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  2. 2. According to the World Federation of Neurologists in 1968, dyslexia is defined as a disorder in children who, despite conventional classroom experience, fail to attain the language skills of reading, writing, and spelling commensurate with their intellectual abilities.
  3. 3. Children with dyslexia have difficulty in learning to read despite traditional instruction, at least average intelligence, and an adequate opportunity to learn. It is caused by an impairment in the brain's ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language.
  4. 4.  Characteristics of dyslexia  Some shared symptoms of the speech/hearing deficits and dyslexia:  Confusion with before/after, right/left, and so on  Difficulty learning the alphabet  Difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems  Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness)  Difficulty with hearing and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
  5. 5.  Difficulty distinguishing different sounds in words (auditory discrimination) Difficulty in learning the sounds of letters Difficulty associating individual words with their correct meanings Difficulty with time keeping and concept of time Confusion with combinations of words Difficulty in organization skills
  7. 7.  Reading and spelling  - Spelling errors — Because of difficulty learning letter-sound correspondences, individuals with dyslexia might tend to misspell words, or leave vowels out of words.  Letter order - People with dyslexia may also reverse the order of two letters especially when the final, incorrect, word looks similar to the intended word (e.g., spelling "dose" instead of "does").  Letter addition/subtraction - People with dyslexia may perceive a word with letters added, subtracted, or repeated. This can lead to confusion between two words containing most of the same letters.
  8. 8.  Writing and motor skills  Because of literacy problems, an individual with dyslexia may have difficulty with handwriting. This can involve slower writing speed than average, poor handwriting characterised by irregularly formed letters, or inability to write straight on a blank paper with no guideline.  Some studies have also reported gross motor difficulties in dyslexia. This difficulty is indicated by clumsiness and poor coordination.
  9. 9. Mathematical abilities Dyslexia and dyscalculia have separable cognitive profiles, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficient number module in the case of dyscalculia. Individuals with dyslexia can be gifted in mathematics while having poor reading skills. They might have difficulty with word processing problems.
  10. 10. Adaptive attributes A study has found that entrepreneurs are five times more likely to be dyslexic than average citizens Evidence based on randomly selected populations of children indicate that dyslexia affects boys and girls equally; that dyslexia is diagnosed more frequently in boys appears to be the result of sampling bias in school- identified sample populations.
  12. 12. Cause  Since the symptoms of dyslexia were first identified by Oswald Berkhan in 1881, and the term 'dyslexia' coined in 1887 by Rudolf Berlin, generations of researchers have been investigating what dyslexia is and trying to identify the biological causes. Theories should not be viewed as competing, but as attempting to explain the underlying causes of a similar set of symptoms from a variety of research perspectives and background.
  13. 13. Prevalence Prevalence of dyslexia is difficult as different scholars and different countries often use different criteria to distinguish the cases of dyslexia in the continuum between the able and delayed readers at schools. According to the existing literature, the prevalence of dyslexia can vary widely between cultures.
  15. 15. Trauma dyslexia  usually occurs after some form of brain trauma or injury to the area of the brain that controls reading and writing. It is rarely seen in today's school-age population. primary dyslexia  Individuals with this type are rarely able to read above a fourth-grade level and may struggle with reading, spelling, and writing as adults. Primary dyslexia is passed in family lines through their genes (hereditary). It is found more often in boys than in girls.
  16. 16. Dysgraphia  is often multifactorial, due to impaired letter writing automaticity, finger motor sequencing challenges, organizational and elaborative difficulties, and impaired visual word form which makes it more difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words required for spelling. Dyscalculia  a neurological condition characterized by a problem with basic sense of number and quantity and difficult retrieving rote math facts.
  18. 18. Proficient reading is an essential tool for learning a large part of the subject matter taught at school. With an ever increasing emphasis on education and literacy, more and more children and adults are needing help in learning to read, spell, express their thoughts on paper and acquire adequate use of grammar.
  19. 19.  It is a class teacher's responsibility to provide an atmosphere conducive to learning for all pupils within their class. Class teachers need to have an understanding of the problems that the dyslexic child may have within the classroom situation.
  21. 21.  When organising placement arrangements for disabled students, it is vital that placements are planned in detail and in direct consultation with a student well in advance of their outset, so that any necessary adjustments can be identified.  Any application process for placements should be accessible for students with disabilities, and such individuals may benefit from being provided with extra support and guidance while applying.
  22. 22.  It is important for a department to consider carefully and cater for the specific requirements of a student with a disability as a matter of priority when allocating placements.  If a student is to be placed away from home the overall impact of relocating must be considered.
  24. 24. Dyslexia Awareness Week 2011 31 October 2011 The British Dyslexia Assocation supports a wide range of projects and organisations, lobbies for a more dyslexia friendly society and also runs the national helpline that deals with over 12,000 calls a year.
  25. 25.  The Marion Welchman International Award for Dyslexia 2011: Michael Davies The B.D.A. would like to congratulate Michael Davies on this much deserved award and thank him for his outstanding contribution to helping the lives of Dyslexic individuals. Michael set up DyslecsiaCymru/Wales Dyslexia in 2001 and has been instrumental in campaigning for and bringing about improved information, resources and services for dyslexic individuals in Wales and beyond.
  26. 26.  Inclusion Development Programme (IDP): Dyslexia and Speech, Language and Communications Needs (SLCN) – An interactive resource to support headteachers, leadership teams, teachers and support staff - The Primary and Secondary IDP resources have been made available on one integrated DVD in order to support continuity and progression for pupils, and to support the alignment of key messages related to the inclusion and achievement of pupils with dyslexia or speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). - The DVD includes video exemplification drawn from both primary and secondary schools. This presents users with a choice in terms of viewing and using samples from one or both phases.