Thermal power plant


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Introduction, Thermal or Steam Power Plant

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  • Per capita means how much a person receives. India’s population is 1.17 billion as of July’09. Total Production = 1,49,390MW
  • Flue gas – gas which comes out after burning a fuel and it contains a lot of sulphur.
  • Thermal power plant

    1. 1. (Steam power Plant)
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>India is one of the world’s largest consumer of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional sources: Thermal, Hydro and Nuclear. </li></ul><ul><li>Non- conventional: Wind, solar, Geothermal, tidal. </li></ul><ul><li>Installed capacity – 1,61,352MW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal = 95151.74 MW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear = 4,120MW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro = 36877.76 MW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RES = 13242.41 MW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual power production – 680 billion KWH </li></ul>
    3. 3. Break up of Power <ul><li>Thermal Power Plants – 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro Electric Power Plants - 21% </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Power Plants - 4% </li></ul><ul><li>Installed wind power Generation – 9655MW </li></ul><ul><li>30% to 40% of electrical power is lost in transmission and distribution </li></ul>
    4. 5. STRUCTURE OF POWER SYSTEM <ul><li>Power system owned by state electricity boards. </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector utilities operate in Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad </li></ul><ul><li>Regional electricity boards – Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western, North-eastern. </li></ul><ul><li>Power Grid corporation- Central. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Thermal Power Plants <ul><li>Installed Capacity – 93,392.64MW </li></ul><ul><li>Coal based – 77,458.88MW </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Based – 14,734.01MW </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Based – 1199.75MW </li></ul>
    6. 7. General Layout of Thermal Power Station
    7. 8. Main Components <ul><li>Fuel Handling Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Ash Handling Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Boiler Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Feed Water Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling Water Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Generator Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine Unit </li></ul>
    8. 9. Main Circuit <ul><li>Fuel And Ash Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Air And Gas Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Feed Water And Steam Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling Water Circuit </li></ul>
    9. 10. Fuel And Ash Circuit <ul><li>Fuel stored and fed to the boiler through conveyor belts. Broken down into proper shape for complete burning. </li></ul><ul><li>Ash thus generated after burning is removed from the boiler through ash handling equipment </li></ul>
    10. 11. Air And Gas Circuit <ul><li>Air is required for combustion of fuel and is supplied through fans </li></ul><ul><li>Air is passed through air preheater to extract energy from flue gases for proper burning of the fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Flue gases have ash and several gases which are passed through the precipitator(dust collector) and go to atmosphere through chimney. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Feed Water And Steam Circuit <ul><li>Steam Converted to water by condenser. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is demineralized & hence not wasted to have better economic operation of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Some part of steam and water is lost while passing through different parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Boiler feed pump feeds water into the boiler drum where it is heated to form steam. </li></ul><ul><li>Wet steam is again heated in super heater before passing through the turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Steam is expanded in the turbine to run it. After which again it goes to boiler for reheating </li></ul>
    12. 13. Cooling Water Circuit <ul><li>To condensate the steam, large quantity of cooling water is required which is taken from river or pondage </li></ul><ul><li>After passing through the condenser, it is fed back to the river or Pondage </li></ul>
    13. 14. Boiler
    14. 15. Turbine
    15. 16. Turbine – Full View
    16. 17. Economizer
    17. 18. Selection Of site <ul><li>Availability of cheap land. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of future expansion of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Away from the urban areas due to pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial cost of plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnitude and nature of load to be handled. </li></ul>