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Khans were thus conceived of as universal rulers who both transcended and used the various religions of their subjects. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Economic Self-Sufficiency <ul><li>Nomads strove for economic self-sufficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Relied on trade with settled people for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When trade relations were interrupted, nomads would wage war on settled agriculturalists. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mongol Conquests <ul><li>1206 - 1234 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genghis Khan and his successors conquered all of North China. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols were threatening Southern Song. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1234-1265 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol realms united as the khans of the Golden Horde, the Jagadai domains of Central Asia, and the Il-khans all recognized the authority of the Great Khan of Mongolia. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Genghis Khan
  12. 12. Khubilai <ul><li>Declared himself Great Khan in 1265 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Khans refused to accept him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jagadai Khanate harbored a particular animosity towards him. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Khubilai founded the Yuan Empire with a capital at Beijing in 1271. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1279, he conquered the Southern Song. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1279, Yuan attempted to extend its control to Southeast Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annam and Champa forced to pay tribute to the Yuan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Khubilai Khan
  14. 14. Mongol Ability <ul><li>Factors that contribute to the Mongols’ ability to conquer such vast territories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior horsemanship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better bows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following arrows with cavalry charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily learned new military techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted new military technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporated non-Mongol soldiers into armies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation for slaughter of those who did not surrender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to take advantage of rivalries among enemies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Mongol Bow and Soldier
  16. 16. Overland Trade <ul><li>Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought about an unprecedented commercial integration of Eurasia. </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of long-distance trade under the Mongols led to significant transfer of military and scientific knowledge between Europe, the Middle East, China, Iran, and Japan. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bubonic Plague <ul><li>Plague and other diseases spread over the trade routes of the Mongol Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Plague that had lingered in Yunnan was transferred to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central and north China. Then… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asia. Then… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kaffa. Then… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rest of the Mediterranean world. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Bubonic Plague
  19. 19. Mongols and Islam 1260-1500
  20. 20. Mongol Rivalry <ul><li>1260s – the Il-Khan Mongol Empire controlled parts of Armenia and all of Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between Buddhist/shamanist Mongols and Muslim subjects were tense. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols murdered last Abbasid caliph and because Mongol religious beliefs and customs were contrary to those of Islam. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1260s in Russia <ul><li>Under domination of Golden Horde, led by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Batu converted to Islam and announced his intention to avenge the last caliph. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This was the first conflict between Mongol domains. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Golden Horde and Batu
  23. 23. Batu’s Conflict <ul><li>European leaders attempted to make an alliance with the Il-khans to drive Muslims out of Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Il-khans sought European help in driving the Golden Horde out of the Caucasus. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for an alliance never came to fruition because the Il-khan ruler Ghazan became a Muslim in 1295. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Taxation <ul><li>Goal of Il-khan State = collect as much tax revenue as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did this through tax farming system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax farming system able to deliver large amounts of grain, cash, and silk. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But…over-taxation led to increases in the price of grain and shrinking tax base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1295 – severe economic crisis!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Ending the Economic Crisis <ul><li>Tried tax reduction program and issuing paper money. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These failed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic depression until 1349. </li></ul><ul><li>Il-khan domains fragmented as Mongol nobles fought each other for scarce resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols from Golden Horde attacked and dismembered the Il-khan empire. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Decline <ul><li>Il-khan and Golden Horde declined in the fourteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Timur, the last Central Asian conqueror, built the Jagadai Khanate in central and western Eurasia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Timurids ruled the Middle East for several generations. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Writing about History <ul><li>Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive account of the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan. </li></ul><ul><li>Juvaini inspired the work of Rashid al-Din, who wrote a history of the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rashid al-Din was a Muslim who served as an adviser to the In-khan ruler. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timurids supported many historians including Moroccan Ibn Khaldun. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ibn Khaldun’s Work
  29. 29. Muslims under Mongol Rulership <ul><li>Made great strides in astronomy, calendar-making, and prediction of eclipses. </li></ul><ul><li>Used epicycles to explain movement of moon around earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented more precise astronomical instruments. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mathematics <ul><li>Adapted Indian numerical system </li></ul><ul><li>Devised method of indicating decimal fractions </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated ∏ more accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these advances were passed along to Europe and had a significant effect on the development of European science and mathematics. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia
  32. 32. Russia and Rule from Afar <ul><li>After defeating the Kievan Rus, the Mongols of the Golden Horde made a capital at the mouth of the Volga. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volga was also the end of the overland caravan route from Central Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongols ruled Russia “from afar.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox church left in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian princes were agents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main goal = get as much tax revenue as possible from the Russians </li></ul>
  33. 33. Prince Alexander of Novgorod <ul><li>Assisted Mongols in conquest of Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols favored Novgorod and Moscow as a result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After Mongols destroyed Ukrainian countryside, Russian population shifted from Kiev to Novgorod and Russia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moscow became new center of Russian civilization. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Prince Alexander
  35. 35. Mongol Rule – Good or Bad? <ul><li>Some historians say the negative effects are because of economic depression and cultural isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Others say Russian princes were responsible for over-taxation, they were isolated by the church, and that government did not change under Mongol rule. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Ivan III <ul><li>Prince of Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>Ended Mongol rule in 1480 </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted the title of Tsar. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Political Forces <ul><li>Europe was divided by the forces of the papacy and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, Eastern Europe faced the Mongol attacks alone. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Attacking Europe <ul><li>Mongol armies that attacked Europe were an international force including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces led by Mongol generals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Armies made it to the outskirts of Vienna. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrew in December 1241 to elect a new leader. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Diplomacy and Trade <ul><li>After the Mongol withdrawal, Europeans initiated a variety of diplomatic and trade overtures to the Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact between the two increased through the thirteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought knowledge of many things to Europeans, but they questioned customs and beliefs as a result of the plague. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Centralized States <ul><li>Rise and fall of Mongol domination in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was accompanied by the rise of stronger centralized states including Lithuania and other Balkan kingdoms. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Anatolia <ul><li>Functioned as a route by which Islamic culture was transferred to Europe via Constantinople. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ottomans, who established themselves in eastern Anatolia in the 1300s, expanded eastward in the 1400s and conquered Constantinople in 1453. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Mongol Domination in China 1271-1368
  43. 43. Before the Mongols in China <ul><li>Politically fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Three states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanggut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Song </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongols unified these states and restored or preserved the characteristic features of Chinese government. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Khubilai Khan and China <ul><li>Khubilai Khan understood and practiced Chinese traditions of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed a Chinese-style capital at Beijing and a summer capital at Shangdu, where he could practice riding and shooting. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Government Innovations <ul><li>Tax Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Western Asian Muslims as officials </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical system of legally defined status groups in terms of race and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucians had a relatively weak role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants and doctors were elevated </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Prosperity <ul><li>China’s cities and ports prospered </li></ul><ul><li>Trade recovered </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants flourished </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese gentry elite moved to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Urban culture was created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandarin dialect of Chinese language </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Rural Areas <ul><li>Cotton growing, spinning, and weaving were introduced to China from Hainan Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols encouraged construction of irrigation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were overtaxed and brutalized while dams and dikes were neglected. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Population Decline <ul><li>Declined by as much as 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Northern China saw biggest loss </li></ul><ul><li>Yangzi Valley saw an increase </li></ul><ul><li>Possible reasons for this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding of Yellow River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North-south migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of diseases including the Plague </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Scientific Exchange <ul><li>Exchange of knowledge was especially common between Iran and China because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar economic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in sponsoring intellectual pursuits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China imported Il-khan science and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Il-khans imported Chinese scholars and texts </li></ul>
  50. 50. Fall of Yuan Empire <ul><li>1368 – Chinese leader Zhu Yuanzhang brought an end to years of chaos and rebellion by overthrowing the Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>He established the Ming Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols held power in Mongolia, Turkestan, and Central Asia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were able to disrupt Chinese overland trade. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Zhu Yuanzhang
  52. 52. Early Ming Empire 1368-1500
  53. 53. Establishing the Ming <ul><li>Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He had previously been a monk, soldier, and bandit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regime established capital in Nanjing and made efforts to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reject the culture of the Mongols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close off trade relations with Central Asia and Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassert primacy of Confucian ideology </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Yuan Practices <ul><li>Ming actually continued many institutions and practices that had been introduced during the Yuan. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of continuity include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of hereditary professional categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Beijing as a capital </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Reestablishing Trade <ul><li>1405-1433 – Ming dispatched a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean under the Muslim admiral Zheng He. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reestablish trade links with Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring Southeast Asian countries and overseas Chinese populations under Chinese control. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Zheng He’s Expeditions <ul><li>Retraced routes that were well established. </li></ul><ul><li>Imported some luxury goods to China </li></ul><ul><li>Added as many as 50 countries to China’s list of tributaries </li></ul><ul><li>Not a significant increase in long-distance trade, so this was not profitable. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Zheng He
  58. 58. Technology <ul><li>Less technological innovation at this time than during the Song. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese lost knowledge of how to make high-quality bronze and steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for slowdown: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost of metals and wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of civil service examination system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor glut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of technology transfer </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Innovation in Asia <ul><li>Korea excelled in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firearms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan excelled in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallurgy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novel household goods </li></ul></ul>Korea and Japan moved ahead of China in technological innovation.
  60. 60. Ming Achievement <ul><li>Period of great wealth, consumerism, and cultural brilliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular novels written at this time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romance of the Three Kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also known for porcelain-making, and for other goods like furniture, lacquered screens, and silk. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Ming Creations
  62. 62. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500
  63. 63. Korea, Mongols, and Koryo <ul><li>Leaders initially resisted Mongol invasions but gave up in 1258 when king of Koryo surrendered and joined his family to the Mongols by marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Koryo kings fell under the influence of the Mongols. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Profit <ul><li>Korea profited from exchange with the Yuan in which new technologies were introduced. Some examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celestial clocks </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Collapse and Rise <ul><li>Koryo collapsed shortly after the fall of the Yuan. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by Yi dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Yi reestablished local identity and restored the status of Confucian scholarship. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained Mongol administrative practices and institutions. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Innovations of the Yi <ul><li>Moveable type in copper frames </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorological science </li></ul><ul><li>Local calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Use of fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering of reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Grew many cash crops at this time </li></ul>
  67. 67. Korean Military Technology <ul><li>Patrol ships with mounted cannons </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder arrow-launchers </li></ul><ul><li>Armored ships </li></ul>
  68. 68. Mongol Invasion of Japan <ul><li>Happened in 1274 and was unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized lords of Kamakura Japan developed a greater sense of unity as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun centralized planning and preparation for a second assault. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Second Mongol Invasion <ul><li>Happened in 1281. Defeated by defensive preparations and a typhoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Kamakura regime continued to prepare for further invasions, but these were very expensive. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Kamakura Shogunate Falls <ul><li>Destroyed in a civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashikaga shogunate established in 1338. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashikaga period was a weak shogunal state, but they had strong provincial lords. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These lords developed markets, religious institutions, schools, increased agricultural production, and artistic creativity. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Onin War <ul><li>War took place in 1477. </li></ul><ul><li>After this war, the shogunate exercised no power and the provinces were controlled by independent regional lords who fought with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional lords also carried out trade with continental Asia. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Emergence of Vietnam <ul><li>Divided into two states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese-influenced Annam in the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian-influenced Champa in the south </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongols extracted tribute from both states </li></ul><ul><li>After fall of Yuan Empire, the two states began to fight with each other </li></ul>
  73. 73. Rule by Chinese and Annam <ul><li>Ming ruled Annam through puppet government for almost 30 years in the early fifteenth century until their control was thrown off in 1428. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1500 Annam had completely conquered Champa and established a Chinese-style government over all Vietnam. </li></ul>

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