This section looks at 5 different issues in TWO media industries.
The industries that we have looked at are TV and PRINT.
We have talked about other industries but be careful not to discuss these when you’re not too sure on the answer.
Format of the Questions Each subheading will ask you two questions.
The first question will be quite brief and worth 2 marks.
The second question will require you to be more detailed in your response and give examples.
Unlike your mock the questions in your exam WILL NOT be linked so the second question WILL NOT extend your first answer.
Format of the Questions cont... For each subheading you will need to answer on TWO different Media Industries so: Q1 you may answer on TV SO for Q2 you must answer on PRINT And VICE VERSA
Section A Subheadings Audiences and Media Products Ownership, Control and Finance Working practices and job roles Regulation and Ethical/Legal constraints Technological Developments What do they mean?....
Online/sky+/DVD (this is a cross over with Technology)
Example Questions Suggest one primary and one secondary research method that a media organisation you have studied might use in gathering information on its audience (2marks) Is research important when creating a media product? Give two examples, one for each of the media industries you have studied of the kind of research that is undertaken. (4marks)
How to Answer Q1: This requires you to state the answers and is your quick response. There is no discussion unless it asks you to, generally it will ask you to identify an aspect. Q2: This requires you to discuss the issue. The example previously is misleading as it looks like it just asks for examples however what you are answering is the first part “Is research important when creating a media product? “ and then offer examples to support your idea. Be very careful when reading the questions.
Issues We’ve Covered: TV Scheduling Institutions design their days around their audiences. “In the Night Garden” wouldn’t be on at 10pm nor would a violent or overtly sexually programme be on at 4:30pm. Pilot Episodes BBC3 ran a series where they showed 3 Pilots of new Dramas and the public voted for their favourite. “Being Human” won and a petition was signed to get the programme fully commissioned by the BBC.
Issues We’ve Covered: TV Additional Channels Introduction of Digital TV (freeview) meant that the original analogue (BBC,ITV,CH4,CH5) channels could launch additional channels to cater for additional demographics.
Issues We’ve Covered: Print Circulation Figures Whilst these tell a lot about a number of other aspects such as technology they also tell us about how audiences are engaging with the Print industry. The figures suggest what trends are in audience consumption and which news papers are most successful month to month.
Issues We’ve Covered: Print Content: Each newspaper has designated Target Audiences and content is the key way of automatically reaching their audience. For example: “The Daily Star” aims at men and so it uses the Page 3 model and a focus on sports stories. “The Guardian” aims at those with an interest in current affairs and the arts and it therefore provides giveaways and offers which address these issues.
What does this mean? This question is about discussing how media is ran and funded. This takes into consideration the following things: Public/Private/Commercial Revenue from Advertising/investors/public money Integration (Horizontal/Vertical) How this affects the wider media market
Possible Questions From the media industries you have studied, identify two different types of media ownership, one from each industry? (2 marks) How might the ownership of a media organisation affect its output? Give two examples, one from each of the media industries you have studied. (4 marks)
Publically Owned Companies News Corporation is the world’s third largest media institution behind Walt Disney Company and Time Warner. It is ran by Rupert Murdoch and its shares are traded on the stock market which means that anybody can buy a share (if they have the money.)
It is able to raise funds and capital through the sale of its securities. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important: prior to their existence, it was very difficult to obtain large amounts of capital for private enterprises.
The financial media and city analysts will be able to access additional information about the business.
Disadvantages of being Publically Owned
Privately held companies have several advantages over publicly traded companies. A privately held company has no requirement to publicly disclose much, if any financial information; such information could be useful to competitors
Publicly traded companies are also required to spend more for certified public accountants and other bureaucratic paperwork required of all publicly traded companies under government regulations.
Privately Owned Companies The BBC is a Privately owned company which works to serve the public as the majority of the funding comes from the public who are essentially share holders in the company. Channel 4 is also a private company which was set up with support from the government to provide an alternate from BBC
Commercially Owned Companies Commercial companies exist to make profits for their shareholders, and do so by producing media products that people want and are willing to pay for. In the UK broadcasting companies such as ITV or SKY make programmes and broadcast them, raising money to pay for them through advertising around the programmes. The content, style and amount of advertising is regulated by Ofcom.
The idea of owning many media outlets, which run almost the same content, is considered to be very productive, since it requires only minor changes of format and information to use in multiple media forms.
For example, within a conglomerate, the content used in broadcasting television would be used in broadcasting radio as well, or the content used in hard copy of the newspaper would also be used in online newspaper website.
Vertical Integration Vertical expansion is also known as a vertical acquisition. Vertical expansion or acquisitions can also be used to increase scales and to gain market power. The acquisition of DirectTV by News Corporation is an example of forward vertical expansion or acquisition. DirectTV is a satellite TV company through which News Corporation can distribute more of its media content: news, movies, and television shows.
BBC According to the BBC's 2008–2009 Annual Report, its income can be broken down, as follows: £3,493.8 million in licence fees collected from householders; £775.9 million from BBC Commercial Businesses; £294.6 million from government grants; £41.1 million from other income, such as providing content to overseas broadcasters and concert ticket sales;
ITV ITV’s funding comes primarily from its investors and advertising revenue.
Channel 4 Pays for itself in much the same way as most privately run commercial stations, i.e. through the sale of on-air advertising, programme sponsorship, and the sale of any programme content and merchandising rights it owns, such as overseas sales and video sales
News Corporation This is a Public Vertically Integrated Company which was founded by Rupert Murdoch. The funding for the papers ran by NC comes from within the News Corporation. Each Paper was originally independent and later bought by News Corp.
Demographic: ABC1 History of format The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to tabloid size in 2004 partly in an attempt to appeal to younger readers and partly to appeal to commuters using public transport.
Implications of Vertical Integration For the three papers owned by News Corp there are potential issues regarding circulation numbers. If one paper significantly outperforms the others then their funding may be in jeopardy. If the company goes bankrupt then the paper could be in trouble as it has no other support. The revenue from other ventures such as Fox Network will be put into the paper along with their own.
The Guardian Media Group is a PRIVATE company owned by The Scott Trust. This is a truely unique form of Media Ownership. Rather than benefiting shareholders or a proprietor, GMG’s profits are reinvested to sustain journalism that is free from commercial or political interference
The Scott Trust The Trust was created in 1936 to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian. The sole shareholder in Guardian Media Group, its core purpose is to preserve the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity, while its subsidiary aims are to champion its principles and to promote freedom of the press in the UK and abroad. http://www.gmgplc.co.uk/the-scott-trust/
Political Standing: Centre Left 48% labour readership Demographic: ABC1C2 Content: Full access to the Guardian website is free and all of their content is uploaded. They constantly report on other media institutions and should be your go to website for contemporary issues.
Implications of Private Ownership The institution has complete control over content and is not biased to any particular owner. If the circulation diminishes significantly profit falls and content may suffer as there is less money returning to the company. Stronger sense of journalistic integrity and ultimately respect from other institutions.
Working Practices and Job Roles See additional booklet for full list of job roles
This is About Looking at what roles are available in the Media world and the progressions between careers It also asks you to look at the implications of working in the Media.
Potential Questions Using one Media Industry you have studied, identify and explain a job role within that industry. (2 marks) Why are freelance workers such a feature of the media industries? Give two examples from the media you have studied. (4 marks)
Implications Media is a very competitive industry and one which is very central to specific areas. It is also a very fickle industry whereby people and products can be dropped instantly. It is an ever changing industry where skills learnt in can be void within 6 months of learning them
There is little Professional Development/ training provided to ensure employees are up to date, it is up to employees themselves to learn new skills. Jobs can be lost instantly if younger or more specifically trained individuals come along.
This is about... How the media is held responsible for its content. There are a number of issues that affect media institutions such as access to content, age restrictions and politically correct terms.
Example Questions Identify the regulatory body from one of the media industries you have studied. You must name the industry. (2 marks) With reference to both of the media industries you have studied, explain why media regulation is important. (4 marks)
BBC Trust In summary, the main roles of the Trust are in setting the overall strategic direction of the BBC, including its priorities, and in exercising a general oversight of the work of the Executive Board. The Trust will perform these roles in the public interest, particularly the interest of licence fee payers.
BBC Trust cont... All Trustees are appointed by the Queen on advice from Ministers after an open selection process. Some Trustees are chosen partly because they bring particular expertise – for example, in finance or editorial matters. The Trust was established in 2007 and already there are calls for it to be disbanded as there have been a number of issues of concern.
BBC Trust Concerns Raised The Trust was heavily criticised in the popular press for its review of the amount the BBC pays for "top talent" and failing to answer whether stars like Jonathan Ross and Graham Norton were worth their large licence fee funded salaries. Ross is thought to have earned £6 million each year.
BBC Trust: Getting it Right Funded the iPlayer technology (which was the first online on demand TV service) Initiated a review of the BBC’s spending, in particular the £36 million overspend on the BBC’s website.
is the government-approved regulatory authority for the telecommunication industries in the United Kingdom. Ofcom was initially established by the Office of Communications Act of Parliament 2002. It received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003. Ofcoms' focus no longer includes some of the technical standards issues overseen by the previous regulatory agencies.
On 29 December 2003, Ofcom inherited the duties that had previously been the responsibility of five regulatory bodies: the Broadcasting Standards Commission, the Independent Television Commission, the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel), the Radio Authority, and the Radiocommunications Agency.
Complaints Against Ofcom Ofcom was criticised for incurring unnecessary expenses to the public purse with the use of "extravagant Thames-side offices" and a "top-heavy salary bill"
Press Regulation Print media in the UK are not subject to any specific statutory controls on their content and activities, other than the general criminal and civil law. In addition to codes of ethics, many news organizations maintain an in-house Ombudsman whose role is, in part, to keep news organizations honest and accountable to the public. The PCC serves to aid self regulation of the Press where the Editor has final say over what is acceptable content and how truthful that content is.
PCC A voluntary regulatory body for British printed newspapers and magazines, consisting of representatives of the major publishers. The PCC is funded by the annual levy it charges newspapers and magazines. It has no legal powers - all newspapers and magazines voluntarily contribute to the costs of, and adhere to the rulings of, the Commission, making the industry self-regulating
The section titles of the code of practice on which judgements are made are as follows: Accuracy Opportunity to reply Privacy Harassment Intrusion into grief or shock Children Children in sex cases Hospitals Reporting of crime Misrepresentation Victims of sexual assault Discrimination Financial journalism Confidential sources Witness payments in criminal trials Payment to criminals
PCC: Issues As of 12th January 2011, the Northern and Shell group (often referred to as the Express Group) of publications withdrew its subscription to the PCC. According to the PCC, "a refusal to support the self-regulatory system financially means that a newspaper publisher effectively withdraws from the PCC's formal jurisdiction, which the PCC considers regrettable". Consequently the Daily & Sunday Express, Scottish Daily & Sunday Express, Daily & Sunday Star, OK!, New magazine and Star magazine are no longer bound by the PCC's code of practice, and the public no longer has recourse to making complaints through the PCC.
In 2006, the PCC received 3,325 complaints from members of the public. Around two thirds of these were related to alleged factual inaccuracies, one in five related to alleged invasions of privacy and the rest included the lack of right to reply, harassment and obtaining information using covert devices. 90% of cases were resolved to the complainants' satisfaction. 31 of the cases were adjudicated by the Commission before being resolved as the complainants were initially not satisfied by the action recommended by the Commission.
In 2009 the PCC received more than 25,000 complaints, a record number, after an article appeared in the Daily Mail written by Jan Moir about the death of Boyzone singer Stephen Gately. Moir had described events leading up the death as "sleazy" and "less than respectable". Recently, many publishers have added clauses to the contracts of editors of newspapers and magazines giving them the option to dismiss editors who are judged to have breached the PCC Code of Practice.
Issues with Self Regulation News Of The World: Phone Tapping Scandal Paparazzi and the demand for exclusive celebrity photographs For the institution their reputation relies on the news that they produce and so it is in their best interest to be trustworthy.
Music Industry There are a number of legal and ethical issues surrounding the Music industry which is based in the development of the Internet. In 1999 Napster was created as the first peer to peer mp3 sharing site. In 2002 the site was declared bankrupt due to a succession of law suits from Recording Companies and Artists.
Music Industry Cont... The issue highlighted here is the affect of file sharing Music and how this can be controlled. It is essentially a case of theft, yet there is very little that can be done about this as as soon as one file sharing network is closed down another is born. Finally, who is the criminal in this case? The provider of the file sharing site or the person who downloads the file?
New Media The issues surrounding the Internet is that anybody can access it and there are no ways of knowing who is online at any time. There are constant cries for tighter regulation but anybody who can work out what year they would be 18 can access pornography or social networking. There is no concrete way of protecting young people online.
This Means... Looking at how different technological advances have changed media industries. This will include: The impact of the Internet on TV and Print The way new technology engages new audiences How technology changes content
Possible Questions Choosing one media industry you have studied, identify two technological developments which have had an impact on that industry. (2 marks) For each of the developments identified above, explain why they had such an impact. (4marks)