Dyslexia <ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>to understand the implications  </li></ul><ul><li>of dyslexia in the classroom? <...
What skills do you need to answer these questions? <ul><li>I am standing on the starboard side of the ferry facing the ste...
Examples of the skills needed <ul><li>prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>to be able to articulate an answer </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>worried about failing </li></ul><ul><li>feeling under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>feeling vulnerable  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>A Definition of Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty which mainly affects </li></...
How these difficulties manifest themselves in the classroom? <ul><li>An uneven cognitive profile- strengths and   weakness...
Indicators amongst your students in classroom Reading  <ul><li>slow, laboured, inaccurate reading of single words in isola...
Indicators amongst your students in classroom Spelling <ul><li>errors consist of reversals, inversions or transpositions (...
Indicators amongst your students in classroom Directionality <ul><li>directionality of words: difficulty learning or remem...
re sign   sign ature  con sign re sign ation  con sign ment re sign ing  con sign ed sign as sign  de sign as sign ed  de ...
Look for words inside words Say it in a funny way information in, for, form  inform, mat, at  Spelling strategies for cour...
Highlight key words/phrases in your notes Making notes during lessons List out tasks and tick off when done <ul><li>To do ...
Planning and writing an essay Title (The Skin) ! Remember! 3  or  4  facts in each paragraph Paragraph 1 (Introduction) Pa...
key points paragraph topic  ____________ _________ _________  __________ __________  __________ __________ __________ ____...
Cloze Exercises (o-e) Examples of activities Learning Assistants can do to practise students’ literacy skills  Word cards ...
We learn:  10%  of what we  read  20%  of what we  hear   30%  of what we  see  50%  of what we both  see and hear   70%  ...
Memory Strategies to help students How do you remember these items?   creating a journey through your home? grouping? spat...
Using Technology to support learners with dyslexia and SpLD Examples  of useful programmes include: ‘Inspiration’ can help...
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Dyslexia awareness and teaching strategies kn

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Dyslexia awareness and teaching strategies kn

  1. 1. Dyslexia <ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>to understand the implications </li></ul><ul><li>of dyslexia in the classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>to recognise possible indicators </li></ul><ul><li>teaching strategies that can be </li></ul><ul><li>useful </li></ul><ul><li>K.J Nichols </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist Dyslexia Tutor </li></ul><ul><li>AMBDA </li></ul><ul><li>26/02/09 </li></ul>
  2. 2. What skills do you need to answer these questions? <ul><li>I am standing on the starboard side of the ferry facing the stern. Is the nearest water on my right or left? (left) </li></ul><ul><li>If I double 6 and subtract 3 and then find the square root of that number, what am I left with? (3) </li></ul><ul><li>If I do running on the days of the week beginning with ‘T’ and swimming at the weekend, what days of the week can I play tennis? (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) </li></ul><ul><li>I fell off a ladder and landed heavily fracturing my calcaneus Where is this on your body? (Heel bone) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples of the skills needed <ul><li>prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>to be able to articulate an answer </li></ul><ul><li>storage and retrieval of information </li></ul><ul><li>speed of processing of information </li></ul><ul><li>working memory- manipulation of short term memory </li></ul><ul><li>sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>co-ordination skills </li></ul><ul><li>organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Students with dyslexia can have difficulties with aspects of the above skills </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>worried about failing </li></ul><ul><li>feeling under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>feeling vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>feeling emotional </li></ul>Students with dyslexia can experience the following emotions when given routine tasks to undertake in the classroom
  5. 5. <ul><li>A Definition of Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty which mainly affects </li></ul><ul><li>the development of literacy and language related skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It is likely to be present at birth and to be lifelong in its </li></ul><ul><li>effects. It is characterised by difficulties with phonological </li></ul><ul><li>processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, </li></ul><ul><li>and the automatic development of skills that may not match up </li></ul><ul><li>to an individual’s other cognitive abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>It tends to be resistant to conventional teaching methods , but </li></ul><ul><li>its effects can be mitigated by appropriately specific </li></ul><ul><li>intervention, including the application of information technology </li></ul><ul><li>and supportive counselling. </li></ul><ul><li>(BDA – 17 October 2007) </li></ul>
  6. 6. How these difficulties manifest themselves in the classroom? <ul><li>An uneven cognitive profile- strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths (will be within/ above average range) and may appear in: </li></ul><ul><li>verbal expression </li></ul><ul><li>lateral thinking </li></ul><ul><li>imaginative ways of working </li></ul><ul><li>several stands of thought simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>artistic expression </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul><ul><li>sport </li></ul><ul><li>keen senses </li></ul><ul><li>construction/ technical skills </li></ul><ul><li>design </li></ul>
  7. 7. Indicators amongst your students in classroom Reading <ul><li>slow, laboured, inaccurate reading of single words in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>when reading aloud, reads in a slow choppy style and often ignores punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>becomes visibly tired after reading for only a short time </li></ul><ul><li>reading comprehension may be low due to spending so much time trying to decode particular words. Listening comprehension is significantly higher </li></ul><ul><li>may reverse flip along vertical axis (ded for bed), invert flip along horizontal axis (may for way) or transpose letters (gril for girl, own for won, frist for first) </li></ul><ul><li>substitute similar looking words which may change meaning sunrise for surprise, house for horse, while for white </li></ul><ul><li>swap in a word with a similar meaning but doesn’t look same travel for journey, fast for speed, cry for weep </li></ul><ul><li>misreads, omits, or even adds small function words, such as an, a, from, the, to, were, are, of </li></ul><ul><li>omits or changes suffixes, such as need for needed, talks for talking, late for lately </li></ul>
  8. 8. Indicators amongst your students in classroom Spelling <ul><li>errors consist of reversals, inversions or transpositions (similarly with reading) </li></ul><ul><li>continually misspells sight words (non phonetic but very common words) such as ‘they’ ‘when’ ‘ball’- despite extensive practice </li></ul><ul><li>mis- spells even when copying from board or book </li></ul><ul><li>written work shows signs of uncertain spelling- lots of crossings out etc </li></ul><ul><li>tiny writing (to hide spelling mistakes)-low self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>You know that you are making progress when the writing gets bigger !! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Indicators amongst your students in classroom Directionality <ul><li>directionality of words: difficulty learning or remembering the meaning of words such as left-right, over-under, up-down, before-after, ahead-behind, forward-backward, east-west) </li></ul><ul><li>left-right confusion; this shows up in handwriting and in maths </li></ul><ul><li>handwriting: trouble remembering where a letter starts and which way it goes. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the circle on the b go this way or this way? </li></ul><ul><li>Which way does the tail on a q go? </li></ul><ul><li>Does an s start here and go to the right? </li></ul><ul><li>Which way is right anyway? </li></ul><ul><li>Maths: </li></ul><ul><li>trouble remembering which way to work out a maths problem. </li></ul><ul><li>reading goes left to right but adding, subtracting and multiplying goes the other way. However, long division goes the same way as reading (unless you are multiplying or subtracting within a division problem!) </li></ul><ul><li>also when carrying a number, do I carry it to the left or to the right? </li></ul>
  10. 10. re sign sign ature con sign re sign ation con sign ment re sign ing con sign ed sign as sign de sign as sign ed de sign er as sign ation de sign ing reas sign de sign ation de sign ate sign al sign alling Provide copy of notes in advance (on coloured paper if student has sensitivity to white paper) Student can then highlight key points during session Use Arial or Comic Sans fonts on screen/ paper Teaching and Learning Strategies group spellings with similar letter strings Copying from board: write key sentences in different colours on the board- bullet points List technical spellings on board before session Speak slowly and repeat important points in different ways Relate ideas to concrete examples in real life Draw visual mind map on board to detail a topic Topic idea idea detail detail detail Useful Teaching Strategies
  11. 11. Look for words inside words Say it in a funny way information in, for, form inform, mat, at Spelling strategies for course words Group the same family of words together Make up a mnemonic un happy slow ly in complete ly Look and listen for prefixes and suffixes There is a rat in sep a rat e Go by bus to your bus iness Slow it down and break up into syllables tem per a ture con tin ent Wed nes day b e a u ti ful Use an etymological dictionary to find out where the word comes from Use look, say, cover, write, check method Make up a rap Mrs D Mrs i Mrs ffi Mrs c Mrs u Mrs lty n ight f ight s ight m ight re sign con sign sign as sign de sign
  12. 12. Highlight key words/phrases in your notes Making notes during lessons List out tasks and tick off when done <ul><li>To do list: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plan √ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>write intro √ </li></ul><ul><li>draw diagram </li></ul><ul><li>write first </li></ul><ul><li>para. </li></ul>The first part of the method was to ………… First I did ………… Then I …………… Next I …………… Use your cue cards to begin sentences Use diagrams to represent information Likely spellings nails epidermis dermis cuticle sub-cutaneous <ul><ul><li>and = & or + </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g. conditioner & shampoo…… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which means or leads to = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. conditioner soft hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>words ending in ‘tion’ miss out the io </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. solution could be written as sol n </li></ul><ul><li>condition could be written as cond n </li></ul><ul><li>first, second etc = 1 st , 2 nd </li></ul>Use shortened words for speed Make a list of spellings before writing . Epidermis outer layer of skin Write notes with a soft pencil to help your speed, for example a 2B pencil .
  13. 13. Planning and writing an essay Title (The Skin) ! Remember! 3 or 4 facts in each paragraph Paragraph 1 (Introduction) Paragraph 2 (Epidermis and Dermis) Paragraph 3 (Glands) Paragraph 4 (Hair Follicle) Paragraph 5 (Conclusion) <ul><li>What I am going to write about </li></ul><ul><li>Main points in each paragraph etc </li></ul><ul><li>the outer layer of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>the layer of the skin just </li></ul><ul><li>beneath the epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous gland </li></ul><ul><li>A small, sack shaped gland </li></ul><ul><li>Releases oily liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the dermis </li></ul><ul><li>a tube shaped sheath </li></ul><ul><li>what it does etc </li></ul><ul><li>sum up what I have said in essay </li></ul>
  14. 14. key points paragraph topic ____________ _________ _________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Some students find paragraph cards useful to use to sequence their writing in a logical order
  15. 15. Cloze Exercises (o-e) Examples of activities Learning Assistants can do to practise students’ literacy skills Word cards Word Searches and crosswords using letter strings Read a text with letter string repeated. Phoneme/ blends tracking It was shady in the shallow end of the ship as the sun shone. The builder ………………his trowel . (broke) Match the word card to the definition Dictate a set of sentences using blend being practised n ight f ight s ight m ight Example: We sh ut the sh op door Letter and sound cards To become automatic to free up working memory
  16. 16. We learn: 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we both see and hear 70% of what is discussed with others 80% of what we experience personally 90% of what we TEACH to someone else Use coloured dividers to separate each topic ELECTRICITY --------------------------------------------------- Write bold titles on your work Put each piece of work in order --------------------- 1 1 --------------------- 2 2 --------------------- 3 3 11 h September 07 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date each piece of work Understand how you learn Basic Organisation skills Look at your work at least ONCE between sessions
  17. 17. Memory Strategies to help students How do you remember these items? creating a journey through your home? grouping? spatial position? photographic memory?
  18. 18. Using Technology to support learners with dyslexia and SpLD Examples of useful programmes include: ‘Inspiration’ can help learners to develop mind maps to structure their writing in a logical sequence ‘Dragon Naturally Speaking’ / ‘ Read & Write Gold’: allows for learner to read on to a word document. The programmes read back to allow for proof reading. Useful website: www.dyslexic.com/catalog .

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