Week 2: Audiences, Research,Organization, Proposals, Definitions &            Descriptions                       ENG 3302 ...
Table of ContentsAnalyzing Your Audience and Purpose…….…slide 3Researching Your Subject…………………...….slide 16Organizing Your...
Analyzing Your Audience and PurposeChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Determine four important     characteristics of your audience:• Who are your readers?• Why is your audience reading your  ...
Consider six factors about         your most important readers:• the reader’s education• the reader’s professional experie...
Classify your readers into three categories: • a primary audience of people who will use   your document in carrying out t...
Your readers have           attitudes and expectations:• attitudes toward you• attitudes toward the subject• expectations ...
Why and how will your         readers use your document?• Why is the reader reading your document?• How will the reader re...
Learn about your audience:• Determine what you already know about your  audience.• Interview people.• Read about your audi...
Understand seven cultural    variables that lie “on the surface”:• political• economic• social• religious• educational• te...
Understand six cultural variables     that lie “beneath the surface”:• focus on individuals or groups• distance between bu...
Consider four points aboutcultural variables “beneath the surface”:• Each variable represents a spectrum of  attitudes.• T...
Use these eight strategies when   writing for readers from other cultures:• Limit your vocabulary.• Keep sentences short.•...
Use these eight strategies when writing    for readers from other cultures (cont.):•   Avoid idioms and slang.•   Use the ...
Determine your purpose:Ask yourself:• What do I want this document to accomplish?• What do I want readers to know or belie...
Researching Your SubjectChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Understand the differences between academic and workplace research:• In academic research, your goal is to find  informati...
The research process consists of 12 steps: •   Analyze your audience. •   Analyze your purpose. •   Analyze your subject. ...
The research process        consists of 12 steps (cont.):• Determine what information you still need to  acquire.• Create ...
Choose appropriate research methods:• What types of research media might you use?• What types of research tools might you ...
Follow three guidelines         when researching a topic:• Be persistent.• Record your data carefully.• Triangulate your r...
Know the four types of information media: • print • online databases • Web sites • social media       Chapter 6. Researchi...
Know how to use six basic research tools:•   online catalogs•   reference works•   periodical indexes•   newspaper indexes...
Understand these five forms of social media:  • discussion boards  • wikis  • blogs  • tagged content  • RSS feeds        ...
Look for information that is . . .•   accurate•   unbiased•   comprehensive•   appropriately technical•   current•   clear...
When evaluating print and online    sources, examine these five factors:•   authorship•   publisher•   knowledge of the li...
Understand the seven techniques           of primary research:•   observations and demonstrations•   inspections•   experi...
Conducting an experiment            consists of four phases:•   establishing a hypothesis•   testing the hypothesis•   ana...
Field research is vulnerable         to two common problems:• the effect of the experiment on the behavior  you are studyi...
Consider three factors when choosing a person to interview:• What questions do you want to answer?• Who could provide the ...
Prepare for the interview:• Do your homework.• Prepare good questions.• Check your equipment.      Chapter 6. Researching ...
Begin the interview:•   Arrive on time.•   Thank the respondent.•   State the subject and purpose of the interview.•   If ...
Conduct the interview:•   Take notes.•   Start with prepared questions.•   Be prepared to ask follow-up questions.•   Be p...
Conclude the interview:• Thank the respondent.• Ask for a follow-up interview.• Ask for permission to quote the respondent...
After the interview, do two tasks:• Write down the important information while the  interview is fresh in your mind.• Send...
Questionnaires are      vulnerable to three problems:• Some of the questions will misfire.• You won’t obtain as many respo...
Using questionnaires effectively            calls for four steps:•   Ask effective questions.•   Test the questionnaire.• ...
Understand the six         common types of questions:•   multiple choice•   Likert scale•   semantic differentials•   rank...
Organizing Your InformationChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Understand three principles for    organizing technical information:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Use conventional...
Ask four questions when you study documents from other cultures:• Does the text follow expected organizational  patterns?•...
Display your organizational            pattern prominently:• Create a detailed table of contents.• Use headings liberally....
Understand eight typical             patterns of organization:• chronological• spatial• general to specific• more importan...
Follow these three guidelines fororganizing information chronologically:• Provide signposts.• Consider using graphics to c...
Follow these three guidelines for   organizing information spatially:• Provide signposts.• Consider using graphics to comp...
An example ofinformation organized spatially                                                                          Sour...
Follow these two guidelines for organizing   information from general to specific: • Provide signposts. • Consider using g...
Follow three guidelines for organizing information     from more important to less important:  • Provide signposts.  • Exp...
Follow these four guidelines for organizing information by comparison and contrast: • Establish criteria for the compariso...
Follow these six guidelines for organizing information by classification or partition:• Choose a basis of classification o...
An example of information       organized by partition                                                                    ...
Follow these five guidelines for organizinginformation by problem-methods-solution: • In describing the problem, be clear ...
Follow these four guidelines fororganizing information by cause and effect: • Explain your reasoning. • Avoid overstating ...
Writing ProposalsChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Writing a proposal requires seven steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather information about your sub...
The logistics of proposalsChapter 16. Writing Proposals   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   56
Solicited and unsolicited proposals respond to different needs:• Solicited proposals are sent in response to an  informati...
Proposals lead to two kinds of deliverables: • research • goods and services        Chapter 16. Writing Proposals   © 2012...
A successful proposal        is a persuasive argument:• Show that you understand your readers’  needs.• Show that you have...
Follow these six suggestions  when writing international proposals:• Understand that what makes an argument  persuasive ca...
Follow these four guidelines to demonstrate your professionalism:• Describe your credentials and work history.• Provide yo...
Avoid these four      common dishonest practices:• saying that certain qualified people will  participate in the project, ...
There are three reasons        to write honest proposals:• to avoid serious legal trouble stemming from  breach-of-contrac...
To follow through on a proposal,you need three categories of resources:• personnel• facilities• equipment       Chapter 16...
A typical proposal includes six sections:• summary• introduction• proposed program• qualifications and experience• budget•...
An introduction answers seven questions:•What is the problem or opportunity?•What is the purpose of the proposal?•What is ...
Task schedules are    presented in one of three formats:• table• bar chart or Gantt chart• network diagram        Chapter ...
An example of a task schedule as a table       Chapter 16. Writing Proposals   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   68
An example of a task    schedule as a bar chartChapter 16. Writing Proposals   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   69
An example of a task       schedule as a network diagramA network diagram provides more useful information than either ata...
There are several techniques       for evaluating completed work:•   quantitative evaluations•   qualitative evaluations• ...
Writing Definitions, Descriptions,              InstructionsChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose   ©2012 by Bedf...
What are definitions,           descriptions, and instructions?• A definition is typically a brief explanation of  an item...
Definitions have two main uses:• Definitions clarify a description of a new  development or a new technology in a  technic...
Use these four strategies when definingterms for readers from another culture:• Add a glossary (a list of definitions).• U...
There are three types of definitions:• parenthetical• sentence• extended Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, an...
Sentence definitions follow a typical pattern: Item = category + distinguishing characteristics   Chapter 20. Writing Defi...
Follow these four guidelines to    write effective sentence definitions:•Be specific in stating the category and thedistin...
Eight techniques are             used in extended definitions:• graphics• examples• partition• principle of operation• com...
Decide where to place the definition:• in the text• in a marginal gloss• in a hyperlink• in a footnote• in a glossary• in ...
Descriptions are verbal and visual         representations of three items:• objects• mechanisms• processes   Chapter 20. W...
Follow these four principles                when writing descriptions:• Clearly indicate the nature and scope of the  desc...
Answer these five questions to introduce  object or mechanism descriptions:• What is the item?• What is the function of th...
Answer these six questions to          introduce process descriptions:• What is the process?• What is the function of the ...
Provide appropriate detail in mechanism and object descriptions:• Choose an appropriate organizational  principle:     fu...
Provide appropriate detail                   in process descriptions:• Structure the step-by-step description  chronologic...
An example of a process         description based on a graphicChapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructi...
Consider five questions    when designing a set of instructions:• What are your reader’s expectations?• Do you need to cre...
Follow these two guidelines        to design clear, attractive pages:• Create an open, airy design.• Clearly relate the gr...
Examples of cluttered                        and attractive page designsSource: Slide-                                    ...
Understand the four signal words      used in manuals and instructions:• Danger indicates an immediate and serious hazard ...
An example of a safety labelChapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martin...
A typical set of instructions            includes these four elements:• title• general introduction• step-by-step instruct...
Write effective titles for instructions:Effective titles:• How-to. “How to Install the J112 Shock  Absorber”• Gerund. “Ins...
Consider answering these six questionswhen drafting introductions for instructions: • Who should carry out this task? • Wh...
Follow these six guidelines     when drafting steps in instructions:• Number the instructions.• Present the right amount o...
Typical elements in the                     front matter of a manual:•    introduction or preface•    overview of the cont...
Typical elements in the                   back matter of a manual:• set of specifications• list of safety regulations and ...
Consider these three questions whenwriting instructions for multicultural readers:  • In what language should the informat...
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Week 02

  1. 1. Week 2: Audiences, Research,Organization, Proposals, Definitions & Descriptions ENG 3302 Winter RoundtreeChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  2. 2. Table of ContentsAnalyzing Your Audience and Purpose…….…slide 3Researching Your Subject…………………...….slide 16Organizing Your Information…………………....slide 39Writing Proposals…………………………….…..slide 54Writing Definitions, Descriptions Instructions….slide 72 Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  3. 3. Analyzing Your Audience and PurposeChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  4. 4. Determine four important characteristics of your audience:• Who are your readers?• Why is your audience reading your document?• What are your readers’ attitudes and expectations?• How will your readers use your document? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Consider six factors about your most important readers:• the reader’s education• the reader’s professional experience• the reader’s job responsibility• the reader’s personal characteristics• the reader’s personal preferences• the reader’s cultural characteristics Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Classify your readers into three categories: • a primary audience of people who will use your document in carrying out their jobs • a secondary audience of people who need to stay aware of developments in the organization but who will not directly act on or respond to your document • a tertiary audience of people who might take an interest in the subject of the document Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Your readers have attitudes and expectations:• attitudes toward you• attitudes toward the subject• expectations about the document Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Why and how will your readers use your document?• Why is the reader reading your document?• How will the reader read your document?• What is the reader’s reading skill level?• What is the physical environment in which the reader will read your document? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. Learn about your audience:• Determine what you already know about your audience.• Interview people.• Read about your audience online.• Search social media for documents your audience has written. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Understand seven cultural variables that lie “on the surface”:• political• economic• social• religious• educational• technological• linguistic Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Understand six cultural variables that lie “beneath the surface”:• focus on individuals or groups• distance between business life and private life• distance between ranks• nature of truth• need to spell out details• attitudes toward uncertainty Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. Consider four points aboutcultural variables “beneath the surface”:• Each variable represents a spectrum of attitudes.• The six variables do not line up in a clear pattern.• Different organizations within the same culture can vary greatly.• An organization’s cultural attitudes are fluid, not static. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Use these eight strategies when writing for readers from other cultures:• Limit your vocabulary.• Keep sentences short.• Define abbreviations and acronyms in a glossary.• Avoid jargon unless you know your readers are familiar with it. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. Use these eight strategies when writing for readers from other cultures (cont.):• Avoid idioms and slang.• Use the active voice whenever possible.• Be careful with graphics.• Be sure someone from the target culture reviews the document. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  15. 15. Determine your purpose:Ask yourself:• What do I want this document to accomplish?• What do I want readers to know or believe?• What do I want readers to do? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  16. 16. Researching Your SubjectChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  17. 17. Understand the differences between academic and workplace research:• In academic research, your goal is to find information that will help you answer a scholarly question.• In workplace research, your goal is to find information that will help you answer a practical question, usually one that involves the organization for which you work. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  18. 18. The research process consists of 12 steps: • Analyze your audience. • Analyze your purpose. • Analyze your subject. • Visualize the deliverable. • Work out a schedule and a budget. • Determine what information will need to be part of that deliverable. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 18
  19. 19. The research process consists of 12 steps (cont.):• Determine what information you still need to acquire.• Create questions you need to answer in your deliverable.• Conduct secondary research.• Conduct primary research.• Evaluate your information.• Do more research. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  20. 20. Choose appropriate research methods:• What types of research media might you use?• What types of research tools might you use?• What types of primary research might you conduct? Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  21. 21. Follow three guidelines when researching a topic:• Be persistent.• Record your data carefully.• Triangulate your research methods. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  22. 22. Know the four types of information media: • print • online databases • Web sites • social media Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  23. 23. Know how to use six basic research tools:• online catalogs• reference works• periodical indexes• newspaper indexes• abstract services• government information Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  24. 24. Understand these five forms of social media: • discussion boards • wikis • blogs • tagged content • RSS feeds Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  25. 25. Look for information that is . . .• accurate• unbiased• comprehensive• appropriately technical• current• clear Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  26. 26. When evaluating print and online sources, examine these five factors:• authorship• publisher• knowledge of the literature• accuracy and verifiability of the information• timeliness Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  27. 27. Understand the seven techniques of primary research:• observations and demonstrations• inspections• experiments• field research• interviews• inquiries• questionnaires Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  28. 28. Conducting an experiment consists of four phases:• establishing a hypothesis• testing the hypothesis• analyzing the data• reporting the data Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  29. 29. Field research is vulnerable to two common problems:• the effect of the experiment on the behavior you are studying• bias in the recording and analysis of the data Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  30. 30. Consider three factors when choosing a person to interview:• What questions do you want to answer?• Who could provide the information you need?• Is the person willing to be interviewed? Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  31. 31. Prepare for the interview:• Do your homework.• Prepare good questions.• Check your equipment. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 31
  32. 32. Begin the interview:• Arrive on time.• Thank the respondent.• State the subject and purpose of the interview.• If you want to record the interview, ask permission. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  33. 33. Conduct the interview:• Take notes.• Start with prepared questions.• Be prepared to ask follow-up questions.• Be prepared to get the interview back on track. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  34. 34. Conclude the interview:• Thank the respondent.• Ask for a follow-up interview.• Ask for permission to quote the respondent. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 34
  35. 35. After the interview, do two tasks:• Write down the important information while the interview is fresh in your mind.• Send a brief thank-you note. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  36. 36. Questionnaires are vulnerable to three problems:• Some of the questions will misfire.• You won’t obtain as many responses as you want.• You cannot be sure the respondents are representative. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36
  37. 37. Using questionnaires effectively calls for four steps:• Ask effective questions.• Test the questionnaire.• Administer the questionnaire.• Present questionnaire data in your document. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 37
  38. 38. Understand the six common types of questions:• multiple choice• Likert scale• semantic differentials• ranking• short answer• short essay Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 38
  39. 39. Organizing Your InformationChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  40. 40. Understand three principles for organizing technical information:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Use conventional patterns of organization.• Display your organizational pattern prominently in the document. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 40
  41. 41. Ask four questions when you study documents from other cultures:• Does the text follow expected organizational patterns?• Do the introductions and conclusions present the kind of information you would expect?• Does the text appear to be organized linearly?• Does the text use headings? If so, does it use more than one level? Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 41
  42. 42. Display your organizational pattern prominently:• Create a detailed table of contents.• Use headings liberally.• Use topic sentences at the beginnings of your paragraphs. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 42
  43. 43. Understand eight typical patterns of organization:• chronological• spatial• general to specific• more important to less important• comparison and contrast• classification and partition• problem-methods-solution• cause and effect Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 43
  44. 44. Follow these three guidelines fororganizing information chronologically:• Provide signposts.• Consider using graphics to complement the text.• Analyze events where appropriate. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 44
  45. 45. Follow these three guidelines for organizing information spatially:• Provide signposts.• Consider using graphics to complement the text.• Analyze events where appropriate. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 45
  46. 46. An example ofinformation organized spatially Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2010 <www.metmuseum. org/toah/world- regions/#/09/World- Map>.Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 46
  47. 47. Follow these two guidelines for organizing information from general to specific: • Provide signposts. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 47
  48. 48. Follow three guidelines for organizing information from more important to less important: • Provide signposts. • Explain why one point is more important than another. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 48
  49. 49. Follow these four guidelines for organizing information by comparison and contrast: • Establish criteria for the comparison and contrast. • Evaluate each item according to the criteria you have established. • Organize the discussion. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 49
  50. 50. Follow these six guidelines for organizing information by classification or partition:• Choose a basis of classification or partition that fits your audience and purpose.• Use only one basis of classification or partition at a time.• Avoid overlap.• Be inclusive.• Arrange the categories in a logical sequence.• Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 50
  51. 51. An example of information organized by partition Source: Canon, 2010 <www.usa- canon.com/cusa/cons umer/products/camera s/digital_cameras/pow ershot_sx210_is#Box Content>.Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 51
  52. 52. Follow these five guidelines for organizinginformation by problem-methods-solution: • In describing the problem, be clear and specific. • In describing your methods, help your readers understand what you did and why you did it that way. • In describing the solution, don’t overstate. • Choose a logical sequence. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 52
  53. 53. Follow these four guidelines fororganizing information by cause and effect: • Explain your reasoning. • Avoid overstating your argument. • Avoid logical fallacies. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 53
  54. 54. Writing ProposalsChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  55. 55. Writing a proposal requires seven steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather information about your subject.• Choose the appropriate type of proposal.• Draft the proposal.• Format the proposal.• Revise, edit, proofread, and submit the proposal. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 55
  56. 56. The logistics of proposalsChapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 56
  57. 57. Solicited and unsolicited proposals respond to different needs:• Solicited proposals are sent in response to an information for bid (IFB) or a request for proposal (RFP).• Unsolicited proposals are submitted by a supplier who believes that the prospective customer has a need for goods or services. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 57
  58. 58. Proposals lead to two kinds of deliverables: • research • goods and services Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 58
  59. 59. A successful proposal is a persuasive argument:• Show that you understand your readers’ needs.• Show that you have decided what you plan to do and that you are able to do it.• Show that you are a professional and that you are committed to fulfilling your promises. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 59
  60. 60. Follow these six suggestions when writing international proposals:• Understand that what makes an argument persuasive can differ from one culture to another.• Budget enough time for translating.• Use simple graphics, with captions.• Write short sentences, using common vocabulary.• Use local conventions regarding punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.• Ask if the prospective customer will do a read- through. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 60
  61. 61. Follow these four guidelines to demonstrate your professionalism:• Describe your credentials and work history.• Provide your work schedule.• Describe your quality-control measures.• Include your budget. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 61
  62. 62. Avoid these four common dishonest practices:• saying that certain qualified people will participate in the project, even though they will not• saying that the project will be finished by a certain date, even though it will not• saying that the deliverable will have certain characteristics, even though it will not• saying that the project will be completed under budget, even though it will not Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 62
  63. 63. There are three reasons to write honest proposals:• to avoid serious legal trouble stemming from breach-of-contract suits• to avoid acquiring a bad reputation, thus ruining your business• to do the right thing Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 63
  64. 64. To follow through on a proposal,you need three categories of resources:• personnel• facilities• equipment Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 64
  65. 65. A typical proposal includes six sections:• summary• introduction• proposed program• qualifications and experience• budget• appendixes Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 65
  66. 66. An introduction answers seven questions:•What is the problem or opportunity?•What is the purpose of the proposal?•What is the background of the problem or opportunity?•What are your sources of information?•What is the scope of the proposal?•What is the organization of the proposal?•What key terms will you use in the proposal? Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 66
  67. 67. Task schedules are presented in one of three formats:• table• bar chart or Gantt chart• network diagram Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 67
  68. 68. An example of a task schedule as a table Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 68
  69. 69. An example of a task schedule as a bar chartChapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 69
  70. 70. An example of a task schedule as a network diagramA network diagram provides more useful information than either atable or a bar chart. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 70
  71. 71. There are several techniques for evaluating completed work:• quantitative evaluations• qualitative evaluations• formative evaluations• summative evaluations Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 71
  72. 72. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, InstructionsChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  73. 73. What are definitions, descriptions, and instructions?• A definition is typically a brief explanation of an item or concept using words and (sometimes) graphics.• A description is typically a longer explanation, usually accompanied by graphics, of an object, mechanism, or process.• A set of instructions is a kind of process description intended to enable a person to carry out a task. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 73
  74. 74. Definitions have two main uses:• Definitions clarify a description of a new development or a new technology in a technical field.• Definitions help specialists communicate with less knowledgeable readers. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 74
  75. 75. Use these four strategies when definingterms for readers from another culture:• Add a glossary (a list of definitions).• Use Simplified English and easily recognizable terms in definitions.• Pay close attention to key terms.• Use graphics to help readers understand a term or concept. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 75
  76. 76. There are three types of definitions:• parenthetical• sentence• extended Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 76
  77. 77. Sentence definitions follow a typical pattern: Item = category + distinguishing characteristics Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 77
  78. 78. Follow these four guidelines to write effective sentence definitions:•Be specific in stating the category and thedistinguishing characteristics.•Don’t describe a specific item if you are defining ageneral class of items.•Avoid writing circular definitions.•Be sure the category contains a noun or a noun phraserather than a phrase beginning with when, what, orwhere. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 78
  79. 79. Eight techniques are used in extended definitions:• graphics• examples• partition• principle of operation• comparison and contrast• analogy• negation• etymology Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 79
  80. 80. Decide where to place the definition:• in the text• in a marginal gloss• in a hyperlink• in a footnote• in a glossary• in an appendix Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 80
  81. 81. Descriptions are verbal and visual representations of three items:• objects• mechanisms• processes Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 81
  82. 82. Follow these four principles when writing descriptions:• Clearly indicate the nature and scope of the description.• Introduce the description clearly.• Provide appropriate detail.• Conclude the description. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 82
  83. 83. Answer these five questions to introduce object or mechanism descriptions:• What is the item?• What is the function of the item?• What does the item look like?• How does the item work?• What are the principal parts of the item? Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 83
  84. 84. Answer these six questions to introduce process descriptions:• What is the process?• What is the function of the process?• Where and when does the process take place?• Who or what performs the process?• How does the process work?• What are the principal steps of the process? Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 84
  85. 85. Provide appropriate detail in mechanism and object descriptions:• Choose an appropriate organizational principle:  functional  spatial• Use graphics.Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 85
  86. 86. Provide appropriate detail in process descriptions:• Structure the step-by-step description chronologically.• Explain causal relationships among steps.• Use the present tense.• Use graphics. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 86
  87. 87. An example of a process description based on a graphicChapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 87
  88. 88. Consider five questions when designing a set of instructions:• What are your reader’s expectations?• Do you need to create more than one set of instructions for different audiences?• What languages should you use?• Will readers be anxious about the information?• Will the environment in which the instructions are read affect the document design? Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 88
  89. 89. Follow these two guidelines to design clear, attractive pages:• Create an open, airy design.• Clearly relate the graphics to the text. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 89
  90. 90. Examples of cluttered and attractive page designsSource: Slide- Source: Anthro,Lok, 2005 2005<www.slide- <www.anthro.com/lok.com/ assemblyinstructioassembly/P246 ns/300-5237-8/P2468.pdf>. 00.pdf>. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 90
  91. 91. Understand the four signal words used in manuals and instructions:• Danger indicates an immediate and serious hazard that will likely be fatal.• Warning indicates the potential for serious injury or death or serious damage to equipment.• Caution indicates the potential for anything from moderate injury to serious equipment damage or destruction.• Note indicates a tip or suggestion to help readers carry out the procedure successfully Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 91
  92. 92. An example of a safety labelChapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 92
  93. 93. A typical set of instructions includes these four elements:• title• general introduction• step-by-step instructions• conclusion Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 93
  94. 94. Write effective titles for instructions:Effective titles:• How-to. “How to Install the J112 Shock Absorber”• Gerund. “Installing the J112 Shock Absorber”Ineffective titles:Noun strings. “J112 Shock Absorber Installation Instructions” Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 94
  95. 95. Consider answering these six questionswhen drafting introductions for instructions: • Who should carry out this task? • Why should the reader carry out this task? • When should the reader carry out this task? • What safety measures or other concerns should the reader understand? • What items will the reader need? • How long will the task take? Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 95
  96. 96. Follow these six guidelines when drafting steps in instructions:• Number the instructions.• Present the right amount of information in each step.• Use the imperative mood.• Don’t confuse steps and feedback statements.• Include graphics.• Do not omit articles (a, an, the) to save space. Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 96
  97. 97. Typical elements in the front matter of a manual:• introduction or preface• overview of the contents• conventions section• “where to get help” section• list of trademarksChapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  98. 98. Typical elements in the back matter of a manual:• set of specifications• list of safety regulations and industry standards• tips on maintenance and servicing• copyright page• index• glossaryChapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  99. 99. Consider these three questions whenwriting instructions for multicultural readers: • In what language should the information be written? • Do the text or graphics need to be modified? • What is the reader’s technological infrastructure? Chapter 20. Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 99

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