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report on thermal power plant

  1. 1. A Seminar Report on “THERMAL POWER PLANT ” For the partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Technology in MECHANICAL ENGG. Submitted By MUKESH KUMAR (B.Tech. Final Year) Department of Mechanical Engineering Anand International College of Engineering RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. EXAMINER’S CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. mukesh kumar Student of final Year B.Tech. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2013-14 was examined in the seminar work entitled “THERMAL POWER PLANT” at anand international college of Engineering . (Internal Examiner) (External Examiner) Department of Mechanical Engineering Anand international college of engineering RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
  3. 3. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar entitled “THERMAL POWER PLANT” has been successfully completed by Mr. MUKESH KUMAR in partial fulfillment of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical branch of RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY during the academic year 2013-14 under the guidance of undersigned. H.O.D GUIDED BY (MECH. DEPTT.) ANUP DUBAY Department of Mechanical Engineering Anand international college of engineering RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am thankful to Mr. ANUP DUBAY (GUIDE) Mechanical Engineering, for giving me full guidance and supports during the course of research on the topic. I wish to express my profound sense of gratitude to all the faculty members of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Branch for their delightful guidance and constant encouragement throughout the process, they have always been a great inspirational motivator for me. I take this as my opportunity to express my whole hearted thanks to all other persons involved in the process who made it possible to achieve the completion of summer report with success. DATE MUKESH KUMAR 2-04-2014 B.TECH. Final Year Mechanical Engg.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTORY OVERVIEW A station thermal power is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fossil fuel resources generally used to heat the water. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy. Certain thermal power plants also are designed to produce heat energy for industrial purposes of district heating, or desalination of water, in addition to generating electrical power. Globally, fossil fueled thermal power plants produce a large part of man-made CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and efforts to reduce these are varied and widespread. Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal electric, and waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam, in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. Power plants burning coal, fuel oil, or natural gas are often called fossil-fuel power plants. Some biomass-fueled thermal power plants have appeared also. Non-nuclear thermal power plants, particularly fossil-fueled plants, which do not use co-generation are sometimes referred to as conventional power plants. Commercial electric utility power stations are usually constructed on a large scale and designed for continuous operation. Electric power plants typically use three-phase electrical generators to produce alternating current (AC) electric power at a frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Large companies or institutions may have their own power plants to supply heating or electricity to their facilities, especially if steam is created anyway for other purposes. Steam- driven power plants have been used in various large ships, but are now usually used in large naval ships. Shipboard power plants usually directly couple the turbine to the ship's propellers through gearboxes. Power plants in such ships also provide steam to smaller turbines driving electric generators to supply electricity. Shipboard steam power plants can be either fossil fuel or nuclear. Nuclear marine propulsion is, with few exceptions, used only in naval vessels. There have been perhaps about a dozen turbo-electric ships in which a steam- driven turbine drives an electric generator which powers an electric motor for propulsion. Combined heat and power plants (CH&P plants), often called co-generation plants, produce both electric power and heat for process heat or space heating. Steam and hot water lose energy when piped over substantial distance, so carrying heat energy by steam or hot water is often only worthwhile within a local area, such as a ship, industrial plant, or district heating of nearby buildings.
  7. 7. EFFICIENCY A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feed water heater. The energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered salable energy produced as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to 48% As with all heat engines, their efficiency is limited, and governed by the laws of thermodynamics. By comparison, most hydropower stations in the United States are about 90 percent efficient in converting the energy of falling water into electricity. The energy of a thermal not utilized in power production must leave the plant in the form of heat to the environment. This waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers. If the waste heat is instead utilized for district heating, it is called co-generation. An important class of thermal power station are associated with desalination facilities; these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants, freshwater production and electricity are equally important co- products. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. Sub-critical fossil fuel power plants can achieve 36–40% efficiency. Super critical designs have efficiencies in the low to mid 40% range, with new
  8. 8. "ultra critical" designs using pressures of 4400 psi (30.3 MPa) and multiple stage reheat reaching about 48% efficiency. Above the critical point for water of 705 °F (374 °C) and 3212 psi (22.06 MPa), there is no phase transition from water to steam, but only a gradual decrease in density. Currently most of the nuclear power plants must operate below the temperatures and pressures that coal-fired plants do, since the pressurized vessel is very large and contains the entire bundle of nuclear fuel rods. The size of the reactor limits the pressure that can be reached. This, in turn, limits their thermodynamic efficiency to 30–32%. Some advanced reactor designs being studied, such as the very high temperature reactor, advanced gas-cooled reactor and supercritical water reactor, would operate at temperatures and pressures similar to current coal plants, producing comparable thermodynamic efficiency. ELECTRICITY COST The direct cost of electric energy produced by a thermal power station is the result of cost of fuel, capital cost for the plant, operator labour, maintenance, and such factors as ash handling and disposal. Indirect, social or environmental costs such as the economic value of environmental impacts, or environmental and health effects of the complete fuel cycle and plant decommissioning, are not usually assigned to generation costs for thermal stations in utility practice, but may form part of an environmental impact assessment. TYPICAL COAL THERMAL POWER STATION
  9. 9. Typical diagram of a coal-fired thermal power station 1. Cooling tower 10. Steam Control valve 19. Superheater 2. Cooling water pump 11. High pressure steam turbine 20. Forced draught (draft) fan 3. transmission line (3-phase) 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater 4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 13. Feedwater heater 22. Combustion air intake 5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 14. Coal conveyor 23. Economiser 6. Low pressure steam turbine 15. Coal hopper 24. Air preheater 7. Condensate pump 16. Coal pulverizer 25. Precipitator 8. Surface condenser 17. Boiler steam drum 26. Induced draught (draft) fan 9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 18. Bottom ash hopper 27. Flue gas stack For units over about 200 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the forced and induced draft fans, air preheaters, and fly ash collectors. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may instead be provided. BOILER AND STEAM CYCLE In the nuclear plant field, steam generator refers to a specific type of large heat exchanger used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor plant) and secondary (steam plant) systems, which generates steam. In a nuclear reactor called a boiling water reactor (BWR), water is boiled to generate steam directly in the reactor itself and there are no units called steam generators. In some industrial settings, there can also be steam-producing heat exchangers called heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) which utilize heat from some industrial process. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. A fossil fuel steam generator includes an economizer, a steam drum, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (AP), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack.
  10. 10. FEED WATER HEATING AND DEAERATION The boiler feedwater used in the steam boiler is a means of transferring heat energy from the burning fuel to the mechanical energy of the spinning steam turbine. The total feed water consists of recirculated condensate water and purified makeup water. Because the metallic materials it contacts are subject to corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, the makeup water is highly purified before use. A system of water softeners and ion exchange demineralizers produces water so pure that it coincidentally becomes an electrical insulator, with conductivity in the range of 0.3–1.0 microsiemens per centimeter. The makeup water in a 500 MWe plant amounts to perhaps 120 US gallons per minute (7.6 L/s) to replace water drawn off from the boiler drums for water purity management, and to also offset the small losses from steam leaks in the system. The feed water cycle begins with condensate water being pumped out of the condenser after traveling through the steam turbines. The condensate flow rate at full load in a 500 MW plant is about 6,000 US gallons per minute (400 L/s). Diagram of boiler feed water deaerator (with vertical, domed aeration section and horizontal water storage section). The water is pressurized in two stages, and flows through a series of six or seven intermediate feed water heaters, heated up at each point with steam extracted from an appropriate duct on the turbines and gaining temperature at each stage. Typically, in the middle of this series of feedwater heaters, and before the second stage of pressurization, the condensate plus the makeup water flows through a deaerator that removes dissolved air from the water, further purifying and reducing its corrosiveness. The water may be dosed following this point with hydrazine, a chemical that removes the remaining oxygen in the water to below 5 parts per billion (ppb). It is also dosed with pH control agents such as ammonia or morpholine to keep the residual acidity low and thus non-corrosive.
  11. 11. BOILER OPERATION The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 feet (15 m) on a side and 130 feet (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (58 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace through burners located at the four corners, or along one wall, or two opposite walls, and it is ignited to rapidly burn, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. Plants designed for lignite (brown coal) are increasingly used in locations as varied as Germany, Victoria, Australia and North Dakota. Lignite is a much younger form of coal than black coal. It has a lower energy density than black coal and requires a much larger furnace for equivalent heat output. Such coals may contain up to 70% water and ash, yielding lower furnace temperatures and requiring larger induced-draft fans. The firing systems also differ from black coal and typically draw hot gas from the furnace-exit level and mix it with the incoming coal in fan-type mills that inject the pulverized coal and hot gas mixture into the boiler. Plants that use gas turbines to heat the water for conversion into steam use boilers known as heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). The exhaust heat from the gas turbines is used to make superheated steam that is then used in a conventional water-steam generation cycle, as described in gas turbine combined-cycle plants section below. BOILER FURNACE AND STEAM DRUM The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum and from there it goes through downcomers to inlet headers at the bottom of the water walls. From these headers the water rises through the water walls of the furnace where some of it is turned into steam and the mixture of water and steam then re-enters the steam drum. This process may be driven purely by natural circulation (because the water is the denser than the water/steam mixture in the water walls) or assisted by pumps. In the steam drum, the water is returned to the down comers and the steam is passed through a series of steam separators and dryers that remove water droplets from the steam. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a trip-out are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum (as well as the super heater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start up.
  12. 12. SUPERHEATER Fossil fuel power plants often have a superheater section in the steam generating furnace. The steam passes through drying equipment inside the steam drum on to the superheater, a set of tubes in the furnace. Here the steam picks up more energy from hot flue gases outside the tubing and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves before the high pressure turbine. Nuclear-powered steam plants do not have such sections but produce steam at essentially saturated conditions. Experimental nuclear plants were equipped with fossil-fired super heaters in an attempt to improve overall plant operating cost. STEAM CONDENSING The condenser condenses the steam from the exhaust of the turbine into liquid to allow it to be pumped. If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases. Diagram of a typical water-cooled surface condenser. The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 °C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop must be prevented.
  13. 13. Typically the cooling water causes the steam to condense at a temperature of about 35 °C (95 °F) and that creates an absolute pressure in the condenser of about 2–7 kPa (0.59– 2.07 inHg), i.e. a vacuum of about −95 kPa (−28 inHg) relative to atmospheric pressure. The large decrease in volume that occurs when water vapor condenses to liquid creates the low vacuum that helps pull steam through and increase the efficiency of the turbines. The limiting factor is the temperature of the cooling water and that, in turn, is limited by the prevailing average climatic conditions at the power plant's location (it may be possible to lower the temperature beyond the turbine limits during winter, causing excessive condensation in the turbine). Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or ocean. A Marley mechanical induced draft cooling tower The heat absorbed by the circulating cooling water in the condenser tubes must also be removed to maintain the ability of the water to cool as it circulates. This is done by pumping the warm water from the condenser through either natural draft, forced draft or induced draft cooling towers (as seen in the image to the right) that reduce the temperature of the water by evaporation, by about 11 to 17 °C (20 to 30 °F)—expelling waste heat to the atmosphere. The circulation flow rate of the cooling water in a 500 MW unit is about 14.2 m³/s (500 ft³/s or 225,000 US gal/min) at full load. The condenser tubes are made of brass or stainless steel to resist corrosion from either side. Nevertheless they may become internally fouled during operation by bacteria or algae in the cooling water or by mineral scaling, all of which inhibit heat transfer and reduce thermodynamic efficiency. Many plants include an automatic cleaning system that circulates sponge rubber balls through the tubes to scrub them clean without the need to take the system off-line.] The cooling water used to condense the steam in the condenser returns to its source without having been changed other than having been warmed. If the water returns to a local water body (rather than a circulating cooling tower), it is tempered with cool 'raw' water to prevent thermal shock when discharged into that body of water. Another form of condensing system is the air-cooled condenser. The process is similar to that of a radiator and fan. Exhaust heat from the low pressure section of a steam turbine runs through the condensing tubes, the tubes are usually finned and ambient air is pushed through
  14. 14. the fins with the help of a large fan. The steam condenses to water to be reused in the water- steam cycle. Air-cooled condensers typically operate at a higher temperature than water- cooled versions. While saving water, the efficiency of the cycle is reduced (resulting in more carbon dioxide per megawatt of electricity). From the bottom of the condenser, powerful condensate pumps recycle the condensed steam (water) back to the water/steam cycle. REHEATER Power plant furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is passed through these heated tubes to collect more energy before driving the intermediate and then low pressure turbines. AIR PATH External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The Primary air fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any closing. STEAM TURBINE GENERATOR
  15. 15. The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft. There is a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, and the generator. As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and thermal energy it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy. The entire rotating mass may be over 200 metric tons and 100 feet (30 m) long. It is so heavy that it must be kept turning slowly even when shut down (at 3 rpm) so that the shaft will not bow even slightly and become unbalanced. This is so important that it is one of only five functions of blackout emergency power batteries on site. Other functions are emergency lighting, communication, station alarms and turbogenerator lube oil. Superheated steam from the boiler is delivered through 14–16-inch (360–410 mm) diameter piping to the high pressure turbine where it falls in pressure to 600 psi (4.1 MPa) and to 600 °F (320 °C) in temperature through the stage. It exits via 24–26-inch (610–660 mm) diameter cold reheat lines and passes back into the boiler where the steam is reheated in special reheat pendant tubes back to 1,000 °F (540 °C). The hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine where it falls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed low pressure turbines and finally exits to the condenser. The generator, 30 feet (9 m) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) in diameter, contains a stationary stator and a spinning rotor, each containing miles of heavy copper conductor—no permanent magnets here. In operation it generates up to 21,000 amperes at 24,000 volts AC (504 MWe) as it spins at either 3,000 or 3,600 rpm, synchronized to the power grid. The rotor spins in a sealed chamber cooled with hydrogen gas, selected because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during startup, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly explosive hydrogen–oxygen environment is not created. The power grid frequency is 60 Hz across North America and 50 Hz in Europe, Oceania, Asia (Korea and parts of Japan are notable exceptions) and parts of Africa. The desired frequency affects the design of large turbines, since they are highly optimized for one particular speed. The electricity flows to a distribution yard where transformers increase the voltage for transmission to its destination. The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated. STACK GAS PATH AND CLEANUP As the combustion flue gas exits the boiler it is routed through a rotating flat basket of metal mesh which picks up heat and returns it to incoming fresh air as the basket rotates, This is
  16. 16. called the air preheater. The gas exiting the boiler is laden with fly ash, which are tiny spherical ash particles. The flue gas contains nitrogen along with combustion products carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. The fly ash is removed by fabric bag filters or electrostatic precipitators. Once removed, the fly ash byproduct can sometimes be used in the manufacturing of concrete. This cleaning up of flue gases, however, only occurs in plants that are fitted with the appropriate technology. Still, the majority of coal-fired power plants in the world do not have these facilities. Legislation in Europe has been efficient to reduce flue gas pollution. Japan has been using flue gas cleaning technology for over 30 years and the US has been doing the same for over 25 years. China is now beginning to grapple with the pollution caused by coal-fired power plants. Where required by law, the sulfur and nitrogen oxide pollutants are removed by stack gas scrubbers which use a pulverized limestone or other alkaline wet slurry to remove those pollutants from the exit stack gas. Other devices use catalysts to remove Nitrous Oxide compounds from the flue gas stream. The gas travelling up the flue gas stack may by this time have dropped to about 50 °C (120 °F). A typical flue gas stack may be 150–180 metres (490–590 ft) tall to disperse the remaining flue gas components in the atmosphere. The tallest flue gas stack in the world is 419.7 metres (1,377 ft) tall at the GRES-2 power plant in Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan. In the United States and a number of other countries, atmospheric dispersion modeling studies are required to determine the flue gas stack height needed to comply with the local air pollution regulations. The United States also requires the height of a flue gas stack to comply with what is known as the "Good Engineering Practice (GEP)" stack height. In the case of existing flue gas stacks that exceed the GEP stack height, any air pollution dispersion modeling studies for such stacks must use the GEP stack height rather than the actual stack height. FLY ASH COLLECTION Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars . BOTTOM ASH COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL At the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. Ash extractor is used to discharge ash from Municipal solid waste–fired boilers.
  17. 17. AUXILIARY SYSTEMS BOILER MAKE-UP WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND STORAGE Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blowdown and leakages have to be made up to maintain a desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. Impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water, and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion, and mixed bed exchangers. Any ions in the final water from this process consist essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which recombine to form pure water. Very pure DM water becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by a de-aerator through an ejector attached to the condenser. FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders.
  18. 18. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The oil is usually heated to about 100 °C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces. BARRING GEAR Barring gear (or "turning gear") is the mechanism provided to rotate the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed after unit stoppages. Once the unit is "tripped" (i.e., the steam inlet valve is closed), the turbine coasts down towards standstill. When it stops completely, there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. This is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore could warp or bend by millionths of inches. This small shaft deflection, only detectable by eccentricity meters, would be enough to cause damaging vibrations to the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. The shaft is therefore automatically turned at low speed (about one percent rated speed) by the barring gear until it has cooled sufficiently to permit a complete stop. OIL SYSTEM An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system. GENERATOR COOLING While small generators may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the generator enclosure first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage
  19. 19. where the shaft emerges from the casing. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The generator also uses water cooling. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high-voltage windings. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used. GENERATOR HIGH-VOLTAGE SYSTEM The generator voltage for modern utility-connected generators ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units. The generator high-voltage leads are normally large aluminium channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminium bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high-voltage leads are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high-voltage electrical substation (usually in the range of 115 kV to 765 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high-voltage leads. Thus, the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. Smaller units may share a common generator step-up transformer with individual circuit breakers to connect the generators to a common bus. MONITORING AND ALARM SYSTEM Most of the power plant operational controls are automatic. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range. BATTERY-SUPPLIED EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND COMMUNICATION A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and emergency lighting. This is essential for a safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. TRANSPORT OF COAL FUEL TO SITE AND TO STORAGE Main article: Fossil fuel power plant Most thermal stations use coal as the main fuel. Raw coal is transported from coal mines to a power station site by trucks, barges, bulk cargo ships or railway cars. Generally, when shipped by railways, the coal cars are sent as a full train of cars. The coal received at site may be of different sizes. The railway cars are unloaded at site by rotary dumpers or side tilt
  20. 20. dumpers to tip over onto conveyor belts below. The coal is generally conveyed to crushers which crush the coal to about 3 ⁄4 inch (19 mm) size. The crushed coal is then sent by belt conveyors to a storage pile. Normally, the crushed coal is compacted by bulldozers, as compacting of highly volatile coal avoids spontaneous ignition. The crushed coal is conveyed from the storage pile to silos or hoppers at the boilers by another belt conveyor system. LOCATION OF POWER PLANTS IN INDIA Thermal power is the "largest" source of power in India. There are different types of Thermal power plants based on the fuel used to generate the steam such as coal, gas, Diesel etc. About 75% of electricity consumed in India are generated by thermal power plants. More than 51% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. Public sector undertaking NTPC and several other state level power generating companies are engaged in operating coal based Thermal Power Plants. Apart from NTPC and other state level operators, some private companies are also operating the power plants. Here is some list of currently operating coal based thermal power plants in India. As on July 31, 2010, and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Coal or Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydro and wind power. As of 2010, India had 19 nuclear power reactors in operation generating 4,560 MW while 4 other are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 2,720 MW. Nineteen nuclear power reactors operated at six sites by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India produce 4,560.00 MW, 2.9% of total installed base.
  21. 21. Power station Opera tor Locat ion District State Region Reactor (MW)units Installe d capacity (MW) Narora Atomic PowerStation NPCI L Naror a Buland shahr Uttar Pradesh Norther n 220 x 2 440 Rajasthan AtomicPowerSta tion NPCI L Rawa tbhata Chittor garh Rajasthan Norther n (100 x 1, 200 x 1, 220 x 4) 1180 Tarapur AtomicPowerSta tion NPCI L Tarap ur Thane Maharasht ra Western 160 x 2, 540 x 2 1,400 Kakrapar Atomic Power Station NPCI L Kakra par Surat Gujarat Western 220 x 2 440 Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant NPCI L Kuda nkula m Tirunel veli Tamilnadu Souther n 1000 x 2 - Madras Atomic Power Station BHAV INI Kalpa kkam Kanche epuram Tamilnadu Souther n 500 x 1 - Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant NPCI L Kaiga Uttara Kannad a Karnataka Souther n 220 x 4 660 Madras Atomic Power Station NPCI L Kalpa kkam Kanche epuram Tamil Nadu Souther n 220 x 2 440 Total 6 19 4,560 Thermal Power Thermal power is the largest source of power in India.There are different types of Thermal power plants based on the fuel used to generate the steam such as coal, gas, Diesel etc. About 75% of electricity consumed in india are generated by Thermal power plants.
  22. 22. Coal or Lignite Based More than 50% of india’s commercial energy demand is met through the country’s vast coal reserves. Public sector undertaking National Thermal Power Corporation and several other state level power generating companies are engaged in operating coal based Thermal Power Plants.Apart from NTPC and other state level operators, some private companies are also operating the power plants. Here is some list of currently operating Coal based Thermal power plants in India. As on July 31, 2010, and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Coal or Lignite based power plants in india are 87093.38 MW. Power station Operator Location District State Re gio n Unit wise Capacit y Installed Capacit y (MW) Rajghat Power Station IPGCL Delhi Delhi NCT Delhi Nor ther n 2 x 67.5 135.00 Deenba ndhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Station HPGCL Yamunan agar Yamunana gar Haryana Nor ther n 2 x 300 600.00 Panipat Thermal Power Station I HPGCL Assan Panipat Haryana Nor ther n 4 x 110 440.00 Panipat Thermal Power Station HPGCL Assan Panipat Haryana Nor ther n 2 x 210, 2 x 250 920.00
  23. 23. II Faridab ad Thermal Power Station HPGCL Faridabad Faridabad Haryana Nor ther n 1 x 55 55.00 Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Station HPGCL Khedar Hisar Haryana Nor ther n 1 x 600 600.00 Guru Nanak dev TP PSPCL Bathinda Bathinda Punjab Nor ther n 4 x 110 440.00 Guru Hargobi nd TP PSPCL Lehra Mohabbat Bathinda Punjab Nor ther n 2 x 210, 2 x 250 920.00 Guru Gobind Singh Super Thermal Power Plant PSPCL Ghanauli Rupnagar Punjab Nor ther n 6 x 210 1260.00 Suratgar h Super Thermal Power Plant RVUNL Suratgarh Sri Ganganag ar Rajasthan Nor ther n 6 x 250 1500.00 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant RVUNL Kota Kota Rajastha n Nor ther n 2 x 110, 3 x 210, 2 x 195 1240.00 Giral Lignite Power Plant RVUNL Thumbli Barmer Rajastha n Nor ther n 2 x 125 250.00
  24. 24. Chhabra Therma Power lant RVUNL Mothipur a Baran Rajastha n Nor ther n 2 x 250 500.00 Orba Thermal Power Station UPRVUN L Obra Sonebhadra Uttar Pradesh Nor ther n X40, 3 x 94, 5 x 200 1,322.00 Anpara Thermal UPRVUN L Anpara Sonebhadra Uttar Pradesh Nor ther n 3 x 210, 2 x 500 1630.00 Panki Thermal Power Station UPRVUN L Panki Kanpur Uttar Pradesh Northern 2 x 105 210.00 Parichh a Thermal Power Station UPRVUN L Parichha Jhansi Uttar Pradesh Northern 2 x 110, 2 x 210 640.00 Hardua ganj Thermal Power Station UPRVUN L Harduaga nj Aligarh Uttar Pradesh Northern 1 x 55, 1 x 60, 1 x 105 220.00 Badarpu r Thermal power plant NTPC Badarpur New Delhi NCT Delhi Northern 3 x 95, 2 x 210 705.00 Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station NTPC Shaktinag ar Sonebhadra Uttar Pradesh Northern 5 x 200, 2 x 500 2000.00 Barsingsar Lignite Power Plant NLC Barsingsar Bikaner Rajasthan Northern 1 x 125 125.00
  25. 25. Rihand Thermal Power Station NTPC Rihand Nagar Sonebhadra Uttar Pradesh Northern 4 x 500 2000.00 Nationa l Capital Thermal Power Plant NTPC Vidyutna gar Gautam Budh Nagar Uttar Pradesh Northern 4 x 210, 2 x 490 1820.00 Feroj Gandhi Unchah ar Thermal NTPC Unchahar Raebareli Uttar Pradesh Northern 5 x 210 1050.00 Tanda Thermal Power Plant NTPC Vidyutna gar Ambedkar Nagar Uttar Pradesh Northern 4 x 110 440.00 Raj west Lignite Power Plant JSW Barmer Barmer Rajasthan Northern 1 x 135 135.00 VS Lignite Power Plant KSK Gurha Bikaner Rajasthan Northern 1 x 125 125.00 Rosa Thermal Power Plant Stage I Reliance Rosa Shahjahanpu r Uttar Pradesh Northern 2 x 300 600.00
  26. 26. Northern Ukai Thermal Power Station GSECL Ukai dam Tapi Gujarat Western 200, 1 x 210 850 Gandhin agar Thermal Power Station GSECL Gandhinaga r Gandhinag ar Gujarat Western 2 x 120, 3 x 210 870 Wanakb ori Thermal Power Station GSECL Wanakbori Kheda Gujarat Western 7 x 210 1470 Sikka Thermal Power Station GSECL Jamnagar Jamnagar Gujarat Western 2 x 120 240 Dhuvara n Thermal Power Station GSECL Khambhat Anand Gujarat Western 2 x 110 220 Kutch Thermal Power Station GSECL Panandhro Kutch Gujarat Western 2 x 70, 2 x 75 290 Surat Thermal Power Station GIPCL Nani Naroli Surat Gujarat Western 4 x 125 500 Akrimot a Thermal Power Station GMDC Chher Nani Kutch Gujarat Western 2 x 125 250
  27. 27. Satpura Thermal Power Station MPPGCL Sarni Betul Madhya Pradesh Western 5 x 37.5, 1 x 200, 3 x 210 1017.5 Sanjay Gandhi Thermal Power Station MPPGCL Birsinghpur Umaria Madhya Pradesh Western 4 x 210, 1 x 500 1340 Amarka ntak Thermal Power Station MPPGCL Chachai Anuppur Madhya Pradesh Western 2 x 120, 1 x 210 450 Korba East Thermal Power Plant CSPGCL Korba Chattisg arh Western 4 x 50, 2 x 120 440 Dr Shyama Prasad Mukharj ee Thermal Power Plant CSPGCL Korba Chattisg arh Western 2 x 250 500 Korba West Hasdeo Thermal Power Plant CSPGCL Korba Chattisg arh Western 4 x 210 840 Koradi Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Koradi Nagpur Maharas tra Western 4 x 105, 1 x 200, 2 x 210 1040
  28. 28. Nashik Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Nashik Nashik Maharas tra Western 2 x 125, 3 x 210 880 Bhusaw al Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Deepnagar Jalgaon Maharas tra Western 1 x 50, 2 x 210 470 Paras Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Vidyutnagar Akola Maharas tra Western 1 x 55, 2 x 250 555 Parli Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Parli- Vaijnath Beed Maharas tra Western 2 x 20, 3 x 210, 2 x 250 1170 Kaparkh eda Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Kaparkheda Nagpur Maharas tra Western 4 x 210 840 Chandra pur Super Thermal Power Station MAHAG ENCO Chandrapur Chandrapur Maharas tra Western 4 x 210, 3 x 500 2340 Vindhya chal Super Thermal Power Station NTPC Vidhya Nagar Sidhi Madhya Pradesh Western 6 x 210, 4 x 500 3260 Korba Super Thermal Power NTPC Jamani Palli Korba Chattisg arh Western 3 x 200, 3 x 500 2100
  29. 29. Plant Sipat Thermal Power Plant NTPC Sipat Bilaspur Chattisg arh Western 2 x 500 1000 Bhilai Expansi on Power Plant NTPC- SAIL(JV) Bhilai Durg Chattisg arh Western 2 x 250 500 Sabarma ti Thermal Power Station Torrent Ahamadaba d Gujarat Western 1 x 60, 1 x 120, 2 x 110 400 Mundra Thermal Power Station Adani Mundra Kutch Gujarat Western 2 x 330 660 Jindal Megha Power Plant jindal Tamnar Raigarh Chattisg arh Western 4 x 250 1000 Lanco Amarka ntak Power Plant Lanco Pathadi Korba Chattisg arh Western 2 x 300 600 Tromba y Thermal Power Station Tata Trombay Mumbai Maharas tra Western 1 x 150, 2 x 500, 1 x 250 1400 Dahanu Thermal Power Station Reliance Dahanu Thane Maharas tra Western 2 x 250 500
  30. 30. Wardha Warora Power Station KSK Warora Chandrapur Maharas tra Western 1 x 135 135 Gas or Liquid Fuel Based As on July 31, 2010, and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Gas based power plants in india is 17,353.85 MW. This accounts for 10% of the total installed capacity.GAIL is the main source of fuel for most of these plants. Here is some list of presently operating plants. Power station Operator Location District State Sector Unit wise Capacity Install ed Capac ity (MW) IPGCL Gas Turbine Power Station IPGCL New Delhi NCT Delhi State 9 x 30 270.00 Pragati Gas Power Station PPCL New Delhi NCT Delhi State 2 x 104.6, 1 x 121.2 330.40 Pampore Gas Turbine Station I J&K Govt Pampore Pulwama Jammu & Kashmir State 3 x 25 75.00 Pampore Gas Turbine Station II J&K Govt Pampore Pulwama Jammu & Kashmir State 4 x 25 100.00 Ramgarh Gas Thermal Power RVUNL Ramgarh Rajasthan State 1 x 3, 1 x 35.5, 1 x 37.5, 1 x 37.8 113.80
  31. 31. Station Dholpur Combined Cycle Power Station RVUNL Purani Chaoni Dholpur Rajasthan State 3 x 110 330.00 Anta Thermal Power Station NTPC Anta Baran Rajasthan Central 3 x 88, 1 x 149 413.00 Auraiya Thermal Power Station NTPC Dibiyapu r Auraiya Uttar Pradesh Central 4 x 110, 2 x 106 652.00 Faridabad Thermal Power Plant NTPC Mujedi Faridabad Haryana Central 2 x 143, 1 x 144 430.00 National Capital TPP NTPC Vidyutna gar Gautam Budh Nagar Uttar Pradesh Central 4 x 131, 2 x 146.5 817.00 Northern Dhuvaran Gas Based CCPP-I GSECL Khambha t Anand Gujarat State 1 x 67.85, 1 x 38.77 106.62 Dhuvaran Gas Based CCPP-II GSECL Khambha t Anand Gujarat State 1 x 72.51, 1 x 39.94 112.45 Utran Gas Based CCPP GSECL Utran Surat Gujarat State 3 x 30, 1 x 45, 1 x 228 363.00 Vadodara GIPCL Vadodara Vadodara Gujarat State 3 x 32, 1 145.00
  32. 32. Gas Based CCPP-I x 49 Vadodara Gas Based CCPP-II GIPCL Vadodara Vadodara Gujarat State 1 x 111, 1 x 54 165.00 Uran Gas Turbine Power Station Mahagenco Bokadvir a Raigarh Maharastra State 4 x 60, 4 x 108, 2 x 120 912.00 Kawas TPS NTPC Adityana gar Surat Gujarat Central 4 x 106, 2 x 110.5 645.00 Jhanor- Gandhar TPS NTPC Urjanaga r Bharuch Gujarat Central 3 x 131, 1 x 255 648.00 Goa Gas Power Station RSPCL Zuarinag ar Goa Goa Private 1 x 32, 1 x 16 48.00 Vatva Combined Cycle Power Plant Torrent Vatva Ahamadabad Gujarat Private 2 x 32.5, 1 x 35 100.00 SUGEN Combined Cycle Power Plant Torrent Akhakho l Surat Gujarat Private 3 x 382.5 1147.5 0 Essar Combined Cycle Power Plant Essar Hazira Surat Gujarat Private 3 x 110, 1 x 185 515.00 GSEG Combined Cycle GSEG Hazira Surat Gujarat Private 3 x 52 156.00
  33. 33. Power Plant GPEC Combined Cycle Power Plant GPEC Paguthan Bharuch Gujarat Private 3 x 135, 1 x 250 655.00 Trombay Gas Power Station Tata Trombay Mumbai Maharastra Private 1 x 120, 1 x 60 180.00 Diesel Based As on July 31, 2010, and as per the Central Electricity Authority the total installed capacity of Diesel based power plants in india is 1,199.75 MW.[4] . Normally the diesel based power plants are either operated from remote locations or operated to cater peak load demands. Here is some list of presently operating plants. Power station Operator Location State Reactor (MW)units Installed Capacity (MW) Under construction (MW) Ambala Diesel Power Station Haryana Govt Haryana Northern 1 x 2.18, 1 x 0.34, 1 x .4, 1 x 1 3.92 Keylong Diesel Power Station HP Govt Himachal Pradesh Northern 1 x 0.13 0.13 Bemina Diesel Power Station J&K Govt Jammu & Kashmir Northern 1 x 5 5.00 Kamah Diesel Power Station J&K Govt Jammu & Kashmir Northern 1 x 0.06 0.06 Leh Diesel J&K Jammu & Northern 1 x 2.18 2.18
  34. 34. Power Station Govt Kashmir Upper Sindh Diesel Power Station J&K Govt Jammu & Kashmir Northern 1 x 1.7 1.70 Northern 6 8 12.99 Yelahanka Diesel Power Station KPCL Yelahanka Karnataka Southern 6 x 21.32 127.92 Brahmapuram Diesel Power Station KSEB Brahmapuram Kerala Southern 5 x 21.32 106.60 Kozhikode Diesel Power Station KSEB Kozhikode Kerala Southern 8 x 16.00 128.00 Southern 3 19 362.52 Gangtok Diesel Power Station Sikkim Govt Gangtok Sikkim Eastern 4.00 Ranipool Diesel Power Station Sikkim Govt Ranipool Sikkim Southern 1.00 Eastern 2 5.00 Suryachakra Diesel Power Station SPCL A & N Andaman & Nicobar Islands 20 Islands 1 20.00 Total 12 27 400.51
  35. 35. POWER PLANTS IN RAJASTHAN 1 KOTA THERMAL POWER PLANT kota Super Thermal Power Station is the first coal based Electricity Generating Power Plant in Rajasthan. At present the total installed capacity of KSTPS is 1240MW. Kota Super Thermal Power Station is located on the left bank of river Chambal in Rajasthan’s principal industrial city Kota. Infrastructural facilities like adequate water availability in Kota Barrage throughout the year. SANCTION OF SCHEMES (STAGE-I to V) Kota Super Thermal Power Station is located on the left bank of river Chambal in Rajasthan’s principal industrial city Kota. Infrastructural facilities like adequate water availability in Kota Barrage throughout the year. Stage Unit No. Capacity(MW) Synchronising Date Cost(Rs.Crore) I 1 110 17.1.1983 143 2 110 13.7.1983 II 3 210 25.9.1988 480 4 210 1.5.1989 III 5 210 26.3.1994 480 IV 6 195 31.7.2003 635 V 7 195 30.5 2009 880
  36. 36. (1) Location KOTA(RAJASTHAN) (2) Installed Capacity 1240MW (3) Land Details (a) Plant Area 204 Hectare (b) Ash Dump Area 423 Hectare (4) Cooling Water (a) Source Of Cooling Water Kota Barrage (Chambal River) (b) Method Of Cooling: i) Unit # 1 to 5 Once through Cooling System(Open Cycle)-1180 Cusecs i) Unit # 6 to 7 Re-circulating through Cooling Tower - 18 Cusecs (Including Consumptive use) (5) Coal (a) Type Bituminous Coal (b) Linked Coal Mines SECL (Korea-Rewa & Korba) & NCL (Singrauli) (c) Average Ash Content 28-32% (6) Fuel Oil (a) Type Furnace Oil / HSD (b) Available Storage Capacity HSD - 3100 KL & FO - 18600 KL
  37. 37. (7) Steam Generator M/s. BHEL make (8) Turbo Generator M/s. BHEL make (9) Coal Handling Plant (a) Stock Yard Capacity 5,00,000 MT (b) Wagon Tipplers 5 Nos. (c) Coal Crushers 10 Nos (d) Conveyor System 1.595 Kms (10) Transmission Lines Power evacuation through 9 Nos. 220 KV outgoing feeders. Further 2 Nos. of new 220 KV feeders are under construction RECORDS OF EXCELLENCE : Kota Super Thermal Power Station is reckoned as one of the best, efficient and prestigious power station of the country. KSTPS has established a record of excellence and has earned meritorious productivity awards from the Ministry of Power, Govt. of India during 1984, 1987, 1989, 1991 and every year since 1992-93 onwards. KSTPS has earned golden shield award from Union Ministry of Power for Consistent outstanding performance during 2000-01 to 2003-04. The Golden Shield was presented by Hon’ble President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam on 24.8.04. KSTPS has achieved the distinction of about 100% fly ash utilization during the year 2010- 11. An all time high generation level of 9891 MU at an annual PLF of 91.06% was achieved during 2010-11. The achievements made by KTPS during 2010-11 are as under:- record achievements : 2010-11 total station generation _ 9891 mu(highest since commissioning) plant load factor _ 91.06 % station availability _ 94.23 % no. of forced outages _ 6 nos.(lowest since commissioning)
  38. 38. sp. oil consumption _ 0.24 ml/kwh(lowest since commissioning) sp. oil consumption _ 0.76 ml/kwh(lowest since commissioning) dry fly ash utilisation _ 99.40%(highest since commissioning) boiler tube leakage unit _ nil (during yr. 2010-11) continuous run 210 mw unit # 4 _ 100 days (dt. 16.02.10 to 26.05.10) station generation (in a day) _ 30.895 mu(highest in a day on 13.03.11) Special Achievements current year 2010-11 Continuous run Capicity From To No. of Hrs No of days Unit-2 110MW 13.18 hrs dt26.01.11 01:58 hrs dt.09.6.11 3205 134 Unit-6 195MW 17:05 hrs dt30.1.11 03:19 hrs dt18.05.11 2578 107 Unit-4 210MW 07:18 hrs dt 17.2.11 Contd. 2849 119(+) Further, it is worthwhile to mention that KTPS managed efficient unloading of coal rakes within the duration as prescribed by the Railways and there by achieved unloading of about 155 coal rakes without any demurrage charges since 19th April 2010. Though KTPS Units 1 to 4 are very old (110 MW Unit No. 1 & 2 being 27 years old & 210 MW Units No. 3 & 4 being 21 years old), the station performance is consistently well above the National average as depicted in the operational parameters for last 5 years as under:- YEA R GEN(M U) PLF(% ) SPCFC. OIL CONSUMP.(ml/kw h) AUX. CONSUMP( %) AVAIL. FACTO R (%) FLY ASH UTILIZATIO N (%) 2005- 2006 8294 90.60 0.48 9.27 91.51 79.45 2006- 2007 8163 89.17 0.57 9.36 89.86 88.51
  39. 39. 2007- 2008 8395 91.46 0.50 9.37 94.27 98.12 2008- 2009 8674 94.76 0.43 9.37 95.34 99.14 2009- 2010 8584 89.65 0.70 9.54 90.41 2010- 2011 9891 91.06 0.52 9.67 94.23 97.31 2011- 2012 10084.77 6 92.59 0.47 9.59 93.95 97.31 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE :  adequate measures have been taken at ktps to control pollution and comply to the norms laid by environment protection act. 1986. being a power station, located in the heart of kota city, continuous efforts are made to ensure atmospheric emission of suspended particulate matter within the prescribed limits.  180 meter high stacks have been provided to release flue gases into the atmosphere at an approx. velocity of 25 m/sec. so as to disperse the emitted particulate matter over a wide spread area.  the on-line stack spm monitoring system of codel Germany has been installed as per requirement of central pollution control board.  microprocessor based intelligent controllers to optimize the esp of 99.82% efficiency have been provided. esps of 110 mw units # 1 & 2 were augmented under r&m scheme with installation of 7 additional field to enhance efficiency upto 99.82%. dummy fields provided in esp of 210 mw units # 3 & 4 were also filled in with installation of 7th field as such the efficiency has increased up to 99.84%.  adequate water spraying arrangements have been provided at coal unloading, transfer and conveying system to arrest and restrict fugitive emission. the system is now further upgraded with latest technology.  development of green belt, about 3 lakhs plants of various species have already been planted in kstps and ash dyke. the survival rate of plants is watched periodically. *existing green cover area within plant - 90 hect.
  40. 40. *existing green cover area within ash dyke - 100 hect.  regular monitoring of stack emission, ambient air quality and trade effluent is carried out.  all the drains in the esp area and boiler area have been diverted to dedicated tanks and the effluent collected is utilized for transportation of bottom ash disposal of the various units. ASH UTILIZATION FLY ASH : In compliance to Govt. of India Gazette Notification issued on 14th Sept. 1999 for making available ash free of cost ,KSTPS has achieved 100% Dry Fly ash utilization. KSTPS signed agreements for dedicated generating units allocations including Construction & Operation of complete dry fly ash evacuation system from each unit in two phases i.e. from ESP to Intermediate Silo and Intermediate Silo to Main Supply Silo near KSTPS boundary with following cement manufacturing companies - • Unit # 1&2 - M/s. Associated Cement Co. Ltd. • Unit # 3 - M/s. Birla Cement Works Ltd. • Unit # 4 - M/s. Grasim Industries Ltd. • Unit # 5 - M/s. Grasim Industries Ltd • Unit # 6 - M/s. Shree Cement Ltd. • Unit # 7(50% each) - M/s. Grasim Industries & M/s. Shree Cement Ltd. POND ASH : Concerted efforts have been made towards utilization of disposed fly & bottom ash accumulated in KSTPS ash dykes. The ash is provided free of cost and has been utilized by various small entrepreneurs i.e. Brick-kiln industries, small fly ash product industries, Cement manufacturing Industries and for land filling by National Highway Authority of India in construction of NH-12 and NH-76. 2 SURATGARH SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION  suratgarh thermal power station is the first super thermal plant of rajasthan.  it has installed capacity of 1500 mw, which is highest in the state.
  41. 41. LOCATION suratgarh super thermal power station is located 27 km from suratgarh -15 km from suratgarh to biradhwal on nh15,then 12km in east from is having extreme hot & cold climate and temperature varies between -1 to 50 ˚c SANCTION OF SCHEMES (STAGE-I to V) Stage Unit No. Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore) I I & II 2x250 2300 II III & IV 2X250 2057 III V 1X250 753 IV VI 1X250 1117 TOTAL 6227 COMMISSIONING TARGETS AND ACHIEVEMENTS UNITS ZERO DATE TARGET ACTUAL DATE DATE OF COAL FIRING DATE OF COMMERCIAL OPERATION Remarks UNIT- 1 Jun-91 MAR- 1997 10-MAY- 1998 04-OCT- 1998 01-FEB-1999 UNIT- 2 Jun-91 SEP-2000 28-MAR- 2000 07-JUN- 2000 01-OCT-2000 COMMISSIONED 6 MONTH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE UNIT- 3 23- Jun-99 MAR- 2002 29-OCT- 2001 08-DEC- 2001 15-JAN-2002 COMMISSIONED 6 MONTH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE
  42. 42. UNIT- 4 23- Jun-99 SEP-2002 25-MAR- 2002 17-JUN- 2002 31-JUL-2002 COMMISSIONED 6 MONTH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE UNIT- 5 1-Feb- 01 JUN-2003 30-JUN- 2003 30-JUN- 2003 19-AUG-2003 COMMISSIONED IN RECORD TIME OF 29 MONTH UNIT- 6 15- Jun-06 OCT- 2008 31-MAR- 2009 24- AUG- 2009 30-DEC-2009 - ACHIEVEMENTS IT HAS ACHIEVED MANY MILESTONES SINCE COMMISSIONING OF ITS 1ST UNIT DESPITE BEING LOCATED AT PLACE WHERE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ARE VERY ADVERSE. 2.Fly Ash Utilisation sstps has achieved almost 100% fly ash utilization in 2010-11. working more efficiently auxiliary power consumption has been reduced from 9.16% in 2009-10 to 9.12% in 2010-11. we have also managed to reduce demurrage hours for unloading of coal rakes by remarkable 81% in 2010-11 from 2009-10. in 2009-10 number of demurrage hours were 3787 while for 2010-11 it has been reduced to just 708 hours. 3.Mini-Micro Hydel Plant for financial year 2010-11 there is an increase of 206 % in total generation by mini/micro hydroelectric plants (under sstps) from last year 2009-10. generation for 2010-11 is 67.89 lakh units while generation for 2009-10 was 22.18 lakh units. 4.CSR under corporate social responsibility , bus facility has been started from sstps township to nearby villages ,enabling village children to have quality education in kendriya vidyalaya and dav school situated in sstps township PERFORMANCE INDICES AT A GLANCE
  43. 43. Year Total Generation (MU) PLF (%) % Aux. Cons. Sp. Oil Cons. (ml/Kwh) Sp. Coal Cons. (Kg/Kwh) Station Heat Rate (Kcal/Kwh) Fly Ash Utilisation 2001- 2002 4112.540 85.04 9.31 1.56 0.607 2505 0.97 2002- 2003 7145.676 88.94 9.18 1.07 0.614 2576 2.34 2003- 2004 8186.633 80.74 9.37 0.98 0.607 2429 12.62 2004- 2005 9362.319 85.50 9.30 0.83 0.635 2444 16.16 2005- 2006 9951.223 90.88 9.15 0.64 0.613 2478 40.37 2006- 2007 10205.589 93.20 9.16 0.53 0.624 2469 63.26 2007- 2008 10222.515 93.10 9.12 0.59 0.634 2491 81.55 2008- 2009 9740.606 88.96 9.19 0.77 0.669 2499 87.50 2009- 2010 9192.409 79.94 9.16 1.02 0.669 2476 88.74 2010- 2011 9409.777 71.61 9.12 1.340 0.665 2493 96.53 2011- 2012 9735.59 81.61 8.79 0.85 0.65 2502 91.38 2012- 2013 10570.321 80.44 9.05 1.06 STATION PERFORMANCE HIGHLIGHTS & ACHIEVEMENTS (2010-11) ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES 1. 100 % ash utilization has been achieved in 2010-11 resulting in considerable reduction in raw water consumption required for disposal of ash. 2. disposal of fly ash is ensured through closed containers only 3. green belt development is being done as per action plan to achieve 33% cover.
  44. 44. energy conservation measures switching of cooling tower fans & reduction of raw water consumption through utilization of waste water for fly ash preparation and green belt development. strengthening of power evacuation system commissioning of 400 kv stps-bikaner & 220 kv stps- bhadra feeders. deployment of cisf deployemnt of cisf for ensuring safety & security of the power station in line with the directives of security agencies. concrete road at rayanwali village construction of cement concrete road at rayanwali village taken up by cement companies on the behest of sstps authorities. awards by g.o.i. year generation award 1999-2000 meritorious productivity - shield & 3.74 lacs 2000-2005 meritorious productivity gold shield awarded by hon'ble president of india dr. a. p. j. abdul kalam on 24-aug-2004 2005-2006 shield awarded by hon'ble prime minister of india dr. manmohan singh on 21-3-2007 expansion plans super critical units 7& 8 (1) proposed capicity 2x660 mw (2) location suratgarh(rajasthan) (3) total plant area 446 hectares (4) project cost rs. 7920 crores (5) fuel primary fuel: coal secondary fuel : hsd / hfo (6) fuel requirement 6.5 mtpa (7) source of water : indra gandhi canal project (8) water allocation 60 cusecs (9) ash generated 2.21 mtpa on 34% ash content coal
  45. 45. (10) ash pond location south west of plant about 3.0 km away (already existing) land size : 576 hectares (11) stack twin flue stack (275 metre) (12) nearest railway station biradhwal highlights :- 1. administrative and financial approval accorded on 02-03-2009. 2. land acquisition completed 3. resolution of compensation related issues 4. water allocation has been made. 4 GIRAL LIGNITE THERMAL POWER PROJECT SALIENT FEATURES 1.Plant capacity 2 X 125MW 2.Location Village: Thumbli At Giral,43 Km from Barmer. 3 Dates of Project Approval/Allocation : U#1 U#2 (i) Confirmation of Lignite supply 30.01.02 31.12.04 (ii) Administrative approval 04.10.02 11.04.05 (iii) Financial approval 07.07.03 11.04.05 (iv) Appointment of consultant 16.07.03 14.10.05 (v) Laying of foundation stone 19.07.03 - (vi) Allocation of water from Indira Gandhi canal 04.09.03 04.09.03 4.Statutory no objection clearances : U#1 U#2 (i) Defence Clearance 07.05.03 31.10.05 (ii) Stack Height Clearance 07.08.03 12.04.05 (iii) Environment Clearance (MOE&F) 23.11.04 05.01.06
  46. 46. 5.Fuel (i) Lignite 6000 MT per day. ii) Lime 1500 MT per day. 6.Water * Indira Gandhi canal at Mohangarh through 600 mm & 165 km longpipeline. * Canal Water made available at site on 8.07.06. 7.Land Cost 661.25 Bighas : Rs.41.08 Lacs 8.Project cost Unit-I 764 Crores Unit-II 750 Crores 9.Schedule of Commissioning Unit#1 Commissioned on 28.02.07. Unit#2 Commissioned on 26.12.08 Unit#1 COD on 18.10.11 Unit#2 COD on 12.03.11 Performance Indices at a Glance GLPL,Barmer.Unit-I Parameter 2006- 07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Generation (LU) 1.24 1800.01 4170.55 3133.61 2889.22 2619.17
  47. 47. Plant Load Factor (%) 0.011 16.38 38.09 28.62 26.39 22.24 23.92 Running Hours 9:43:00 2433:50:00 5860:52:00 4580:14:00 4168:39:00 Availability Factor (%) 0.11 27.78 66.90 52.28 47.58 Performance Indices at a Glance GLPL,Barmer.Unit-II Parameter 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Generation (LU) 442.51 3518.06 3076.59 2914.10 2099.81 Plant Load Factor (%) 15.36 32.13 28.10 26.54 19.18 Running Hours 714:21:00 4508:34:00 4531:06:00 Availability Factor (%) 31.03 48.49 51.17 5CHHABRA THERMAL POWER STATION * Chhabra Thermal Power Station is the coal based Electricity Generating Power Plant of Rajasthan. location Chhabra Thermal Power Station is located at 22km from Chhabra, near village Chowki Motipura, Tehsil Chhabra, Distt. Baran (Rajasthan). sanction of schemes (stage-i to v) Phase Unit No. Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore) I I & II 2x250 2820 II III & IV 2X250 2991 operational parameters Year Gen(MU) PLF(%) SPCFC OIL AUX.
  48. 48. CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION 2009-2010 246.92 22.61 -- -- 2010-2011 1227.28 56.04 8.37 9.78 2011-2012 1998.74 70.50 3.15 11.60 2012-2013(Upto Feb.13) 2598.86 64.88 2.213 10.75 Project Highlights: (1) Planned capacity 2320MW (2) Location Near village Chowki Motipura, Tehsil Chhabra, Baran District (3) Site Features Gently sloping 400M – 390M Extent of Area : About 1100 acres Site Elevation : 400M above MS(Highest Flood level 385M) Uninhabited Site No major township or industries in the vicinity Well connected to State Highway – 51 Well connected to West Central Railway line (Bina-Kota (4) Primary Fuel Coal from South Eastern/Northern Coal fields (Near Korba) Calorific value : 3500K Cal/kg) Coal requirement : 2.5MTPY for 500MW 5.0MTPY for 1000MW (5) Water Source : (i) From nearby Parvati River (ii) From nearby Bethali Dam Water Requirement : 70,000 Cu.m/day (15.5MGD) (6) Power Eqation 400kV/220kV Switchyard with Interconnecting Transformers (7) Environmental Issues Liquid effluent: Zero discharge concept will be adopted. Complete effluent water will be treated re-used. Emission levels (Particulars, SO X, NO X): will be maintained well within the statutory stipulations. 250M tall common chimney for 2 units. Thermal Pollution: Nil Noise Pollution levels: Will be maintained well within the statutory stipulations Solid Waste management: 100% utilisation of fly ash for
  49. 49. commercial utilization. super critical units 5 & 6 (1) proposed capicity 2x660 mw (2) location near village chowki motipura, tehsil chhabra, baran district (3) total plant area 709 hectares (4) project cost rs. 7920 crores (5) fuel primary fuel: coal secondary fuel : hsd / hfo (6) fuel requirement 6.5 mtpa (7) source of water : lashi, parwan irrigation project (8) water allocation 1570 mcft (9) stack twin flue stack (275meter) (10) nearest railway station chowki motipura gas based units (1) proposed capicity 3x110 mw (2) location near village chowki motipura, tehsil chhabra, baran district (3) total plant area 67 acres (4) project cost rs. 1320 crores (5) fuel primary fuel: liquefied natural gas (6) fuel requirement 1.70 mmscmd (7) source of water : parwan dam (8) water allocation 10 cusec (315 mcft) (9) stack 70 meter (10) nearest railway station chowki motipura HIGHLIGHTS :- 1. Administrative & Financial approved accorded on 02.03.2009. 2. Land Acquisition completed. 3. Water allocation has been made. 4. MOEF Clearance awaited.
  50. 50. 6 KALISINDH THERMAL POWER PROJECT The site of Kalisindh Thermal Power Project is located in Nimoda, Undal, Motipura, Singharia and Devri villages of Tehsil Jhalarapatan, Distt. Jhalawar. The proposed capacity of coal based Thermal Power Project is 1200 MW. The project site is about 12 km from Jhalawar (Distt. Head quarter ) and NH-12 .It is 2km from state highway No.19 and 8 km from proposed RamganjMandi - Bhopal broad gauge rail line. The site selection committee of Central Electricity Authority has visited the Nimoda and its adjoining villages of Jhalawar Distt. and site was found techno-economical feasible for setting up of a Power Project. The Govt. of Raj. have included that project in 11 th five year plan. The estimated revised cost of the project is Rs.7723 Crores. M/s. TCE Bangalore has been appointed as the technical consultant for the project. The state irrigation department has alloted 1200 mcft water for the project from proposed Kalisindh dam. The origin of the Kalisindh river is from northern slop of Vindya Mountains. The river enters from MP to Rajasthan near village Binda. After flowing 145 km in Rajasthan, the Kalisindh river merges in Chambal river near Nanera village of Distt.Kota. Its catchment area is about 7944 in Jhalawar & Kota Distt. The existing Dam is located at Bhawarasa village, primarily for P.H.E.D. purpose is being uplifted for providing a storage of 1200mcft water
  51. 51. for this power project. The GOR has allotted 842 bigha Government land and acquired 1388 bigha private khatedari land for the thermal project .Phase-1 will be constructed on 1400 bigha land only.. EPC contract has been awarded to M/s. BGR Energy System Chennai on dt.09.07.2008. Total project cost is Rs.7723Crores (Revised). Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India has allotted ‘Paras east and Kanta basin ‘coal blocks to RVUN in Chhatisgarh state. The RVUN has formed new company under joined venture with M/s. Adani Enterprises for mining of coal blocks and new company started the work. Annual coal requirement for the project is 56 Lacs TPA. Progress Status as on 31.05.13 Unit#I Commissioning activities for Rolling and Synchronization of this 600 MW commenced from April’2013, Steam Blowing, Turbine Box-up, Barring Gear etc. have been achieved till date. The Rolling and Synchronization was completed on dt.30 May 2013 on oil. The erection work of Coal Mills, Coal Handling System, Ash Handling System is in progress, the unit is scheduled to synchronized on designated fuel i.e. Coal prior to 31st July 2013. The Rail Linking between serving station i.e. Jhalawar City to KaTPP Plant is also in progress for receiving of coal by rail, expected to be completed in the mid of July’2013. The water supply for the 2x600 MW Kalisindh Super Thermal Power Project is from proposed Kalisindh Dam near village Bhanwarasi. This dam is being constructed by Water Resources Department, GoR. The cost of the dam is being born by RRVUNL, the construction of dam is in full swing and expected completion of dam is June’2014. However the contingency arrangement have been made by raising the height of existing anicut situated near the Kalisindh Dam.The mechanical work of Water Conductor System i.e. Construction of Intake Well, Erection of Pumps, Laying of Pipeline from Kalisindh Intake Well (situated at Kalisindh Dam Site) to KaTPP plant have been completed. Unit#II The erection work of Boiler for this unit have been completed. The erection work of Turbine, Generator and its auxiliaries is in advanced stage. The Turbine Box-Up, Oil Flushing, Steam Blowing and Turbine Barring Gear is scheduled to be completed by 31.08.2013. The Rolling and Synchronization of the unit is scheduled on 30.11.2013 on coal. Salient Features Project Kalisindh Super Thermal Power Project Jhalawar Capacity 1200 MW(2x600 MW) Project Site Village-Undel, Motipura, Nimoda, Singhania & Deveri of Tehsil Jhalarapatan, Distt. Jhalawar Project Location The project site is about 12 km from NH-12, 2km from state highway and 8 km from proposed RamganjMandi - Bhopal broad gauge rail line.
  52. 52. Land Area 2230 Bigha/564 Hq. (1400 bigha/350 Hq. in I stage) Water source and quantity Dam on Kalisindh river. 3400 CuM/ Hrs. Fuel Source Main Fuel- Coal from captive coal blocks (Paras east and kanta Basin in Chhatisgarh state) Secondary Fuel- FO/HSD. Quantity of Fuel (at 80% PLF) Coal-56 Lacs TPA FO/HSD-13000-14000 KL/A Electro Static Precipitator 99.98 % Capacity Stack Height 275 Mtr. Estimated revised Cost Rs.7723 Crores Synchronization Date Unit-I August 2013 achieved Unit-II November 2013 SI NO. Activity As per L-2 Sch(Unit#1) Actual Date Anticipated As per L-2 Sch.(Unit#2) Actual Anticipated 01 Boiler Civil Works Start 30.12.08 24.01.09 11.03.09 23.03.09 - 02 Boiler Erection Start 14.09.09 23.10.09 02.12.09 26.03.10 - 03 Boiler Drum Lifting 01.03.10 19.05.10 20.05.10 14.08.10 - 04 Boiler Hyd. Test (non-Drainable) 07.12.10 08.04.11 24.01.11 15.12.11 - 05 Boiler Light Up 12.03.11 30.12.12 07.06.11 - 31.08.13 06 SBO 19.05.11 26.03.13 10.08.11 - 30.09.13 07 Condenser Erection Start 03.04.10 27.11.10 24.06.10 25.08.11 - 08 TG Erection Start 23.06.10 20.12.10 31.08.10 25.08.11 - 19 TG Box Up (Final) 31.03.11 31.01.13 10.06.11 - 28.08.13 11 TG Oil Flushing 17.05.11 25.01.13 27.07.11 - 25.08.13 11 Turbine on Barring Gear) 27.05.11 03.02.13 06.08.11 - 31.08.13 12 Synchronization (on Oil) 14.06.11 30.05.13 05.09.11 - 30.09.13 13 Coal Firing 19.07.11 - 31.07.13 10.10.11 - 30.11.13 14 Full Load 07.10.11 - 30.09.13 06.01.12 - 31.12.13
  53. 53. 7 Ramgarh Gas Thermal Power Station • Ramgarh gas thermal power station is the first gas thermal power plant of Rajaisthan.(On dated 13-11-1994) LOCATION Ramgarh gas thermal power plant station is situated near village Ramgarh and 60 kms away from Jaisalmer. It is the installed capacity of 223.5 MW. Stage Unit No. Capacity (MW) Cost (Rs. Crore) Synchronising Date I *1(Gas Turbine) 3MW* 19 ---- I 1(Gas Turbine) 35.5 180 12.01.1996 II 2(Gas Turbine) 37.5 300 07.08.2002 3(Steam Turbine) 37.5 25.04.2003 III 4(Gas Turbine) 110 640 30.03.2013 Operational Performance of Plant Particulars 2004- 05 2005- 06 2006- 07 2007- 08 2008- 09 2009- 10 2010- 11 2011- 12 2012- 13 Gross Generation (LU) 3611.3 92 4356.2 09 4041.4 40 4141.1 53 3486.7 82 3539.4 4 3028.8 5 5367.9 4 4979.0 6 Plant Load Factor (%) 37.30% 45.00% 41.75% 42.78% 36.00% 36.57% 31.29% 55.30% 51.44% Aux.Power Consumption (LU) 241.28 311.66 2 268.17 9 551.61 333.11 6 279.02 9 161.45 2 95.796 90.245 Gas Consumption( SCM) 219671 057 238364 647 240482 508 248875 773 209782 021 213635 298 183481 825 297151 090 273012 213
  54. 54. EXPANSION GAS THERMAL POWER STATION STAGE III 1. Proposed capacity 160MW 2. Location Ramgarh 3. Total plant area 796 bigha,17 biswa 4. Project cost 640 crores 5. Fuel GAS and HSD 6. Source of water Indra Gandhi canal 7. Fuel required 9.5 lac. SCM per day 8 Water allocation 10.8 cusecs The gas and steam unit are schedule to be syncronised on respect Jan. 2012 & May 2012 respectively At present a combined gas cycle power unit of 160MW under stage III is under construction. 7 DHOLPUR COMBINED CYCLE POWER STATION The Installed Capacity of Dholpur Combined Power Station is 330MW. Unit No Capacity(MW) Cost(Rs.Crore) Synchronising Date 1 GT 110 1100 29.03.2007 2 GT 110 16.06.2007 3 ST 110 27.12.2007
  55. 55. Location Dholpur Combined Power Station is located in Dholpur City in eastier part of Rajasthan State and is situated above 7Km from District HeadQuarter. Environmental Profile Based on Gas This Project is Compatively safe in view of environment & water pollution.70 Meter high stack has been provided to release fuel gases into the atmosphere so as to disperse the emitted matter over a wide spread area. Highlights Area 143 Bigha Water Requirement 20 Cuses from Chambal River Fuel Requirement 1.5 MM SC MD gas Fuel Supplier ONGC Fuel Transporter GAIL Operational Performance of Plant Particulars 2007- 08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011- 12 2012-13 Gross Generation (MU) 214.9 0 2288.78 2424.74 1994.83 2254.1 4 11624.3091 8 Plant Load Factor 87.53 79.17 83.88 69.01 77.76 40.21 Aux.Power Consumption(%) - 2.61 2.49 2.84 2.73 Gas Consumption(MMBTU ) - 17598464.35 4 18324175.3 5 1512476.1 2 References 1. Electricity 2. on+steam+engine+turbine&hl=en&ei=uzfQTKX9EsKXnAfF2cSNBg&sa=X&oi=bo ok_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=central%20s tation%20steam%20engine%20turbine&f=false The early days of the power station industry, Cambridge University Press Archive, pages 174-175
  56. 56. 3. Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented Modern America Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2009 ISBN 1-59691-677-X 4. Climate TechBook, Hydropower, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, October 2009 5. British Electricity International (1991). Modern Power Station Practice: incorporating modern power system practice (3rd Edition (12 volume set) ed.). Pergamon. ISBN 0-08-040510-X. 6. Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005). Steam: Its Generation and Use (41st edition ed.). ISBN 0-9634570-0-4. 7. Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (coauthors) (1997). Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering (2nd edition ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-019435-1. 8. Pressurized deaerators 9. Tray deaerating heaters 10. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course from website of the Air Pollution Training Institute 11. Energy savings in steam systems Figure 3a, Layout of surface condenser (scroll to page 11 of 34 pdf pages) 12. Robert Thurston Kent (Editor in Chief) (1936). Kents’ Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook (Eleventh edition (Two volumes) ed.). John Wiley & Sons (Wiley Engineering Handbook Series). 13. EPA Workshop on Cooling Water Intake Technologies Arlington, Virginia John Maulbetsch, Maulbetsch Consulting Kent Zammit, EPRI. 6 May 2003. Retrieved 10 September 2006. 14. Beychok, Milton R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th Edition ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. 15. Guideline for Determination of Good Engineering Practice Stack Height (Technical Support Document for the Stack Height Regulations), Revised, 1985, EPA Publication No. EPA–450/4–80–023R, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NTIS No. PB 85– 225241) 16. Lawson, Jr., R. E. and W. H. Snyder, 1983. Determination of Good Engineering Practice Stack Height: A Demonstration Study for a Power Plant, 1983, EPA Publication No. EPA–600/3–83–024. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NTIS No. PB 83–207407)