1029 JEEVIKA What is System of Wheat Intensification (SWI)

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  • 1. JEEV i KA WHAT IS SWI ?
    • A project of Govt. of Bihar assisted by the World Bank
    • Objective – social & economic empowerment of rural poor through community institutions such as self-help groups (SHGs) & their federations
    • Agricultural intervention is one of the focus areas under the Livelihoods component
    • Rural poverty can be reduced in a big way enhancing agricultural productivity of the important crops
    • Piloted and scaled up SRI among 8,500 farmers
    • Piloted SWI in 2008-09 with 415 farmers
    • SWI is being scaled up with nearly 30,000 farmers in 2009-10
    10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  • 2. WHAT IS SWI ? 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • A SET OF AGRONOMIC PRACTICES:
    • Modified Practices
      • Lower seed rate
      • Seed treatment
      • Sowing of seeds at proper spacing
      • Control of water in the crop field
      • Weeding / hoeing
    • Outputs / Results
      • Higher ratio of tillers to mother seedlings
      • Increased number of effective tillers / hill
      • Enhanced panicle length & bolder grains
      • Enhanced yield
  • 3. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL WHEAT CULTIVATION & SWI 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) Particulars Traditional wheat cultivation System of Wheat Intensification Seed rate 100-125 kg / ha 20-30 kg / ha Seed treatment Not done Provided with cow urine & fungicide Sowing Broadcasting Line sowing Spacing No spacing regulation 8 inch x 8 inch Weeding / Hoeing Not done 3 times Yield 1-2 tons / hectare 3-4 tons / hectare
  • 4. SEED TREATMENT 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Required inputs:
      • 10 kg improved seed
      • Warm water: 20 litres (60 o Celsius)
      • Vermi-compost: 5 kg
      • Gur: 4 kg
      • Cow urine: 4 litres
      • Bavistin: 20 grams
  • 5. SEED TREATMENT PROCESS 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Steps to be followed sequentially:
      • Separate foreign materials from 10 kg seed
      • Make 20 liters of water warm, up to 60 o C in a vessel
      • Put the seed in the warm water in the vessel
      • Remove the floating seeds from the warm water
      • Add 5 kg vermi-compost, 4 kg gur & 4 litres of cow urine, and keep for 8 hours
      • Separate the seed mixture from the solution, sieving it through a cotton cloth after 8 hours
      • Add 20 grams Bavistin to the seed mixture and keep this for 12 hours in a wet jute bag for germination & for further sowing
  • 6. LAND PREPARATION 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Land preparation process:
      • 20 quintals FYM or 4 quintals of vermi-compost per acre of land
      • If the soil does not have appropriate moisture, irrigate before ploughing
      • Before the last ploughing, broadcast 27 kg DAP & 13.5 kg potash on one acre of land
  • 7. SEED SOWING 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Seed sowing process:
      • Moisture availability in soil is required when the germinated seeds are sown
      • 2 seeds per hill are sown & spacing is maintained at 8”
      • To guide and maintain line sowing at 8”, strings or ropes are used
      • Gap filling is done after 7 days, wherever the seed has not germinated
  • 8. IRRIGATION 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Phase-wise irrigation management:
      • First irrigation is done 15 days after sowing, as root initiation starts during this time. Unavailability of moisture in soil will prevent root initiation.
      • Second irrigation is given 25 days after sowing, as the number of tillers start emerging
      • Third irrigation is given 35-40 days after sowing
      • Subsequent irrigations are given at 60, 80 & 100 days after sowing, depending on soil & climatic conditions
      • During the flowering and grain-filling stage, appropriate moisture should be available in the soil
  • 9. MANURE & FERTILIZER APPLICATION 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Phase-wise manure & fertilizer application:
      • After the first and third irrigation, manure & fertilizer are applied
      • After the first irrigation, 4 quintals of vermi-compost and 40 kg of urea are applied
      • After the third irrigation, 15 kg urea & 13 kg potash are applied
  • 10. WEEDING 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Phase-wise weeding requirement:
      • Weeding is first done 2-3 days after irrigation
      • After the first, second & third irrigations, hoeing and weeding should be done -- to loosen the soil and to make the wheat field weed-free
      • The loosening of soil results in better aeration for the root zone and increases the root length by letting them take more moisture & nutrient from the soil
      • This helps in bringing forth more tillers in the plant with more vigor
  • 11. ACTION RESEARCH ON SWI in JEEViKA (2008-09) 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Three kinds of research:
      • First research: Row to row & plant to plant spacing is 6 inches
      • Second research: Row to row & plant to plant spacing is 8 inches
      • Third research : PVSP as a complement to SWI with 7 wheat varieties (GW-273, UP-2565, UP-2526, HD-2733, PBW-343, HP-1761, HI-1531)
      • Action research was undertaken with 140 farmers in Purnea, 150 farmers in Gaya, and 125 farmers in Nalanda (415 farmers in all)
  • 12. Yield Differences per hectare 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) Traditional SWI Purnea : 1.6 tonnes (PBW-343, UP-262) Gaya : 1.2 tonnes (PBW-343) Nalanda : 1.4 tonnes (PBW-343) Purnea : 4.8 tonnes (GW-273, UP-2565, UP-2526) Highest : 8.4 ton / ha Gaya : 3.2 tonnes (PBW-343) Highest : 6.92 ton / ha Nalanda : 3.8 tonnes (PBW-343, GW-273, HD 2733, LOK-1) Highest : 7.92 ton / ha
  • 13. Difference in tillers & root between SWI & traditional practices 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  • 14. 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS) Certification by Dr. M. C. Diwakar, Director, Rice Development, GoI
  • 15. Progress of SWI in the Ongoing Winter Season 10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
    • Rabi 2009-2010 in JEEViKA
      • Working with around 30,000 farmers in around 5,000 acres of land in 18 blocks of 6 districts
      • Implementation is carried out with support from the local resources called Village Resource Persons (VRPs)
      • More than 500 Village Resource Persons (VRPs) were identified from the villages and trained to guide the 30,000 farmers
  • 16. Role of Village Resource Persons (VRPs)
    • Generating awareness of SWI methodology in SHGs & at VO meetings
    • Training of farmers in the classroom & field
      • SWI training manual
      • Audio –visual materials
      • Field demonstrations
      • Field exposure (internal & external)
    • Guiding farmers in sowing and intercultural operations
    • Weekly SWI plot visits to solve problems
    • Conducting focus-group discussions with farmers
    • Conduct scientific yield assessments as trained by agriculture scientists (cross-verification method)
    10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  • 17. Designing of Honorarium for Village Resource Persons (VRPs)
    • SC/ST HHs + Lease Land = 35/- per HH per month
    • SC/ST HHs + Own Land = 30/- per HH per month
    • BC/EBC HHs+Lease/Own Land=25/- per HH per m
    • GC HHs + Lease / Own Land = 20/- per HH per m
    • HONORARIUM DESIGN OBJECTIVES
    • To cover a greater number of landless farmers who lease land & improve productivity so as to attain food security & bring more land under the fold of SWI/SRI to improve productivity
    • In the current Rabi season, 18 VRPs imparted training to farmers, agriculture officers & KVK-ATMA officials to help them pilot SWI in 38 districts
    10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  • 18. OBSERVATIONS / LEARNING
    • Under water-stressed conditions (drought), crops with SRI/SWI methodology cope with pressures better than crops of traditional cultivation practices
    • For bringing about sustained change in agricultural and behavioural practices, very close guidance is needed for at least 2-3 years
    • More number of small & marginal farmers have taken up SRI/SWI on more acres of land in subsequent years
    • The SWI/SRI methodology spreads much faster from the small farmers to the large farmers
    10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)
  • 19. OUR EXPECTATIONS
    • Scaling up of SWI across various parts of the country
    • Inclusion of System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) under the National Food Security Mission (NFSM) for attaining better food security for the poor
    • Research to develop seed drill for sowing of wheat seeds on large scale, and other equipment such as weeders, power weeders, etc.
    • Use of VRP model for more effective extension of agricultural practices
    10/02/10 Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS)