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  • 1. Floral & Herb in MalaysiaHibiscusScientific name: Hibiscus rosa sinensiAlso known as: Bunga Raya / ChembarathiWhere it is found?• A large genus of about 200 – 220 species of flowering plants in the family , Malvacea• We have about 10 species and more than 100 hybrids species• Native to warm temperate, sub tropical and tropical regions• Large and trumpet shape with five petals ranging from white to pink ,red, purple or yellow measuring 4 – 15 cm broadHistory of national flower• Chosen as national flower in 1960 by Tunku Abdul Rahman because of its abundance nationwide• The five petals of the bunga raya symbolize the Rukun Negara ( The Five Principles of the Nationhood) while red represents courage• Believed to have arrived in Malaysia via trading activities before the 12 century.Uses and properties• Root – cure for fever and other ailments• Juice from leaves and roots- relieves skin eruption and glandular trouble.• In India, seed are made as tonic drink• There are books on hibiscus• Main ideas for batik painting• Souvenirs 1
  • 2. Orchid • Orchids are classified under the family of Orchidaceae, which can be further divided into 6 main sub-families: Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae,Neottioideae, Orchidoideae,Epidendroideae and Vandoideae • Orchids can be terrestrial (grow on soil), epiphyte (grow on tree host without parasitizing it), lithophyte (grow on rock) and saprophyte (grow by feeding decomposing organic matter). • Terrestrial orchids are mostly sympodial. All Pleonandrae(s) are ancient terrestrials, so are Neottioideae and Orchidoideae. Pleonandrae include some of the most beautiful, highly prized and peculiar looking orchids, very well known as the ‘slipper orchids’, genus Paphiopedilum • Saprophytes are uncommonly found Epidendroideae(s) that are leafless and chlorophyll-less with rhizomes or stems and roots. The term saprophyte only describes feeding mechanism and not habitat. They can be terrestrials (Cyrtosia) or climbing epiphytes (Galeola, Erythrorchis and Lecanorchis). They are rarely spotted unless when in bloom. • Majority of the orchids however are epiphytes and they are congested into sub-families Epidendroideae and Vandoideae. It is difficult to separate lithophytes from epiphytes because the difference is only the substrate on which they adhere to. On many accounts, epiphytes can be lithophytes too under the right condition. Some epiphytes, for instance from the genus Coelogyne can be terrestrial too, especially after the branch on which they are adhered to becomes unable to support their weight, break and fall onto the ground • . Some orchids however have preference for rock surface as substrate, such as the Porpax elwesii that may be considered as true lithophytes. • Generally when orchid blooms, inflorescence is formed that may produce single to many flowers, sequentially or in mass. For sympodials, inflorescence can arise from terminal (ancient) and/or abaxial (modern). Some even arise from the rhizome, as in some Bulbophyllum. 2
  • 3. Rafflesia • Rafflesia, among the world’s largest flowers, belongs to the family Rafflesiaceae. • The plant family Rafflesiaceae has eight genera which includes the genus Rafflesia. • Rafflesia arnoldi, that grows up to 150 cm in diameter, is the largest flower in the world. • It was discovered by Sir Stamford Raffles and Dr Joseph Arnold on 19 May 1818. • Rafflesia is found in tropical rainforests of Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines. • It occurs only in certain habitats as a parasite on the Tetrastigma species of woody vines. • Rafflesia is a very rare flower, difficult to reproduce in the lab and its dried specimen is difficult to preserve. • Other species of Rafflesia can measure between 36 to 42 in. in diameter and weigh between 9 to 12 kg. • Since all the plants of this family are parasitic, they therefore do not have any roots, stems or leaves. • Individual flowers or buds simply sprout on the species of Tetrastigma woody vines. • They lack chlorophyll. Some flowers are monoecius, with both sexes in the same flower • Usage as food: In Thailand, young buds of the flower are eaten as a delicacy. Usage in medicine: In Peninsular Malaysia, Rafflesia buds are used by women to stop internal bleeding and shrink the womb after childbirth. Men use it as an energy drink or an aphrodisiac. Thai monks use the buds to make different concoctions for different purposes. In spite of its usage for various purposes, the chemical composition of Rafflesia flowers has not been extensively analysed yet. Preliminary phytochemical screening however showed no evidence of the flowers medicinal properties. On the contrary, the buds and flowers have a high content of tannin and phenols which can be toxic when taken in large quantities. 3
  • 4. Other uses: In Sabah, Malaysia, it was considered a flower of spirits or a taboo flower because of its foul smell and gigantic appearance. In Thailand, the flowers are believed to have mystical powers helping one attain nirvana.Nepenthes • The Nepenthes popularly known as tropical pitcher plants or monkey cups, are a genus of carnivorous plants in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae. • The genus comprises roughly 130 species, numerous natural and many cultivated hybrids • The greatest diversity occurs on Borneo and Sumatra with many endemic species. • Many are plants of hot humid lowland areas, but the majority are tropical montane plants, receiving warm days but cool to cold humid nights year round • The name monkey cups refers to the fact that monkeys have been observed drinking rainwater from these plants • consist of a shallow root system and a prostrate or climbing stem, often several metres long and up to 15 m (49 ft) or more, and usually 1 cm (0.4 in) or less in diameter • The trap contains a fluid of the plants own production, which may be watery or syrupy and is used to drown the prey. • The lower part of the trap contains glands which absorb nutrients from captured prey. 4
  • 5. • Along the upper inside part of the trap is a slick waxy coating which makes the escape of its prey nearly impossible• Above the peristome is a lid (the operculum): in many species this keeps rain from diluting the fluid within the pitcher, the underside of which may contain nectar glands which attract prey• Most Nepenthes species grow in environments that provide high humidity and precipitation and moderate to high light levels Jasmine Jasmine is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae), with about 200 species, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World. The leaves can be either evergreen (green all year round) or deciduous (falling in autumn). Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as a house plant, and as cut flowers. The flowers are worn by women in their hair in southern and Southeast Asia. Jasminum sambac flowers are also used to make so-called jasmine tea, which often has a base of green tea, but sometimes an Oolong base is used. Flowers and tea are "mated" in machines that control temperature and humidity. It takes four hours or so for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavour of the jasmine blossoms, and for the highest grades, this process may be repeated as many as seven times. Because the tea has absorbed moisture from the flowers, it must be refired to prevent spoilage. The spent flowers may or may not be removed from the final product, as the flowers are completely dry and contain no aroma. Giant fans are used to blow away and remove the petals from the denser tea leaves. If present, they simply add visual appeal and are no indication of the quality of the tea. Heliconia 5
  • 6. Heliconia, derived from the Greek word helikonios, is a genus of about 100 to 200 species of flowering plants native to the tropicalAmericas and the Pacific Ocean islands west to Indonesia. Common names for the genus include lobster-claws, wild plantains or falsebird-of-paradise. The leaves of these plants are 15-300 cm (6 in-10 ft) long, oblong, growing opposite one another on non-woody petiolesoften longer than the leaf, often forming large clumps with age. Their flowers are produced on long, erect or drooping panicles, and consistof brightly colored waxy bracts, with small true flowers peeping out from the bracts.Chrysanthemum (bunga kekwa)Chrysanthemums, often called mums or chrysanths, are of the genus (Chrysanthemum) constituting approximately 30 species ofperennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae which is native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Chrysanthemum are herbaceousperennial plants growing to 50–150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves with large flower heads that are generally white, yellow or pink in thewild and are the preferred diet of larvae of certain lepidoptera species.Besodes Besides, yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers of thespecies C. morifolium are boiled to make a sweet drink in some parts of Asia. The resulting beverage is known simply as "chrysanthemumtea".Bougainvillea (bunga kertas) 6
  • 7. Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea sp.), a popular tropical and sub-tropical ornamental flower, belongs to the family Nyctaginaceae. The plantfamily Nyctaginaceae family consists of 28 genera and 250 species. In Malaysia and Singapore the four most common main varieties ofbougainvillea are Bougainvillea glabra, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Bougainvillea mrs butt and Bougainvillea peruviana. It is extensivelyused here because it is one of the few plants that flowers all year though in the local hot and wet weather conditions. The plant has noknown medicinal or chemical properties and has no other use apart from being grown for its ornamental purposes. Bougainvillea is theofficial flowers for Ipoh city.Allamanda (Yellow Bell, Golden Trumpet or Buttercup Flower)It is a genus of tropical shrubs or vines belonging to the dogbane family (Apocynaceae). Their year-round productions of large, brightflowers have made the Allamanda popular ornamentals. A woody, evergreen shrub with vigorous growth, Allamanda may reach a free-standing height of 2 metres or more. The leathery leaves are lancelike, pointed, and may either be opposite or in whorls of three or four.The yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers are 5-7.5 centimetres in diameter; cultivated forms tend towards larger blooms which may also bewhite, purple, pink or orange in colour. Their scent may be described as delicate and fruity.Lantana 7
  • 8. Lantana is a genus of about 150 species of perennial flowering plants in the verbena family, Verbenaceae. Lantanas aromatic flowerclusters (called umbels) are a mix of red, orange, yellow, or blue and white florets. Other colors exist as new varieties are being selected.The flowers typically change color as they mature, resulting in inflorescences that are two- or three-colored.Water Lilies. (Teratai )Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants. Members of this family are commonly called water lilies and live in freshwater areas intemperate and tropical climates around the world. The family contains eight genera. There are about 70 species of water lilies around theworld. Water lilies are rooted in soil in bodies of water, with leaves and flowers floating on the water surface. The beautiful nature of waterlilies has led to their widespread use as ornamental plants.Ixora Plant (Bunga Siantan) 8
  • 9. The most common plant found almost every yard in Malaysia. It is planted by many as it is easily grown and maintains and also producesmany flowers all year round. It is also very beautiful from afar especially when grown in a group, usually planted for the purpose ofbeautifying the landscape. It came in many shapes and many colours, but mostly orange in colour is the most common colour of all.Frangipani ( Plumeria)Plumeria (common name Frangipani) is a genus of flowering plants of the family which includes Dogbane: the Apocynaceae It contains7-8 species of mainly deciduous shrubs and small trees. Plumeria flowers are most fragrant at night in order to lure sphinx moths topollinate them. The flowers have no nectar, and simply dupe their pollinators. The moths inadvertently pollinate them by transferring pollenfrom flower to flower in their fruitless search for nectar. Plumerias are often planted on cemetery grounds.Morning Glory 9
  • 10. Morning glory is a common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, whose current taxonomy andsystematics is in flux. Most morning glory flowers curl up and close during the warm parts of the day, and are fully open in the morning,thus their name. On a cloudy day, the flower may last until night. The flowers usually start to fade a couple of hours before the petals startshowing visible curling. They prefer full sun throughout the day and mesic soils. Some morning glories, such as Ipomoea muricata, arenight blooming flowers.DahliaDahlia is a genus of bushy, tuberous, perennial plants native to Mexico, Central America, and Colombia. There are at least 36 species ofdahlia, some like D. imperialis up to 10 metres tall. Dahlia hybrids are commonly grown as garden plants. Dahlia plants range in heightfrom as low as 12 in (30 cm) to as tall as 6–8 ft (1.8–2.4 m). The flowers can be as small as 2 in (5.1 cm) in diameter or up to 1 ft (30 cm)("dinner plate").Plumed cockcomb(bunga balung ayam) .Celosia argentea, commonly known as plumed cockscomb, is a plant of tropical origin, and is known for its very bright. Celosiaargentea (Syn. C. plumosa, C. argentea. var plumosa) is a tender annual that is often grown in gardens. It is propagated by seeds. Theseeds are extremely small, up to 43,000 seeds per ounce. These plants are of tropical origin, they grow best in full sunlight. The flowerheads can last up to 8 weeks, and further growth can be promoted by removing dead flowers. 10
  • 11. SunflowerSunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant native to the Americas that possess a large inflorescence (flowering head). Thesunflower got its name from its huge fiery blooms, whose shape and image is often used to depict the sun. The sunflower has a rough,hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads of flowers. The heads consist of 1,000-2,000 individual flowers joinedtogether by a receptacle base.Flower Garland (Malai)Facts• important part of an Indian Hindu wedding• the most elaborate and auspicious of these are the wedding garlands (kalyanam malai) which are ceremonially exchanged• worn by the bride and the groom• the bride also wear thick braid of jasmine flowers (rakudi) over their own hair plait which reaches to her hip• wedding garland usually strung with roses and jasmine• fundamental offering to Hindu God• Funeral wreaths usually made from chrysanthemums, frangipani and roses affixed to a laurel• The spine of the wreath is made from twined bamboo and vines.Senduduk (Straits Rhododendron ) 11
  • 12. Scientific name: Melastoma malabathricumCommon name: Straits RhododendronHeight: A shrub up to 2 meter.Distinguish Features: Attractive purple flowers. Dark purplish edible fruit.Found: On wasteland and roadside.Uses for: Piles, High blood pressure and diabetes, Ladys white discharge, Herbal bath. DiarrheaAloe VeraLatin Names: Aloe barbadensis, Aloe capensisOther Names: Aloe vera, Cape aloeAloe is a plant originally from Africa. It is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall,spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper andlower stem surfaces.Topical Uses: Burn healing, Wound healing, Sunburn, Radiation-induced skin reactions, Genital herpes, PsoriasisOral Uses: Ulcers, Diabetes, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Immune Support., constipationHempudu Bumi (King of Bitter) 12
  • 13. Hempedu Bumi is a medicinal plant that grows in India, China and South East Asia. The name in Malay means ‘Bile of the earth’. It is verybitter and is nicknamed ‘King of Bitters’. The Chinese call the plant Chaun xin lian.Traditionally, Hempedu Bumi is used to treat skin eruptions and scabies, sore throat, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects. It also helps boostthe immune system, protects against cancer, prevents blood clots and maintains efficient digestive functioning.Tulasi ( Holy Basil) 13
  • 14. Ocimum tenuiflorum (also tulsi, tulasī, or Holy Basil) is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native throughout the OldWorld tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed. It is an erect, much branched subshrub 30–60 cm tall with hairystems and simple opposite green leaves that are strongly scented. Leaves have petioles, and are ovate, up to 5 cm long, usually slightlytoothed. Flowers are purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls.Tulsi’s extracts are used in ayurvedic remedies for common colds, headaches, stomach disorders, inflammation, heart disease, variousforms of poisoning, and malaria. Traditionally, tulsi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf, or mixed with ghee.Tulsi or tulasi is a sacred plant for Hindus. Water mixed with tulsi petals is given to the dying to raise their departing souls to heaven.Noni (Mengkudu)‘Mengkudu’ is a small evergreen tree with vertical stems, broad leaves, white flowers and conical to oblong-shaped fruits. The young fruitsare green but turn yellowish-white upon maturity. Ripe fruits are fleshy soft and with a strong foul smell. ‘Mengkudu’ tree can grow up to10 m tall. There are two commonly found species in this country namely Morinda citrifolia (big fruits) and Morinda elliptica (small fruits).Noni has been reported to have a range of health benefits for colds, cancer, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, pain, skin infection, highblood pressure, mental depression, atherosclerosis and arthritis. The noni contain the antibacterial compounds in the fruits (acubin, L-asperuloside and alizarin) and roots (anthrauinones). Noni contains scopoletin which inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli, which isresponsible for intestinal infections, and Heliobacter pylori, which causes ulcers.Eurycoma longifolia ( Tongkat Ali) 14
  • 15. Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali or pasak bumi) is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia,Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos. It is a small, everred tree let growing to 15 m (49 ft) tall with spirallyarranged, pinnate leaves 20–40 cm (8–16 inches) long with 13–41 leaflets. The flowers are dioecious, with male and female flowers ondifferent trees; they are produced in large panicles, each flower with 5–6 very small petals. The fruit is green ripening dark red, 1–2 cmlong and 0.5–1 cm broad.The plant parts have been traditionally used for its anti-malarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and antipyretic activities. Howevermost Southeast Asians consume it for the plants impact on sexual conduct. 15