DocCoh213

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DocCoh213

  1. 1. Revising the Whole Document forRevising the Whole Document for CoherenceCoherence • Have you left outHave you left out anything in turning youranything in turning your outline into a draft?outline into a draft? • Have you included allHave you included all the elements yourthe elements your readers expect to see?readers expect to see? • Is the organizationIs the organization logical?logical? • Is the content strong?Is the content strong? Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 11
  2. 2. Summertown Sun Publishing Sucks!Summertown Sun Publishing Sucks! Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 22
  3. 3. An Effective Title is PreciseAn Effective Title is Precise • An effective title has both a subject and purpose.An effective title has both a subject and purpose. • Offering Free Cholesterol Screening at Thrall Associates: A Feasibility StudyOffering Free Cholesterol Screening at Thrall Associates: A Feasibility Study • If your document is an internal report discussing company business, you might not need to identifyIf your document is an internal report discussing company business, you might not need to identify the company. In that case, the following would be clear:the company. In that case, the following would be clear: • Offering Free Cholesterol Screening: A Feasibility StudyOffering Free Cholesterol Screening: A Feasibility Study • A Feasibility Study of Offering Free Cholesterol ScreeningA Feasibility Study of Offering Free Cholesterol Screening Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 33
  4. 4. Evaluate the Following TitlesEvaluate the Following Titles • How To Beat A Murder RapHow To Beat A Murder Rap • • HypnotismHypnotism A Romance Depicting How She Blinded Me With ScienceA Romance Depicting How She Blinded Me With Science • Tempted into the Tycoon's Trap: A Feasibility StudyTempted into the Tycoon's Trap: A Feasibility Study • Car DealersCar Dealers Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 44
  5. 5. Draft a Title for the Following ImageDraft a Title for the Following Image Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 55
  6. 6. A writer at ColdTec Accounting has just completed a draft of an internal report describing a recent drop in enrollment in the company’s training course entitled “Web Linking and Publishing with Microsoft Excel 2003,” offered to new employees. Which of the following titles would be most appropriate for the report?    The Changing Needs of New Employees at ColdTec  Choosing a Training Class: “Web Linking and Publishing with Microsoft Excel 2003”  An Analysis of Declining Enrollment in “Web Linking and Publishing with Microsoft Excel 2003”  Declining Enrollment in Training Classes Offered at ColdTec
  7. 7. Revising the WholeRevising the Whole DocumentDocument • Do you come across asDo you come across as reliable, honest, and helpful?reliable, honest, and helpful? • Are all the elements presentedAre all the elements presented consistently?consistently? • Is the emphasis appropriateIs the emphasis appropriate throughout the document?throughout the document?
  8. 8. Guidelines for RevisingGuidelines for Revising HeadingsHeadings •Avoid long noun strings.Avoid long noun strings. •Be informative.Be informative. •Avoid back-to-backAvoid back-to-back headings.headings. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 88
  9. 9. Avoid Long Noun StringsAvoid Long Noun Strings Revise: Proposed ProductionRevise: Proposed Production Enhancement Strategies AnalysisEnhancement Strategies Analysis TechniquesTechniques Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 99
  10. 10. Separate Headings from TextSeparate Headings from Text • 3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing • Over the past decade, the scholarly communityOver the past decade, the scholarly community has concluded that community policing offershas concluded that community policing offers significant advantages over the traditionalsignificant advantages over the traditional approach based on patrolling in police cars.approach based on patrolling in police cars. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1010
  11. 11. Advance OrganizerAdvance Organizer • The text after the heading “3. Approaches toThe text after the heading “3. Approaches to Neighborhood Policing,” is called anNeighborhood Policing,” is called an advanceadvance organizerorganizer, and indicates the background,, and indicates the background, purpose, scope, and organization of thepurpose, scope, and organization of the discussion that follows.discussion that follows. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1111
  12. 12. Write a title, advanced organizerWrite a title, advanced organizer and heading for the followingand heading for the following image:image: Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1212
  13. 13. Solve the riddle:Solve the riddle: Imagine a widely used and expensiveImagine a widely used and expensive prescription drug that claimed to makeprescription drug that claimed to make us beautiful but didn’t. Instead the drugus beautiful but didn’t. Instead the drug had frequent, serious side effects:had frequent, serious side effects: making us stupid, degrading the qualitymaking us stupid, degrading the quality and credibility of our communication,and credibility of our communication, turning us into bores, wasting ourturning us into bores, wasting our colleagues’ time. The side effects, andcolleagues’ time. The side effects, and the resulting unsatisfactory cost/benefitthe resulting unsatisfactory cost/benefit ratio, would rightly lead to a worldwideratio, would rightly lead to a worldwide product recall.product recall. ——from Edward Tufte’s new leaflet,from Edward Tufte’s new leaflet, The Cognitive Style of PowerPointThe Cognitive Style of PowerPoint,, which just came in the mailwhich just came in the mail 1313
  14. 14. Advantages of Turning ParagraphsAdvantages of Turning Paragraphs into Listsinto Lists It forces you to:It forces you to: • look at the big picturelook at the big picture • examine the sequenceexamine the sequence • create a clear lead-increate a clear lead-in • tighten and clarify your prosetighten and clarify your prose Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1414
  15. 15.  The paragraph below could be improved by doing which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)    As an undergraduate student, you can satisfy the University Writing Requirement and meet an important graduation requirement by scoring a 4 or 5 on either of the Advanced Placement English Exams (Language & Composition or Literature & Composition). You can also meet this requirement by receiving transfer credit for an approved college-level writing or writing-intensive course you have taken elsewhere and received a grade of "B" or higher. Finally, you can meet this requirement by taking and receiving a passing grade in a writing course at this university. The following two courses, for example, are dedicated primarily to the development of writing skills and can be used to meet the writing requirement: English 205 (Technical Communication) or English 200 (Rhetoric and Writing). If you have any further questions, please call Professor Lee Klein, Director of Writing Programs, in the Department of English at (518) 555-8122.    inserting transitional words and phrases  turning the paragraph into a list  beginning with a topic sentence  using demonstrative pronouns
  16. 16. Two Kinds of ParagraphsTwo Kinds of Paragraphs • AA body paragraphbody paragraph, the basic unit for, the basic unit for communicating information, is a group ofcommunicating information, is a group of sentences (or sometimes a single sentence) that issentences (or sometimes a single sentence) that is complete and self-sufficient and that contributescomplete and self-sufficient and that contributes to a larger discussion.to a larger discussion. • AA transitional paragraphtransitional paragraph helps readers move fromhelps readers move from one major point to another.one major point to another. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1616
  17. 17. Two Elements of MostTwo Elements of Most ParagraphsParagraphs • TheThe topic sentencetopic sentence summarizes or forecasts thesummarizes or forecasts the main point of the paragraph.main point of the paragraph. • TheThe supportsupport makes the topic sentence clear andmakes the topic sentence clear and convincing.convincing. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1717
  18. 18. Guidelines for Dividing LongGuidelines for Dividing Long ParagraphsParagraphs • Break the discussion at a logical place.Break the discussion at a logical place. • Make the topic sentence a separateMake the topic sentence a separate paragraph and break up the support.paragraph and break up the support. • Use a list.Use a list. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 1818
  19. 19. A writer is considering revising the long paragraph below. Where is the bestA writer is considering revising the long paragraph below. Where is the best place to start the second paragraph?place to start the second paragraph? Although graphics can enhance a Web site, they can also serve as a distraction.Although graphics can enhance a Web site, they can also serve as a distraction. Having too many graphics that do not contribute to the content of the site mayHaving too many graphics that do not contribute to the content of the site may make your company appear unprofessional, as well as contributing to slowmake your company appear unprofessional, as well as contributing to slow download times. Your site, for example, has thirty moving images.download times. Your site, for example, has thirty moving images. (1)(1) SuchSuch images do not reflect the serious nature of your business. When it comes toimages do not reflect the serious nature of your business. When it comes to graphics, we suggest you adopt a “less is more” approach.graphics, we suggest you adopt a “less is more” approach. (2)(2) AnotherAnother troublesome feature of your site is the scrolling banner used as a navigationtroublesome feature of your site is the scrolling banner used as a navigation element. In order to reach certain pages on your site, users must quickly click theelement. In order to reach certain pages on your site, users must quickly click the links scrolling across the banner. If they miss the link, they must wait another 20links scrolling across the banner. If they miss the link, they must wait another 20 seconds until the link scrolls by again.seconds until the link scrolls by again. (3)(3) Because this site is not designed to beBecause this site is not designed to be a game but rather a place for customers to learn more about handling hazardousa game but rather a place for customers to learn more about handling hazardous materials, you should not use a scrolling banner as a navigation element. Wematerials, you should not use a scrolling banner as a navigation element. We recommend that you use standard navigation buttons aligned along the leftrecommend that you use standard navigation buttons aligned along the left margin or across the top of the page. Also, you may want to include a text-onlymargin or across the top of the page. Also, you may want to include a text-only navigation element at the bottom of the page.navigation element at the bottom of the page. • at (1)at (1) • at (2)at (2) • at (3)at (3) • None of the above, most effective as one paragraphNone of the above, most effective as one paragraph
  20. 20. Emphasizing CoherenceEmphasizing Coherence • Use transitional words and phrases.Use transitional words and phrases. • Repeat key words.Repeat key words. • Use demonstrative pronouns followed by nouns.Use demonstrative pronouns followed by nouns. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 2020
  21. 21. Transitional WordsTransitional Words Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 2121
  22. 22. Demonstrative Pronouns FollowedDemonstrative Pronouns Followed by Nounsby Nouns
  23. 23. Use Demonstrative PronounsUse Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by NounsFollowed by Nouns Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 2323
  24. 24. Repeating Key WordsRepeating Key Words Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 2424
  25. 25. A writer wants to signal to readers that because land-use problems are causing high bacteria levels, landowners must take action. Which of the following words or phrases is most appropriate in the excerpt below? Bacteria levels are often above state standards and are due to localized, specific land use problems. _____, efforts with landowners will be necessary to address these problems and reduce the high bacteria levels.    Nevertheless  For example  Next  Consequently
  26. 26. Creating a Coherent DesignCreating a Coherent Design • Use headers and footers to enhanceUse headers and footers to enhance coherence.coherence. • Use typefaces to enhance coherence.Use typefaces to enhance coherence. • Use the styles feature to make the design ofUse the styles feature to make the design of different elements consistent.different elements consistent. Chapter 10. Writing CoherentChapter 10. Writing Coherent Documents © 2007 byDocuments © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin'sBedford/St. Martin's 2626

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