Coherence, Sentences, Graphics, and     Recommendation Reports      ENG 3302 Business and Technical              Report Wr...
Table of Contents    Topic                         Slide Number/s    Writing Coherent Documents    3 to 15    Writing Effe...
Writing Coherent Documents© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Consider seven questions whenrevising your document for coherence:• Have you left out anything in turning your  outline in...
Consider seven questions when revising your document for coherence (cont.):• Do you come across as reliable, honest, and  ...
Follow four guidelines            when revising headings:• Avoid long noun strings.• Be informative.• Use a grammatical fo...
Turning paragraphs into lists          presents four advantages:•   It forces you to look at the big picture.•   It forces...
Study documents from other   cultures to answer four questions:• How does the writer make the information  accessible?• Ho...
There are two kinds of paragraphs:• A body paragraph is a group of sentences (or  sometimes a single sentence) that is  co...
Most paragraphs contain two elements:• The topic sentence summarizes or forecasts  the main point of the paragraph.• The s...
Avoid burying bad news in paragraphs:• The most emphatic location is the topic  sentence.• The second most emphatic locati...
Supporting information      usually fulfills one of five roles:• It defines a key term or idea included in the topic  sent...
Follow three guidelines     when dividing long paragraphs:• Break the discussion at a logical place.• Make the topic sente...
Use three techniques           to emphasize coherence:• Add transitional words and phrases.• Repeat key words.• Use demons...
Use transitional words and phrases:  Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   15
Use two techniques        to create a coherent design:• Use headers and footers to enhance  coherence.• Use typefaces to e...
Headers and footers are        coherence devices.                                                       Source: U.S. Depar...
Writing Effective Sentences© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Use these seven techniques   for structuring effective sentences:• Use lists.• Emphasize new and important information.• C...
Use these five guidelines           for creating effective lists:• Set off each listed item with a number, a  letter, or a...
Use parallel structure:• Use the same grammatical form for coordinate  elements in a sentence.  – all clauses either activ...
Use modifiers effectively:• Distinguish between restrictive and  nonrestrictive modifiers.• Avoid misplaced modifiers.• Av...
Choose the right words and phrases:•   Select an appropriate level of formality.•   Be clear and specific.•   Be concise.•...
Select an appropriate level of formality:There are three levels of formality:• informal• moderately formal• highly formalU...
Informal writing can cause two problems:• It tends to be imprecise.• It can be embarrassing.     Chapter 10. Writing Effec...
Use these seven techniques    for writing clearly and specifically:• Use the active and passive voice appropriately.• Be s...
Use the active and        passive voice appropriately:Use the active voice unless• the agent is clear from the context• th...
Use these three techniques          for writing specifically:• Use precise words.• Provide adequate detail.• Avoid ambigui...
Avoid unnecessary jargon for four reasons:•    It can be imprecise.•    It can be confusing.•    It is often seen as conde...
Be concise:• Avoid obvious statements.• Avoid filler.• Avoid unnecessary prepositional phrases.• Avoid wordy phrases.• Avo...
Follow these six guidelines        for avoiding sexist language:• Replace the male-gender words with non-gender-  specific...
Follow these five guidelines   for using the people-first approach:• Refer to the person first, the disability second.• Do...
Use these seven techniques         in preparing text for translation:•   Use short sentences.•   Use the active voice.•   ...
Creating GraphicsChapter 8. Communicating Persuasively   © 2012 byBedford/St. Martins
Graphics serve five functions:• They can catch readers’ attention and interest.• They can help writers communicate informa...
Graphics offer benefits           that words alone cannot:• Graphics are indispensable in demonstrating logical  and numer...
An effective graphic has five characteristics:  • It serves a purpose.  • It is simple and uncluttered.  • It presents a m...
Follow these six suggestions         to create honest graphics:• Cite your source and obtain permission.• Include all rele...
Follow these five guidelines    for integrating graphics and text:• Place the graphic in an appropriate location.• Introdu...
The process of creating        graphics includes four steps:•   planning•   producing•   revising•   citing        Chapter...
As you plan graphics,                consider the following:•   audience•   purpose of the graphic and the document•   kin...
When producing graphics, choose    one of the following four approaches:•   use existing graphics•   modify existing graph...
Use color effectively:• Don’t overdo it.• Use color to emphasize particular items.• Use color to create patterns.• Use con...
Use color to establish patterns:                       Source: Myers, 2010, p. 72. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics          ...
Use color to create effective contrast:The text is hard to read because of insufficientcontrast.Effective contrast makes t...
Choose the category of technical    information you want to communicate:•   numerical information•   logical relationships...
Five kinds of graphics help       illustrate numerical information:•   tables•   bar graphs•   pictographs•   line graphs•...
Two kinds of graphics help      illustrate logical relationships:• diagrams• organization charts       Chapter 12. Creatin...
Three kinds of graphics help illustrate process descriptions and instructions:• checklists• flowcharts• logic trees       ...
Four kinds of graphics help illustrate visual        and spatial characteristics:•   photographs•   screen shots•   line d...
A typical table has these parts:Table numberTable titleColumn headColumn subheadsStubRowData cellSource statementFootnotes...
Follow these nine guidelines       for creating effective tables:• Indicate the units of measure.• In the stub (the left-h...
Follow these nine guidelines     for creating effective tables (cont.):•   Don’t make the table wider than it needs to be....
Horizontal and vertical    bar graphs look like this:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   54
Follow these six guidelines    for creating effective bar graphs:• Make the proportions fair.• If possible, begin the quan...
This is an effective bar graph:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   56
The basic bar graph has five variations:•   grouped bar graph•   subdivided bar graph•   100-percent bar graph•   deviatio...
This is an effective pictograph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   58
This pictograph is misleading:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   59
Follow these three guidelines    for creating effective line graphs:• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use ...
This is an effective line graph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   61
Follow these eight guidelines     for creating effective pie charts:• Restrict the number of slices to six or seven.• Begi...
Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts (cont.):• To emphasize one slice, use a bright,  contrasti...
How effective is this graphic?                                                 Source: Defense Intelligence Agency,       ...
Use these four techniques to show motion:       Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   65
Follow these five guidelines for presenting photographs effectively:• Eliminate extraneous background clutter that  can di...
Line drawings offer three     advantages over photographs:• Line drawings can focus readers’ attention on  desired informa...
Line drawings offer a uniqueadvantage over other graphics: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins  ...
The basic line drawing has three variations:       Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   69
Follow these six guidelines for creatingeffective graphics for multicultural readers:• Be aware that reading patterns diff...
Writing Recommendation Reports© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Recommendation reports     address four kinds of questions:• What should we do about Problem X?• Should we do Function X?•...
Feasibility reports    answer three kinds of questions:• questions of possibility• questions of economic wisdom• questions...
Use a problem-solving methodwhen preparing a recommendation report: • Identify the problem or opportunity. • Establish cri...
Use logic boxes to plot a series of options:    Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins...
Use a matrix to                     compare and contrast options: Criteria and Weight                                     ...
Explain your decision matrix:• Explain why you chose each criterion—or didn’t  choose a criterion readers might have expec...
You can present your    conclusions in one of three ways:• Rank all the options.• Classify all the options in two categori...
Most recommendation reports        have three major sections:• the body of the report• the front matter• the back matter  ...
A typical recommendation report          has five body elements:•   introduction•   methods•   results•   conclusions•   r...
An introduction typically                answers nine questions:•   What is the subject of the report?•   What is the purp...
An introduction typically       answers nine questions (cont.):•   What are the most significant findings?•   What are you...
Address the following four questions      when writing the body of your report:•   Methods. What did you do?•   Results. W...
Consider these four factors    when writing your recommendations:•   content•   tone•   form•   location      Chapter 19. ...
A typical recommendation reportcontains seven elements in the front matter: •   letter of transmittal •   cover •   title ...
Understand the difference betweena descriptive and an informative abstract:• A descriptive abstract describes the kinds of...
Follow these five guidelines  when writing an executive summary:• Use specific evidence in describing the  background.• Be...
A typical recommendation reportincludes three elements in the back matter: • glossary and list of symbols • references • a...
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Recommendation reports

  1. 1. Coherence, Sentences, Graphics, and Recommendation Reports ENG 3302 Business and Technical Report Writing© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  2. 2. Table of Contents Topic Slide Number/s Writing Coherent Documents 3 to 15 Writing Effective Sentences 18 to 33 Creating Graphics 34 to 121 Recommendation Reports 71 to 88© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  3. 3. Writing Coherent Documents© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  4. 4. Consider seven questions whenrevising your document for coherence:• Have you left out anything in turning your outline into a draft?• Have you included all the elements your readers expect to see?• Have you organized the document logically?• Is the document persuasive? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Consider seven questions when revising your document for coherence (cont.):• Do you come across as reliable, honest, and helpful?• Have you presented all the elements consistently?• Is the emphasis appropriate throughout the document? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Follow four guidelines when revising headings:• Avoid long noun strings.• Be informative.• Use a grammatical form appropriate to your audience.• Avoid back-to-back headings. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Turning paragraphs into lists presents four advantages:• It forces you to look at the big picture.• It forces you to examine the sequence.• It forces you to create a helpful lead-in.• It forces you to tighten and clarify your prose. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Study documents from other cultures to answer four questions:• How does the writer make the information accessible?• How does the writer show the relationship among types of information?• How does the writer communicate the organization of the document as a whole?• How does the writer make transitions from one subject to another? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. There are two kinds of paragraphs:• A body paragraph is a group of sentences (or sometimes a single sentence) that is complete and self-sufficient and that contributes to a larger discussion.• A transitional paragraph helps readers move from one major point to another. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Most paragraphs contain two elements:• The topic sentence summarizes or forecasts the main point of the paragraph.• The supporting information makes the topic sentence clear and convincing. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Avoid burying bad news in paragraphs:• The most emphatic location is the topic sentence.• The second most emphatic location is the end of the paragraph.• The least emphatic location is the middle of the paragraph. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. Supporting information usually fulfills one of five roles:• It defines a key term or idea included in the topic sentence.• It provides examples or illustrations of the situation described in the topic sentence.• It identifies causes: factors that led to the situation.• It defines effects: implications of the situation.• It supports the claim made in the topic sentence. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Follow three guidelines when dividing long paragraphs:• Break the discussion at a logical place.• Make the topic sentence a separate paragraph and break up the supporting information.• Use a list. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. Use three techniques to emphasize coherence:• Add transitional words and phrases.• Repeat key words.• Use demonstrative pronouns followed by nouns. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  15. 15. Use transitional words and phrases: Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  16. 16. Use two techniques to create a coherent design:• Use headers and footers to enhance coherence.• Use typefaces to enhance coherence. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 16
  17. 17. Headers and footers are coherence devices. Source: U.S. Department of State, 2007 <www.usaid.gov/policy/coordination/strat plan_fy07-12.pdf>.Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  18. 18. Writing Effective Sentences© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  19. 19. Use these seven techniques for structuring effective sentences:• Use lists.• Emphasize new and important information.• Choose an appropriate sentence length.• Focus on the “real” subject.• Focus on the “real” verb.• Use parallel structure.• Use modifiers effectively. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  20. 20. Use these five guidelines for creating effective lists:• Set off each listed item with a number, a letter, or a symbol (usually a bullet).• Break up long lists.• Present the items in a parallel structure.• Structure and punctuate the lead-in correctly.• Punctuate the list correctly. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  21. 21. Use parallel structure:• Use the same grammatical form for coordinate elements in a sentence. – all clauses either active or passive – all verbs either indicative or imperative – all nouns preceded by the same article• Parallel structure creates a recognizable pattern and makes a sentence easier to follow. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  22. 22. Use modifiers effectively:• Distinguish between restrictive and nonrestrictive modifiers.• Avoid misplaced modifiers.• Avoid dangling modifiers. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  23. 23. Choose the right words and phrases:• Select an appropriate level of formality.• Be clear and specific.• Be concise.• Use inoffensive language. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  24. 24. Select an appropriate level of formality:There are three levels of formality:• informal• moderately formal• highly formalUse a level and tone appropriate for your• audience• subject• purpose Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  25. 25. Informal writing can cause two problems:• It tends to be imprecise.• It can be embarrassing. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  26. 26. Use these seven techniques for writing clearly and specifically:• Use the active and passive voice appropriately.• Be specific.• Avoid unnecessary jargon.• Use positive constructions.• Avoid long noun strings.• Avoid clichés.• Avoid euphemisms. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  27. 27. Use the active and passive voice appropriately:Use the active voice unless• the agent is clear from the context• the agent is unknown• the agent is less important than the action• a reference to the agent is embarrassing, dangerous, or in some other way inappropriate Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  28. 28. Use these three techniques for writing specifically:• Use precise words.• Provide adequate detail.• Avoid ambiguity. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  29. 29. Avoid unnecessary jargon for four reasons:• It can be imprecise.• It can be confusing.• It is often seen as condescending.• It is often intimidating. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  30. 30. Be concise:• Avoid obvious statements.• Avoid filler.• Avoid unnecessary prepositional phrases.• Avoid wordy phrases.• Avoid fancy words. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  31. 31. Follow these six guidelines for avoiding sexist language:• Replace the male-gender words with non-gender- specific words.• Switch to a different form of the verb.• Switch to the plural.• Switch to he or she, he/she, s/he, or his or her.• Address the reader directly.• Alternate he and she. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 31
  32. 32. Follow these five guidelines for using the people-first approach:• Refer to the person first, the disability second.• Don’t confuse handicap with disability.• Don’t refer to victimization.• Don’t refer to a person as “wheelchair bound” or “confined to a wheelchair.”• Don’t refer to people with disabilities as abnormal. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  33. 33. Use these seven techniques in preparing text for translation:• Use short sentences.• Use the active voice.• Use simple words.• Include a glossary.• Use words that have only one meaning.• Use pronouns carefully.• Avoid jokes, puns, and culture-bound references. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  34. 34. Creating GraphicsChapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 byBedford/St. Martins
  35. 35. Graphics serve five functions:• They can catch readers’ attention and interest.• They can help writers communicate information that is difficult to communicate with words.• They can help writers clarify and emphasize information.• They can help nonnative speakers of English understand information.• They can help writers communicate information to multiple audiences with different interests, aptitudes, and reading habits. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  36. 36. Graphics offer benefits that words alone cannot:• Graphics are indispensable in demonstrating logical and numerical relationships.• Graphics can communicate spatial information more effectively than words alone.• Graphics can communicate steps in a process more effectively than words alone.• Graphics can save space.• Graphics can reduce the cost of documents intended for international readers. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36
  37. 37. An effective graphic has five characteristics: • It serves a purpose. • It is simple and uncluttered. • It presents a manageable amount of information. • It meets readers’ format expectations. • It is clearly labeled. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 37
  38. 38. Follow these six suggestions to create honest graphics:• Cite your source and obtain permission.• Include all relevant data.• Begin the axes in your graphs at zero—or mark them clearly.• Do not use a table to hide a data point that would be obvious in a graph.• Show items as they really are.• Do not use color or shading to misrepresent an item’s importance. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 38
  39. 39. Follow these five guidelines for integrating graphics and text:• Place the graphic in an appropriate location.• Introduce the graphic in the text.• Explain the graphic in the text.• Make the graphic clearly visible.• Make the graphic accessible. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 39
  40. 40. The process of creating graphics includes four steps:• planning• producing• revising• citing Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 40
  41. 41. As you plan graphics, consider the following:• audience• purpose of the graphic and the document• kind of information you want to communicate• physical conditions in which readers will use the document• time• money• equipment• expertise Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 41
  42. 42. When producing graphics, choose one of the following four approaches:• use existing graphics• modify existing graphics• create graphics on a computer• have someone else create the graphics Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 42
  43. 43. Use color effectively:• Don’t overdo it.• Use color to emphasize particular items.• Use color to create patterns.• Use contrast effectively.• Take advantage of any symbolic meanings colors may already have.• Be aware that color can obscure or swallow up text. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 43
  44. 44. Use color to establish patterns: Source: Myers, 2010, p. 72. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 44
  45. 45. Use color to create effective contrast:The text is hard to read because of insufficientcontrast.Effective contrast makes the text easier to read. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 45
  46. 46. Choose the category of technical information you want to communicate:• numerical information• logical relationships• process descriptions and instructions• visual and spatial characteristics Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 46
  47. 47. Five kinds of graphics help illustrate numerical information:• tables• bar graphs• pictographs• line graphs• pie charts Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 47
  48. 48. Two kinds of graphics help illustrate logical relationships:• diagrams• organization charts Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 48
  49. 49. Three kinds of graphics help illustrate process descriptions and instructions:• checklists• flowcharts• logic trees Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 49
  50. 50. Four kinds of graphics help illustrate visual and spatial characteristics:• photographs• screen shots• line drawings• maps Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 50
  51. 51. A typical table has these parts:Table numberTable titleColumn headColumn subheadsStubRowData cellSource statementFootnotes Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 51
  52. 52. Follow these nine guidelines for creating effective tables:• Indicate the units of measure.• In the stub (the left-hand column), list the items being compared.• In the columns, arrange the data clearly and logically.• Do the math.• Use dot leaders if a column contains a “blank” spot: a place where there are no appropriate data. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 52
  53. 53. Follow these nine guidelines for creating effective tables (cont.):• Don’t make the table wider than it needs to be.• Minimize the use of rules.• Provide footnotes where necessary.• If you did not generate the information yourself, indicate your source. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 53
  54. 54. Horizontal and vertical bar graphs look like this:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 54
  55. 55. Follow these six guidelines for creating effective bar graphs:• Make the proportions fair.• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use tick marks (marks along the axis) to signal the amounts.• Arrange the bars in a logical sequence.• Place the title below the figure.• Indicate the source of your information if you did not generate it yourself. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 55
  56. 56. This is an effective bar graph:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 56
  57. 57. The basic bar graph has five variations:• grouped bar graph• subdivided bar graph• 100-percent bar graph• deviation bar graph• stratum graph Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 57
  58. 58. This is an effective pictograph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 58
  59. 59. This pictograph is misleading:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 59
  60. 60. Follow these three guidelines for creating effective line graphs:• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use reasonable proportions for the vertical and horizontal axes.• Use grid lines—horizontal, vertical, or both— rather than tick marks when your readers need to read the quantities precisely. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 60
  61. 61. This is an effective line graph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 61
  62. 62. Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts:• Restrict the number of slices to six or seven.• Begin with the largest slice at the top and work clockwise in order of decreasing size.• Include a miscellaneous slice for very small quantities.• Label the slices (horizontally, not radially) inside the slice. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 62
  63. 63. Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts (cont.):• To emphasize one slice, use a bright, contrasting color or separate the slice from the pie.• Check to see that your software follows the appropriate guidelines for pie charts.• Don’t overdo fill patterns.• Check that your percentages add up to 100. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 63
  64. 64. How effective is this graphic? Source: Defense Intelligence Agency, 2003 <www.dia.mil/thisisdia/ DIA_Workforce_of_the_Future.pdf>.Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 64
  65. 65. Use these four techniques to show motion: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 65
  66. 66. Follow these five guidelines for presenting photographs effectively:• Eliminate extraneous background clutter that can distract readers.• Do not electronically manipulate the photograph.• Help readers understand the perspective.• If appropriate, include a common object to give readers a sense of scale.• If appropriate, label components or important features. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 66
  67. 67. Line drawings offer three advantages over photographs:• Line drawings can focus readers’ attention on desired information better than a photograph can.• Line drawings can highlight information that might be obscured by bad lighting or a bad angle in a photograph• Line drawings are sometimes easier for readers to understand than photographs are. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 67
  68. 68. Line drawings offer a uniqueadvantage over other graphics: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 68
  69. 69. The basic line drawing has three variations: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 69
  70. 70. Follow these six guidelines for creatingeffective graphics for multicultural readers:• Be aware that reading patterns differ.• Be aware of varying cultural attitudes toward giving instruction.• Deemphasize trivial details.• Avoid culture-specific language, symbols, and references.• Portray people very carefully.• Be particularly careful in portraying hand gestures. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 70
  71. 71. Writing Recommendation Reports© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  72. 72. Recommendation reports address four kinds of questions:• What should we do about Problem X?• Should we do Function X?• Should we use Technology A or Technology B to do Function X?• We currently use Method A to do Function X. Should we be using Method B? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 72
  73. 73. Feasibility reports answer three kinds of questions:• questions of possibility• questions of economic wisdom• questions of perception Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 73
  74. 74. Use a problem-solving methodwhen preparing a recommendation report: • Identify the problem or opportunity. • Establish criteria for responding to the problem or opportunity. • Determine the options. • Study each option according to the criteria. • Draw conclusions about each option. • Formulate recommendations based on the conclusions. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 74
  75. 75. Use logic boxes to plot a series of options: Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 75
  76. 76. Use a matrix to compare and contrast options: Criteria and Weight Options  Ricoh Xerox SharpCriterion Weight Rating Score(1) Rating Score(1) Rating Score(1)Pages/min. 1 9 9 6 6 3 3Duplex 3 1 3 3 9 10 30Color 4 10 40 1 4 10 40 Total Score 52 19 73(1) Score = Weight x Rating Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 76
  77. 77. Explain your decision matrix:• Explain why you chose each criterion—or didn’t choose a criterion readers might have expected.• Explain why you assigned a particular weight to each criterion.• Explain why you assigned a particular rating to each option. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  78. 78. You can present your conclusions in one of three ways:• Rank all the options.• Classify all the options in two categories: acceptable and unacceptable.• Present a compound conclusion. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 78
  79. 79. Most recommendation reports have three major sections:• the body of the report• the front matter• the back matter Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 79
  80. 80. A typical recommendation report has five body elements:• introduction• methods• results• conclusions• recommendations Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 80
  81. 81. An introduction typically answers nine questions:• What is the subject of the report?• What is the purpose of the report?• What is the background of the report?• What are your sources of information?• What is the scope of the report? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 81
  82. 82. An introduction typically answers nine questions (cont.):• What are the most significant findings?• What are your recommendations?• What is the organization of the report?• What key terms are you using in the report? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 82
  83. 83. Address the following four questions when writing the body of your report:• Methods. What did you do?• Results. What did you see?• Conclusions. What does it mean?• Recommendations. What should we do? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 83
  84. 84. Consider these four factors when writing your recommendations:• content• tone• form• location Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 84
  85. 85. A typical recommendation reportcontains seven elements in the front matter: • letter of transmittal • cover • title page • abstract • table of contents • list of illustrations • executive summary Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 85
  86. 86. Understand the difference betweena descriptive and an informative abstract:• A descriptive abstract describes the kinds of information contained in the report.• An informative abstract presents the major findings. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 86
  87. 87. Follow these five guidelines when writing an executive summary:• Use specific evidence in describing the background.• Be specific in describing the research.• Describe the methods briefly.• Describe the findings according to your readers’ needs.• Ask an outside reader to review your draft. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 87
  88. 88. A typical recommendation reportincludes three elements in the back matter: • glossary and list of symbols • references • appendixes Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 88

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