The Neolithic Revolution

8,854 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Sports
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,854
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
51
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
180
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Neolithic Revolution

  1. 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>II. The Neolithic Revolution - 8000 to 3500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>III. The First Towns: Seedbeds of Civilization </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Introduction: definitions of civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Elements: urban monumental building writing specialized occupations Connotation v. denotation </li></ul><ul><li>I. Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens by 10,000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger brain </li></ul><ul><li>Tools, weapons </li></ul><ul><li>A. Paleolithic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Developments by 12,000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting-gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Americas </li></ul>The Spread of Human Populations, c. 10,000 B.C.E.
  4. 4. <ul><li>I. Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers B. Human Society and Daily Life at the End of the Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Bands of hunter-gatherers Agricultural settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Gender division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Men: hunting, fishing, defense </li></ul><ul><li>Women: gathering, making medicine </li></ul><ul><li>C. Settling Down: Dead Ends and Transitions Central Russia </li></ul><ul><li>c. 18,000 to 10,000 B.C.E. Hunting mammoths, gathering wild plants Trading Social stratification Eventually disappeared </li></ul><ul><li>Natufian Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan River Valley, 10,500 to 8000 B.C.E. Barley, wheat Hunting-gathering More densely populated Building Society: stratified, matrilineal, and matrilocal Abandoned after 9000 B.C.E. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>II. The Neolithic Revolution - 8000 to 3500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary agriculture Animals domesticated Development of towns Causes? </li></ul><ul><li>Climatic shifts </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Domestication of Plants and Animals Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Slow development </li></ul><ul><li>Animals from 12,000 B.C.E.: dogs, sheep, goats, pigs </li></ul>The Spread of Agriculture
  6. 6. <ul><li>II. The Neolithic Revolution - 8000 to 3500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Spread of the Neolithic Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting-and-gathering persists </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa Root and tree crops </li></ul><ul><li>Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>Millet </li></ul><ul><li>Rice Southeast Asia, to China, India, islands </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoamerica, Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, manioc, sweet potatoes </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>II. The Neolithic Revolution - 8000 to 3500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Transformation of Material Life Population Preneolithic 5-8 million </li></ul><ul><li>By 4000 B.C.E. , 60 or 70 million </li></ul><ul><li>D. Social Differentiation Specialized occupations Regional exchange of goods Communal ownership Women lose political and economic roles </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>III. The First Towns: Seedbeds of Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>A. Jericho </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan River Urbanized by 7000 B.C.E. Cultivation of wheat, barley Also hunting, trading Building Wall and ditch Brick houses </li></ul><ul><li>Plaster hearths Stone mills Rule by elite </li></ul><ul><li>B. Çatal Hüyük </li></ul><ul><li>c. 7000 B.C.E. , southern Turkey Large complex Agriculture, commerce Shrines </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>III. The First Towns: Seedbeds of Civilization C. The 4th Millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Plow, wheel Copper and stone > bronze States </li></ul><ul><li>Larger, centralized </li></ul><ul><li>Trade networks </li></ul><ul><li>Writing facilitates trade, holding power, cultural exchange </li></ul>

×