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<ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica III. The Peoples to the North  IV. The ...
<ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of migration from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>via land bridge...
<ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Archaic Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>By 9000  B.C.E.   Cli...
<ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies  </li></ul><ul><li>D. Types of American Indian Societies  </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoa...
<ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of climates </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of...
<ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Classic Era of Mesoamerican Civilization </li><...
<ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Classic Era of Mesoamerican Civilization  </li>...
<ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>C. Classic Collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Decline between ...
<ul><li>III. The Peoples to the North </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Mound Builders </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippi, Ohio valleys ...
<ul><li>III. The Peoples to the North </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Desert Peoples </li></ul><ul><li>American Southwest, by 300  B...
<ul><li>IV. The Andean World </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>A. Early Developments and the Rise ...
<ul><li>IV. The Andean World </li></ul><ul><li>B. Regional Cultures and a New Horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Chavín's cultural ...
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The People of the Americas

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The People of the Americas

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica III. The Peoples to the North IV. The Andean World </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of migration from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>via land bridge </li></ul><ul><li>c. 20,000 B.C.E. - 8000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent evidence, occupation from 40,000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletons similar to Caucasians, Polynesians, Australasians </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Ancient Hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Early hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Spread through Americas by 11,000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Little specialization </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Question of Outside Contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities with Asian art </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated development most likely </li></ul><ul><li>Creates weaknesses at time of contact with Old World </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Archaic Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>By 9000 B.C.E. Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Shift to hunting smaller animals, gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Baskets, stone tools </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>From 7000 B.C.E. in Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread by 5000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, manioc, potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Central Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>By 4000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, peppers, squash, beans Orinoco, Amazon river basins </li></ul><ul><li>Manioc dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes in highland areas </li></ul>Civilizations of Central and South America
  4. 5. <ul><li>I. Origins of American Societies </li></ul><ul><li>D. Types of American Indian Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoamerica and the Peruvian orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Intervening areas probably similar </li></ul><ul><li>Hunters and gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Villages of 100 to 200 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>E. Chiefdoms and States </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary chiefdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Urban bases </li></ul><ul><li>Social hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Cahokia </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30,000 inhabitants </li></ul>Civilizations of Central and South America
  5. 6. <ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of climates </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of maize and other crops by 5000 </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery by 2000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Olmec Mystery </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for later civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>From about 1200 B.C.E. San Lorenzo, La Venta </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Maize cultivation, using irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary elite </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanism </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar, writing systems </li></ul><ul><li>365-day year Origins, end unknown </li></ul>Mesoamerican Settlements
  6. 7. <ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Classic Era of Mesoamerican Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>150-900 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Valley of Mexico - Teotihuacan </li></ul><ul><li>City of up to 200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Religion central </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned by 8th century C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>The Classic Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Mexico, Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Tikal, Copán, Quiriga, Palenque </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 to 80,000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental building </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical systems, calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Written language </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Swamps drained </li></ul>Mesoamerican Settlements
  7. 8. <ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Classic Era of Mesoamerican Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>The Classic Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Religion, Writing, and Society </li></ul><ul><li>20-based system, used 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>260-day sacred cycle </li></ul><ul><li>365-day solar cycle </li></ul><ul><li>52-year cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Dating from 3114 B.C.E . </li></ul><ul><li>Writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Dualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Religious and secular authority </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service elite </li></ul><ul><li>Elite women could hold public positions </li></ul>Mesoamerican Settlements
  8. 9. <ul><li>II. Spread of Civilization in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>C. Classic Collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Decline between 700 and 900 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes? </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemic disease </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Towns abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>New groups emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Toltecs, from 1000 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of American Southwest, Yucatan </li></ul><ul><li>Fall c. 1200 C.E. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>III. The Peoples to the North </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Mound Builders </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippi, Ohio valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture by 2000 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting, agriculture by 700 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Finds: pottery, pipes, jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts as far as Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>Possible spread to New York, Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Hopewell culture, 200-500 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>More elaborate mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Trade to Gulf, Rocky Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Spread through Mississippi, 800-1300 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Cahoki </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>III. The Peoples to the North </li></ul><ul><li>B. Desert Peoples </li></ul><ul><li>American Southwest, by 300 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Anasazi </li></ul><ul><li>From 700 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Villages </li></ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Trade with Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Drought, pressure from nomads led to decline </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>IV. The Andean World </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>A. Early Developments and the Rise of Chavín </li></ul><ul><li>Farming villages 3000 and 2000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Maize, potato </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated poetry from 2700 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>1800-1200 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial centers </li></ul><ul><li>Llamas domesticated </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation used </li></ul><ul><li>Chavín de Huantar </li></ul><ul><li>Center of cultural diffusion </li></ul>Andean Societies
  12. 13. <ul><li>IV. The Andean World </li></ul><ul><li>B. Regional Cultures and a New Horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Chavín's cultural influence declines by 300 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>New centers emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Nazca </li></ul><ul><li>Known for weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Mochica </li></ul><ul><li>Builders </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests extend territory </li></ul><ul><li>By 4th century C.E., two states: </li></ul><ul><li>Tihuanaco, Huari </li></ul><ul><li>Decline by 9th century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Andean Lifeways </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship unit (ayllu) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize common ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage within the kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Common land, herds, water rights </li></ul><ul><li>Could join with other kinships for warfare, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Bound together by reciprocal obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual world similar </li></ul>Huari and Tiahuanaco

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