HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION
The Population of The U.S   Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refu...
Questions <ul><li>Where did the immigrants come from? </li></ul><ul><li>When did they arrive? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did th...
FACTS <ul><li>Due to potato rot which began in 1845, the potato crop in Ireland began to fail.  </li></ul><ul><li>From 184...
FACTS <ul><li>Because of improved farming methods such as crop rotation-and therefore greater abundance of food-the popula...
FACTS <ul><li>The passage to the United States in sailing vessels took three months, on the average, at the beginning of t...
FACTS <ul><li>The Russian government began to carry out pogroms (organized attacks) against the Jews of eastern Europe.  <...
FACTS <ul><li>The U.S. Congress passed the Contract Labour Law in 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Employers could make contracts wi...
Native American <ul><li>Different views; time, land, possesions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Removing...
Three great waves of immigration   <ul><li>Ca 1815-1860:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 million immigrants - mainly English, Iri...
Reasons for immigration  <ul><li>There are two types of motivation for immigration  </li></ul><ul><li>Push factors (reason...
Reasons for immigration - 1607-1830  <ul><li>Political Freedom  </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Tolerance  </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Reasons for immigration – 1830- 1890   <ul><li>Land plentiful, and fairly cheap.  </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs were abundant, wa...
Reasons for immigration  1890-1914   <ul><li>Jews came for religious freedom  </li></ul><ul><li>Italians and Asians came f...
Who were the immigrants?  1830-1890 <ul><li>Nationality  -> Mainly Irish, English and Scandinavians </li></ul><ul><li>Circ...
The Irish <ul><li>Settled in New York (too poor to travel) </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminated against </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ...
Who were the immigrants?  1890 - 1914 <ul><li>Italians  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White ...
Eastern/Southern Europe Immigrants <ul><li>Immigrants from Southeastern Europe blamed for increasing problems  </li></ul><...
Norwegian settlers <ul><li>Nearly 1 million between 1820-1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul>...
Views on Immigrants <ul><li>”  The ones who come here are usually the most stupid of their nation. Few understand our lang...
Immigration Laws <ul><li>1790 -> Naturalization rule establishes ->a two-year residency requirement for immigrants wanting...
Immigration Laws <ul><li>1790 -> Naturalization rule establishes ->a two-year residency requirement for immigrants wanting...
More Recent Immigration <ul><li>Cuba -> 1950’s – settled mainly in Florida </li></ul><ul><li>South America -> Legal/Illega...
Melting Pot vs Salad Bowl <ul><li>Melting Pot->All immigrants mixed together form the ”American” </li></ul><ul><li>Salad B...
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History Of Immigration

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History Of Immigration

  1. 1. HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION
  2. 2. The Population of The U.S Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!
  3. 3. Questions <ul><li>Where did the immigrants come from? </li></ul><ul><li>When did they arrive? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did they leave their home countries? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did they settle? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did they work? </li></ul><ul><li>What aspects of their culture did they bring with them? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact did immigrant cultural traditions have on the United States? </li></ul>
  4. 4. FACTS <ul><li>Due to potato rot which began in 1845, the potato crop in Ireland began to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1845 to 1850 there were famine conditions in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>More than one million people died of starvation. </li></ul><ul><li>One-fourth of the Irish population moved to the United States. </li></ul>
  5. 5. FACTS <ul><li>Because of improved farming methods such as crop rotation-and therefore greater abundance of food-the population of Europe doubled between 1750 and 1850. </li></ul><ul><li>These improvements reduced the need for farm workers -> many peasants were forced off land that they had lived on for generations </li></ul>
  6. 6. FACTS <ul><li>The passage to the United States in sailing vessels took three months, on the average, at the beginning of the 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>The passage in steamships (which began to be used in the mid-nineteenth century) took ten days. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FACTS <ul><li>The Russian government began to carry out pogroms (organized attacks) against the Jews of eastern Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>A Norwegian worker could earn up to 4-5 dollars a day in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>This was more than triple the wage that the same person could have earned in Norway at that time </li></ul>
  8. 8. FACTS <ul><li>The U.S. Congress passed the Contract Labour Law in 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Employers could make contracts with workers in other countries and many employers lent money to foreign workers to pay for their transportation to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>After the workers arrived, they were required to pay the money back out of their wages. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Native American <ul><li>Different views; time, land, possesions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Removing Native Americans from their Land </li></ul><ul><li>The Trail of Tears </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster at Wounded Knee </li></ul><ul><li>The Future for Native Americans? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Three great waves of immigration <ul><li>Ca 1815-1860: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 million immigrants - mainly English, Irish, Germanic, Scandinavian, and others from northwestern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ca 1865-1890: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million immigrants - again mainly from northwestern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ca 1890-1914: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million immigrants – mainly from Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reasons for immigration <ul><li>There are two types of motivation for immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Push factors (reasons to leave home country) </li></ul><ul><li>Pull factors (reasons for settling in USA) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reasons for immigration - 1607-1830 <ul><li>Political Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunity - People want a better life - better job - more money </li></ul><ul><li>Political Refugees fear for their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Some want free atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Immigration (Slavery) </li></ul><ul><li>Family Reunification </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reasons for immigration – 1830- 1890 <ul><li>Land plentiful, and fairly cheap. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs were abundant, wages high. </li></ul><ul><li>Birthrate -> decline </li></ul><ul><li>Industry and urbanization -> increase </li></ul><ul><li>Notion that in America, the streets were, &quot;paved with gold,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Religious and political freedom. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reasons for immigration 1890-1914 <ul><li>Jews came for religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Italians and Asians came for Work </li></ul><ul><li>Russians came to escape persecution </li></ul><ul><li>America had jobs </li></ul><ul><li>America had religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>America was hyped up in many countries as &quot;Land of Opportunity&quot; </li></ul>
  15. 15. Who were the immigrants? 1830-1890 <ul><li>Nationality -> Mainly Irish, English and Scandinavians </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Irish -> potato famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They resented the British rule of their country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British landlords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British Protestantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The average life expectancy was 19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British -> look for better opportunities of work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Irish -> tennant farmers before they came to the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had little taste for farm work and little money to buy land in America anyway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British -> professionals, independent farmers, and skilled workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish: Teenager to Young Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British: Most immigrants from Britain were fairly young, although not quite as young as their Irish counterparts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Irish <ul><li>Settled in New York (too poor to travel) </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminated against </li></ul><ul><li>Poor living conditions (80% of Irish infants died in New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Took the jobs no one wanted </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Let Negroes be servants, and if not Negroes, let Irishmen fill their place...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>With the arrival of Eastern Europeans the Irish no longer lowest class </li></ul><ul><li>Became policemen & firemen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Who were the immigrants? 1890 - 1914 <ul><li>Italians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics and Roman Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish & Christian </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Eastern/Southern Europe Immigrants <ul><li>Immigrants from Southeastern Europe blamed for increasing problems </li></ul><ul><li>1880 – 1920 ->New York grew by 300%, Chicago -> 400%, L.A->1000% </li></ul><ul><li>These newcomers were often described by what they were not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Protestant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not English-speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not skilled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not educated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not liked.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon Myth created </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on immigration gradually imposed </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Catholic feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-eastern European feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Polish immigrant assassinated the American president (McKinley) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Norwegian settlers <ul><li>Nearly 1 million between 1820-1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and political reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in poulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleng Peerson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Sloopers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most settled in the Mid West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1851 - Treaty of Traverse des Sioux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1862 – Homestead Act </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Views on Immigrants <ul><li>” The ones who come here are usually the most stupid of their nation. Few understand our language, so we cannot communicate with them.. It has been reported that young men do not believe they are true men until they have shown their manhood by beating their mothers. They do not believe they are truly free unless they also abuse and insult their teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>And now they are coming to our country in great numbers. Few of their children know English. They bring in much of their own reading from their homeland and print newspapers in their own language. In some parts of our state, ads, street signs, and even some legal documents are in their own language and allowed in courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the stream of these people can be turned away, they will soon outnumber us so that we will not be able to save our language or our government. However, I am not in favour of keeping them out entirely. All that seems necessary is to distribute them more evenly among us and set up more schools that teach English. In this way, we will preserve the true heritage of our country.” </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin about German immigrants in 1751 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Immigration Laws <ul><li>1790 -> Naturalization rule establishes ->a two-year residency requirement for immigrants wanting to become U.S. citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>1875 -> No convicts or prostitutes. </li></ul><ul><li>1882 -> Immigration from China is curtailed; ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, and those unable to take care of themselves are excluded. A tax (50 cents) must be paid by immigrants. </li></ul><ul><li>1892-> Ellis Island opens. </li></ul><ul><li>1903 -> No political radicals, epileptics, professional beggars. </li></ul><ul><li>1907 -> No feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mental defects, and persons under age 16 without parents. Tax on new immigrants is increased ($8). </li></ul><ul><li>1910 -> No criminals, paupers, diseased. </li></ul><ul><li>1917 -> Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Immigration Laws <ul><li>1790 -> Naturalization rule establishes ->a two-year residency requirement for immigrants wanting to become U.S. citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>1875 -> No convicts or prostitutes. </li></ul><ul><li>1882 -> Immigration from China is stopped; ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, and those unable to take care of themselves are excluded. A tax (50 cents) must be paid by immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>1892-> Ellis Island opens. </li></ul><ul><li>1903 -> No political radicals, epileptics, professional beggars. </li></ul><ul><li>1907 -> No feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mental defects, and persons under age 16 without parents. Tax on new immigrants is increased ($8). </li></ul><ul><li>1910 -> No criminals, paupers, diseased. </li></ul><ul><li>1917 -> Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam. </li></ul><ul><li>1921 -> Annual immigration limited to 350 000. Quotas for each nationality are introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>1924 -> immigration limited to 165 000 annually. </li></ul><ul><li>The nationality quota is revised to 2% of each nationality's representation </li></ul>
  23. 23. More Recent Immigration <ul><li>Cuba -> 1950’s – settled mainly in Florida </li></ul><ul><li>South America -> Legal/Illegal immigrants -> California </li></ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul>
  24. 24. Melting Pot vs Salad Bowl <ul><li>Melting Pot->All immigrants mixed together form the ”American” </li></ul><ul><li>Salad Bowl ->All immigrants are American, yet keep their cultural heritage from their ”home” </li></ul>
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