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A thermal power station is a power plant in
which heat energy is converted to electric
power. In most of the places in the world
the turbine is steam-driven. Water is heated,
turns into steam and spins a steam
turbine which drives an electrical generator.
After it passes through the turbine, the steam
is condensed in a condenser and recycled to
where it was heated; this is known as
a Ranking cycle.
Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal
electric, and waste incineration plants, as well as
many natural gas power plants are thermal. Natural
gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well
as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine, in the
form of hot exhaust gas, can be used to raise steam,
by passing this gas through a Heat Recovery Steam
Generator (HRSG) the steam is then used to drive a
steam turbine in a combined cycle plant that
improves overall efficiency. Power plants burning
coal, fuel oil, or natural gas are often called fossil-
fuel power plants.
The initially developed reciprocating steam
engine has been used to produce mechanical
power since the 18th Century, with notable
improvements being made by James Watt.
When the first commercially developed
central electrical power stations were
established in 1882 at Pearl Street Station in
New York and Holon Viaduct power station in
London, reciprocating steam engines were
used.
The energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power
station, considered salable energy produced as a percent of
the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to
48%. As with all heat engines, their efficiency is limited, and
governed by the laws of thermodynamics.
The direct cost of electric energy produced by a
thermal power station is the result of cost of fuel,
capital cost for the plant, operator labor,
maintenance, and such factors as ash handling and
disposal. Indirect, social or environmental costs
such as the economic value of environmental
impacts, or environmental and health effects of the
complete fuel cycle and plant decommissioning, are
not usually assigned to generation costs for thermal
stations in utility practice, but may form part of an
environmental impact assessment.
1, Cooling tower10. Steam Control valve19. Superheater2.
Cooling water pump11. High pressure steam turbine20.
Forced draught (draft) fan3. Transmission line (3-
phase)12. Deaerator21. Reheater4. Step-up transformer (3-
phase)13. Feedwater heater22. Combustion air
intake5. Electrical generator (3-
phase)14. Coal conveyor23. Economiser6. Low
pressure steam turbine15. Coal hopper24. Air
preheater7. Condensate pump16. Coal
pulverizer25. Precipitator8. Surface condenser17. Boiler
steam drum26. Induced draught (draft) fan9. Intermediate
pressure steam turbine18. Bottom ash hopper
In the nuclear plant field, steam generator refers to a specific
type of large heat exchanger used in a pressurized water
reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor
plant) and secondary (steam plant) systems, which
generates steam. In a nuclear reactor called a boiling water
reactor (BWR), water is boiled to generate steam directly in
the reactor itself and there are no units called steam
generators.
In some industrial settings, there can also be steam-
producing heat exchangers called heat recovery steam
generators (HRSG) which utilize heat from some industrial
process, most commonly utilizing hot exhaust from a gas
turbine.
The boiler feed water used in the steam boiler is a
means of transferring heat energy from the burning
fuel to the mechanical energy of the spinning steam
turbine. The total feed water consists of
recalculated condensate water and purified makeup
water. Because the metallic materials it contacts are
subject to corrosion at high temperatures and
pressures, the makeup water is highly purified
before use. A system of water softeners and ion
exchangedemineralizers produces water so pure
that it coincidentally becomes an
electrical insulator, with conductivity in the range of
0.3–1.0 microsiemens per centimeter.
The condenser condenses the steam from the exhaust of the
turbine into liquid to allow it to be pumped. If the condenser
can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust steam is
reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases.
External fans are provided to give sufficient
air for combustion. The Primary air fan takes
air from the atmosphere and, first warms the
air in the air preheated for better economy.
Primary air then passes through the coal
pulverizes, and carries the coal dust to the
burners for injection into the furnace. The
Secondary air fan takes air from the
atmosphere and, first warms the air in the air
preheated for better economy. Secondary air
is mixed with the coal/primary air flow in the
burners.
The turbine generator consists of a series of
steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator
on a common shaft. There is usually a high pressure turbine
at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, and
finally one, two, or three low pressure turbines, and the
generator.
Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue
gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric
bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the
outlet of the furnace and before the induced
draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed
from the collection hoppers below the
precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly
ash is pneumatically transported to storage
silos for subsequent transport by trucks or
railroad cars
In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal
storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then
conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is
next pulverized into a very fine powder.
An auxiliary oil system pump is used to
supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine
generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system
required for steam turbine's main inlet steam
stop valve, the governing control valves, the
bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant
hydraulic relays and other mechanisms.
At a preset speed of the turbine during start-
ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft
takes over the functions of the auxiliary
system.
While small generators may be cooled by air drawn
through filters at the inlet, larger units generally
require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas
cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it
has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of
any gas and for its low viscosity which
reduces windage losses. This system requires
special handling during start-up, with air in the
generator enclosure first displaced by carbon
dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures
that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix
with oxygen in the air.
The generator voltage for modern utility-connected
generators ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 30
kV in larger units. The generator high-voltage leads
are normally large aluminum channels because of
their high current as compared to the cables used in
smaller machines. They are enclosed in well-
grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported
on suitable insulators. The generator high-voltage
leads are connected to step-up transformers for
connecting to a high-voltage electrical
substation(usually in the range of 115 kV to 765 kV)
for further transmission by the local power grid.
Thermal power station
Thermal power station
Thermal power station
Thermal power station
Thermal power station
Thermal power station
Thermal power station

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Thermal power station

  • 1.
  • 2. A thermal power station is a power plant in which heat energy is converted to electric power. In most of the places in the world the turbine is steam-driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Ranking cycle.
  • 3. Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal electric, and waste incineration plants, as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine, in the form of hot exhaust gas, can be used to raise steam, by passing this gas through a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) the steam is then used to drive a steam turbine in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. Power plants burning coal, fuel oil, or natural gas are often called fossil- fuel power plants.
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  • 5. The initially developed reciprocating steam engine has been used to produce mechanical power since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt. When the first commercially developed central electrical power stations were established in 1882 at Pearl Street Station in New York and Holon Viaduct power station in London, reciprocating steam engines were used.
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  • 8. The energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station, considered salable energy produced as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, is typically 33% to 48%. As with all heat engines, their efficiency is limited, and governed by the laws of thermodynamics.
  • 9.
  • 10. The direct cost of electric energy produced by a thermal power station is the result of cost of fuel, capital cost for the plant, operator labor, maintenance, and such factors as ash handling and disposal. Indirect, social or environmental costs such as the economic value of environmental impacts, or environmental and health effects of the complete fuel cycle and plant decommissioning, are not usually assigned to generation costs for thermal stations in utility practice, but may form part of an environmental impact assessment.
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  • 15. 1, Cooling tower10. Steam Control valve19. Superheater2. Cooling water pump11. High pressure steam turbine20. Forced draught (draft) fan3. Transmission line (3- phase)12. Deaerator21. Reheater4. Step-up transformer (3- phase)13. Feedwater heater22. Combustion air intake5. Electrical generator (3- phase)14. Coal conveyor23. Economiser6. Low pressure steam turbine15. Coal hopper24. Air preheater7. Condensate pump16. Coal pulverizer25. Precipitator8. Surface condenser17. Boiler steam drum26. Induced draught (draft) fan9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine18. Bottom ash hopper
  • 16. In the nuclear plant field, steam generator refers to a specific type of large heat exchanger used in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor plant) and secondary (steam plant) systems, which generates steam. In a nuclear reactor called a boiling water reactor (BWR), water is boiled to generate steam directly in the reactor itself and there are no units called steam generators. In some industrial settings, there can also be steam- producing heat exchangers called heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) which utilize heat from some industrial process, most commonly utilizing hot exhaust from a gas turbine.
  • 17. The boiler feed water used in the steam boiler is a means of transferring heat energy from the burning fuel to the mechanical energy of the spinning steam turbine. The total feed water consists of recalculated condensate water and purified makeup water. Because the metallic materials it contacts are subject to corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, the makeup water is highly purified before use. A system of water softeners and ion exchangedemineralizers produces water so pure that it coincidentally becomes an electrical insulator, with conductivity in the range of 0.3–1.0 microsiemens per centimeter.
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  • 22. The condenser condenses the steam from the exhaust of the turbine into liquid to allow it to be pumped. If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases.
  • 23.
  • 24. External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The Primary air fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warms the air in the air preheated for better economy. Primary air then passes through the coal pulverizes, and carries the coal dust to the burners for injection into the furnace. The Secondary air fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warms the air in the air preheated for better economy. Secondary air is mixed with the coal/primary air flow in the burners.
  • 25. The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft. There is usually a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, and finally one, two, or three low pressure turbines, and the generator.
  • 26. Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars
  • 27. In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder.
  • 28.
  • 29. An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during start- ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.
  • 30. While small generators may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the generator enclosure first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air.
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  • 32.
  • 33. The generator voltage for modern utility-connected generators ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 30 kV in larger units. The generator high-voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in well- grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high-voltage leads are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high-voltage electrical substation(usually in the range of 115 kV to 765 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid.