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Non Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources 01


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Non Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources 01

  1. 1. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources Wind Energy  It is plentiful, inexhaustible and pollution free  Which was the first country to use wind for generation of electricity?  Windmills convert wind power to electrical power.  Typical systems range fro 30KW for individual units to 5.0MW for wind farms of multiple units.  Hub heights are around 80m and rotor diameters are 65m.Propeller Type American Multi blade TypeSavonius Rotor Type Darrieus Rotor TypeAbha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 1
  2. 2. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy SourcesTYPICAL PERFORMANCE OF WIND MACHINEWIND FARM OFFSHORE WIND FARMINSIDE THE TOWERAbha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 2
  3. 3. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy SourcesDISADVANTAGES  Blow down of towers due to hurricane or typhoon.  High acoustic noise level.  Requires energy storage batteries Solar Power SOLAR WATER HEATING ARRANGEMENT Applications of solar power  Space and water heating in domestic and commercial buildings  Large scale heat collection for generation of electricity  Domestic lighting  Street lightingAbha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 3
  4. 4. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources  Village electrification  Water pumping  Desalination of salty water  Railway/traffic signals Solar Tree Solar And Wind Power Operation Of Fuel Cell  A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device.  It produces electricity from fuel(on the anode side) and an oxidant(on the cathode side), which react in the presence of an electrolyte.Abha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 4
  5. 5. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources  A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as its fuel and oxygen (usually from air) as its oxidant.  An Electrolyte is sandwiched between two electrodes.  Oxygen passes through one end and hydrogen from the other and they electrochemically react to generate electricity, water and heat.  Encouraged by a catalyst, the hydrogen atom splits into proton and electron, which take different paths to cathode.  Proton passes through the electrolyte and electron creates current which can be utilized before it returns to cathode. There it reunites with hydrogen and oxygen to form water Application of Fuel cell  Fuel cell car  Powering buses, boats, trains, planes, scooters, forklifts, even bicycles.  Fuel cell-powered vending machines, vacuum cleaners and highway road signs  Miniature fuel cells for cellular phones, laptop computers and portable electronics are on their way to market.  Hospitals, credit card centers, police stations, and banks are all using fuel cells to provide power to their facilities.  Wastewater treatment plants and landfills are using fuel cells to convert the methane gas they produce into electricity.  Telecommunications companies are installing fuel cells at cell phone, radio Tidal Power Plant  The tides offer a source of energy because of the P.E. of the raised tide water or the K.E. of the tidal stream  The water on the earth rises and falls due to changing gravitation force. Water wheel in tidal stream Tidal Power AssistantAbha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 5
  6. 6. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources Tidal Power Selection Of Site  The tidal range should be large  The storage area should be large  The site should allow the development of the necessary plant for reasonable cost GEOTHERMAL POWERAbha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 6
  7. 7. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources Uses of Geo Thermal Energy  Many farmers use geothermal power to heat their greenhouses. In Tuscany, Italy, farmers have used water heated by geothermal energy for hundreds of years to grow vegetables in the winter.  Eighty percent of the energy demand from vegetables growers is met by using geothermal energy.  Geothermal energy is also used in fishing farms. The warm water spurs the growth of animals ranging from alligators, shellfish, tropical fish, amphibians to catfish and trout. Fish farmers from Oregon, Idaho, China, Japan, and even Iceland use geothermal power.  Industry is another consumer of geothermal energy. Its uses vary from drying fruits, vegetables, wood, dying wool to extracting gold and silver from ore.  Geothermal energy is also used to heat sidewalks and roads to prevent freezing in the winter. Geothermal power is a good electricity generator as well  Flashed Steam Plants- The water "flash" boils and the steam is used to turn turbines.  Dry Steam Plants- These plants rely on the natural steam that comes from the underground reservoirs to generate electricity.  Binary Power Plants- These plants use the water to heat a "secondary liquid" which vaporizes and turns the turbines. The vaporized liquid is then condensed and reused.  Hybrid Power Plants- In these plants binary and flash techniques are utilized simultaneously. Bio Gas PowerAbha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 7
  8. 8. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources Magneto-Hydrodynamic Power MHD CYCLE WITH STEAM  Heat Energy to Electric Energy.  Ionized gas is collected my metallic collecting plates.Abha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 8
  9. 9. Non-Conventional (Renewable) Energy Sources  Fuel with seed(Potassium which increases conductivity of gas) is introduced to the burner.  Magnet deflects some of the ions to the plate which gets charged and produce a DC electric potential. Application  MHD power generation fueled by potassium-seeded coal combustion gas showed potential for more efficient energy conversion  MHD Sensors to measure the exact velocity  Geophysics: supercomputer model of the Earths interior can be made using MHD equations. After running the simulations, the changes in Earths magnetic field can be studied.  Astrophysics: MHD applies quite well to astrophysics since over 99% of baryonic matter content of the Universe is made up of plasma, including stars, the interplanetary medium (space between the planets), the interstellar medium (space between the stars), nebulae and jets. Many astrophysical systems are not in local thermal equilibrium, and therefore require an additional kinematic treatment to describe all the phenomena within the system (see Astrophysical plasma).  Magnetic Drug Targeting: Latest research on cancer is partly focused on localized delivery of cancer medicine to the affected part of the body. For targeting the same permanent magnets can be used by positioning them at suitable locations of the external body. To study the interaction between the magnetic fluid particles passing through the blood with the external magnetic field, magneto hydrodynamic equations and finite element analysis are used. Thus the efficacy of such treatments can be estimated.Abha Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Page 9