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Production Methods

Production Methods

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Production Methods Production Methods Presentation Transcript

  • LaDon Swann Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium Auburn University Production Methods
  • Production Methods
    • Ponds
    • Raceways
    • Cages and Pens
    • Recirculating systems
  • Levee Ponds
    • Levee ponds are the most common fish production method
    • Common food species
      • red drum
      • catfish
      • trout and salmon
      • hybrid striped bass
      • tilapia
      • cobia
  • Levee Ponds
    • Site selection
      • topography
      • pesticides
      • utilities
      • drainage
      • wetlands
      • clay content
    • Types
    • Construction
      • levee
      • depth
      • slope
      • water
      • drains
    • Production rates
  • Site Selection
    • Time spent analyzing a site is time well spent.
    • Many problems associated with levee ponds can be traced back to poor site selection.
  • Site Selection
    • Criteria
      • topography
        • gentle slope
      • pesticide residuals
        • test
      • utilities
        • essential
  • Site Selection
    • Criteria
      • drainage
        • locate for gravity drainage
      • wetlands
        • regulatory difficulties
      • clay
        • 10-20% is idea, but good ponds can be constructed with less or more.
          • depends soil composition
  • Types
    • Spawning
      • less than 1 acre
      • easy to drain/fill
    • Fingerling
      • 1-5 acres
      • easy to drain/refill
    • Finishing
      • 5 acres or larger
      • draining
        • continual -- no
        • batch -- yes
    5  1-5  1
  • Spawning
  • Fingerling
  • Finishing
  • Construction
    • Ponds last decades when properly constructed.
    • $3-5 K per acre
    • Components
      • levee
      • depth
      • slope
      • water supply
      • drains
  • Levee
    • Core trench
      • dug to anchor levee to existing topography
      • core depth equal depth of pond
      • filled with high clay content soil
      • compacted
  • Levee
    • Remove soil from central part of pond to construct levees
    • Add 8-10 layers
    • Compact
  • Levee
    • 20 ft wide main
      • harvesting equipment
    • 16 ft wide side
      • feed trucks
  • Slope
    • Horizontal distance in feet for each foot of height or a 2 + b 2 = c 2 or s = Rise/Run
    • 3:1 minimum inside
    3 1
  • Depth
    • Shallow end
      • 2.5-3.5 ft
      • prevents rooted plant growth
    • Deep end
      • 6-7 ft (drain)
      • prevents unnecessary draining to harvest
    2.5-3.5 6-7 ft
  • Freeboard
    • Freeboard
      • height of the levee from the water surface to the top of the levee
    • 2 ft recommended
      • prevents overflow
      • erosion control
    2 ft
  • Water Supply
    • Ponds should be able to fill in 7 days or less
    • Use gate or alfalfa valves to control flow
  • Drain
    • Ponds should able to completely drain in 2 days or less.
    • PVC pr galvanized
    • Anti-seep collar
      • prevents seepage around drain pipe
      • collar should be 3 times the diameter of the pipe
  • Drain
    • Swivel drain
    • Vertical standpipe
  • Production Rates
    • Variables
      • feed
      • aeration
      • harvest method
        • continual
        • batch
    • 1,000 to 10,000 lbs./acre
    Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration
  • Raceways
    • Site selection
      • water supply
      • location
      • topography
    • Types
      • series
      • parallel
    • Construction
      • material
      • dimensions
      • earthen construction
      • concrete construction
    • Production rates
  • Site Selection
    • Water supply
      • use large quantities of water
      • gravity springs are most economical
    • Location
      • near water supply
    • Topography
      • 8-10 percent slope
      • 18-24 inch water drop
  • Types
    • Series
      • flow through multiple races
    • Parallel
      • flow through one race
    Series Parallel
  • Construction
    • Materials
      • “ any” non-toxic material
      • must hold water
    Earthen Concrete
  • Dimensions
    • Ratio of 30:3:1
      • aids in water flow
      • self-cleaning
      • easier harvest
    For Example: 120 ft x 12 ft x 4 ft 120 ft 12 ft 4 ft
  • Production Rates
    • Variables
      • feed
      • aeration
      • harvest method
        • continual
        • batch
    • 20,000 to 45,000 lbs./ft 3 /sec.
      • (449 gals/min)
    Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration
  • Cages
    • Site selection
      • water sources
      • water quality
    • Types
      • round
      • rectangular
    • Construction
      • bag
      • frame
      • feeding ring
      • lid
      • floatation
    • Placement
    • Production rates
  • Site Selection
    • Types
      • Farm Ponds
      • Bays and Fiords
      • Open Ocean
    • Specifications
      • Freshwater
        • 1 acre minimum
        • 4-5 ft. average depth
      • Saltwater
        • 70-100 ft
    20 acre barrow pit
  • Types
    • Types
      • Small cages
      • Large net pens
    • Size
      • is based on economics and management
  • Construction
    • Sizes
      • small cages less than 200 ft 3 .
      • large net pens for near and offshore production
    • Materials
      • non-toxic
      • durable
      • retains fish
      • allow floatation
    Salmon net pens
  •  
  • Cage Placement
    • Specifications
      • open areas of water to allow good circulation
      • provide space between cages
      • number depends on size of pond (carrying capacity)
  • Production Rates
    • Variables
      • feed
      • aeration
      • harvest method
        • continual
        • batch
    • Carrying capacity
      • 10-20 lbs. per ft 3
      • no more than 1,500-2,000 lbs./acre
    Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting
  • Recirculating Systems
    • Site components
      • pump house
      • emergency generator
      • 3 phase electricity
      • bulk feed storage
      • oxygen supply
      • building
    • System components
      • oxygen
      • biological filter
      • buffering system
      • heaters/chillers
      • solids filter
      • lighting
      • tanks
    • Production rates
  • Site Components
    • Building
    • Water
    • Electricity
      • 3 phase
    • Other
      • bulk feed
      • oxygen tanks
      • emergency generator
  • Building
    • Pole barn
      • enclosed or semi-enclosed
        • access
        • foam insulation
        • moisture proof
        • floor drains
  • Electricity
    • 3 phase electricity
      • electricity is a major cost and 3 phase will reduce the expense
    • Emergency generator
      • in event of power outage there is a 30 minute window to restore power to system.
  • System Components
    • Primary
      • biofilter
      • solids filter
      • tanks
      • pump
      • buffering system
    • Secondary
      • oxygen
      • pumps
      • heaters/chillers
      • lighting
  • Biological Filter
    • Function
      • nitrification
      • oxidizes ammonia and nitrite to nitrate
    NO 3 - NH 3 1½ O 2 nitrosomonas nitrobacter 1½ O 2 NO 2 -
  • Solids Filter
    • Types
      • sand filter
      • settling chambers
      • inclined tubes
      • screen filters
    • Function
      • settleable (feces and food)
      • also some suspended
  • Tanks
    • Criteria
      • non-toxic
      • durable
      • corrosion resistant
    • Materials
      • fiberglass
      • concrete
      • plastic
      • glass
      • others with liners
  • Pump
    • Types
      • impeller driven
      • airlift
    • Purpose
      • to return water through system
      • usually placed after biofilter
  • Oxygen
    • Sources
      • aerators
        • agitators
        • blowers
        • ventura pumps
      • oxygenation
        • packed towers
        • U-tubes
        • cones
    Packed tower
  • Bicarbonate Drip
    • Rational
      • CO 2 from respiration
      • nitrification is an acidifying process
    • Purpose
      • add alkalinity to water
  • Other Components
    • Lighting
      • low light levels reduce stress to fish
    • Heaters/chillers
      • depending on species
  • Production Rates
    • Variables
      • feed
      • aeration
      • harvest method
        • continual
        • batch
    • ¼ to 1 lb./gallon
    Feed Aeration Continual Harvesting Increased Yields No Inputs Feed Feed Aeration